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CORNELL 
UNIVERSITY 


COLLEGE  OF 

ARCHITECTURE 

LIBRARY 


Cornell  University  Library 
N  527.A4 

Collection  of  mediaeval  and  renaissance 


3  1924  020  487  983 


The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924020487983 


mm 


SIMONE    MARTINI 


FOGG  ART  MUSEUM 
HARVARD  UNIVERSITY 


COLLECTION  OF 

MEDIAEVAL  AND  RENAISSANCE 

PAINTINGS 


CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 

1927 


COPYRIGHT,  I9I9 

BY  THE  PRESIDENT  AND  FELLOWS  OF 

HARVARD  COLLEGE 


PRINTED  AT  THE  HARVARD  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 
CAMBRIDGE,  MASS.,  U.S.A. 


PREFACE 

IN  the  preparation  of  this  Catalogue  several  members  of  the  Divi- 
sion of  Fine  Arts  of  Harvard  University  and  of  the  staff  of  the 
Fogg  Art  Museum  have  generously  collaborated.  To  all  of  these  my 
thanks  are  due,  and  especially  to  Miss  Margaret  E.  Gilman,  the  secre- 
tary of  the  Fogg  Art  Museum,  who  has  done  practically  all  of  the 
bibliographical  work  and  written  much  of  the  text.  I  also  wish  to 
thank  numerous  critics  in  Europe  and  America  for  their  interest. 
Mr.  Bernhard  Berenson  has  generously  aided  with  advice  and 
suggestions.  Mr.  F.  Mason  Perkins  and  Mr.  Charles  Loeser  have 
also  been  especially  helpful  in  answering  questions  concerning  the 
attribution  of  many  of  the  pictures  in  the  Gallery. 

This  Catalogue  describes  and  reproduces  the  pictures,  presents  all 
available  information  as  to  their  past  history,  and  discusses  the  attri- 
butions. It  also  undertakes  to  fulfil  the  functions  of  a  handbook  for 
the  students  of  Harvard  University  and  Radcliffe  College  who  take 
courses  in  the  Fine  Arts,  and  for  the  casual  visitor  as  well,  by  includ- 
ing a  certain  amount  of  general  and  historical  information. 

There  has  been  no  attempt  to  make  the  general  bibliographies  ex- 
haustive; they  are  meant  merely  as  partial  lists  of  books,  most  of 
which  are  readily  available  to  the  Harvard  students.  In  the  biblio- 
graphy following  the  history  of  each  school  general  works,  such  as 
those  of  Michel,  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  and  Venturi,  are  not  listed. 
In  the  bibliography  of  each  artist,  as  a  rule,  only  the  more  recent 
books  and  periodical  articles  are  included,  and  no  reference  is  made 
to  well-known  general  works.  The  bibliographies  of  the  individual 
pictures  are  as  complete  as  possible.  This  has  in  some  cases  involved 
making  references  to  articles  in  which  the  pictures  are  merely  men- 
tioned and  not  described. 

No  catalogue  of  this  collection  has  ever  appeared  in  print,  although 
it  has  been  described  in  part  at  various  times.1  The  Annual  Reports 
of  the  Director  of  the  Fogg  Art  Museum  to  the  President  of  Harvard 

1  See  pages  xiv-xv. 


iv  PREFACE 

University  give  some  information.  Many  of  the  pictures  are  well 
known  and  have  often  been  described  in  magazine  articles  and  his- 
tories of  art.  In  fact  a  whole  book  has  been  written  about  one  of 
them  in  the  effort  to  prove  that  it  is  by  Raphael.  These  articles  are 
referred  to  in  the  bibliographies  of  the  various  pictures. 

Following  the  short  histories  of  the  schools  are  lists  of  certain  of  the 
pictures  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  and  in  Mrs.  Gardner's 
collection  at  Fenway  Court,  representing  the  artists  who  have  been 
mentioned  in  the  history  of  the  school.  The  lists  are  given  since  these 
collections  are  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  and  are  accessible  to 
students. 

In  the  life  of  each  artist,  other  pictures  in  America  by  him  are 
mentioned  for  the  benefit  of  the  student.  These  lists  are  by  no  means 
complete,  as  collectors  and  museums  constantly  acquire  new  pictures, 
and  there  has  been  no  attempt  to  make  a  systematic  study  of  all  the 
early  paintings  in  this  country.  Some  of  the  paintings  referred  to 
have  been  judged  by  photographs.  In  other  cases  the  opinion  of 
some  well-known  critic  who  has  seen  the  picture  has  been  accepted. 
In  general,  when  the  attribution  is  doubtful  the  picture  is  not  men- 
tioned. In  short,  the  list  is  in  each  case  merely  an  indication  of 
the  approximate  number  of  pictures  by  the  master  known  to  be  in 
this  country,  rather  than  an  attempt  to  achieve  completeness. 

In  this  Catalogue  are  included  several  pictures  which  have  been 
lent  to  the  Gallery  for  many  years,  of  which  some  are  lent  every 
year  for  a  short  time,  while  others  are  lent  from  time  to  time.  The 
owners  of  these  pictures  have  kindly  consented  to  allow  us  to  include 
them  in  the  Catalogue,  for  the  convenience  of  visitors  when  the  pic- 
tures are  on  exhibition.  Of  these,  Nos.  9,  11,  23,  24,  56,  57,  and  62 
are  owned  by  collectors  in  Cambridge.  When  these  pictures  are  not 
on  exhibition  they  may  usually  be  seen  by  appointment  on  applica- 
tion to  the  Director.    They  are  indicated  by  an  asterisk. 

As  some  care  has  been  taken  in  the  colour  descriptions,  it  may  be 
well  to  say  a  word  here  about  the  system  used.  If  every  detail  of 
each  picture  were  elaborately  enumerated,  the  descriptions  would  be 
intolerably  long.  If  short  sketches  were  made,  some  useful  informa- 
tion might  be  found  lacking  by  serious  students  in  foreign  lands.  A 
compromise  somewhere  between  the  two  systems  has  been  adopted, 
laying  special  emphasis  on  what  is  most  significant.   In  a  general  way 


PREFACE  V 

the  terminology  in  this  volume  is  based  on  that  of  Dr.  Ross.  The 
terms  used  to  describe  the  various  colours  are  violet  red,  red,  red 
orange,  orange,  orange  yellow,  yellow,  yellow  green,  green,  green 
blue,  blue,  blue  violet,  and  violet.  These  colours  are  conceived  as 
existing  either  in  full  intensity  (or  chroma)  or  neutralized  by  white, 
gray,  or  black. 

Ordinarily  the  terms  gray  and  brown  are  used  loosely  and  vaguely 
to  cover  a  large  variety  of  tones.  In  reality  gray  is  a  perfect  mixture 
of  all  the  colours  so  that  no  one  predominates.  If  orange  slightly  pre- 
dominates, most  people  would  still  call  the  tone  gray;  but  it  is  also 
possible  to  call  it  a  neutralized  orange.  It  is  difficult  for  those  who 
are  not  used  to  this  system  to  understand  when  they  hear  a  colour 
which  they  would  call  a  light  salmon  pink  or  a  dark  reddish  brown 
described  as  a  light  or  a  dark  red  orange.  But  if  pure  red  orange  is 
mixed  with  white,  a  salmon  pink  is  produced;  and  if  red  orange  is 
mixed  with  black,  a  colour  is  obtained  that  might  be  called  brown. 
In  this  Catalogue  gray  and  neutral  are  regarded  as  synonymous. 
Thus  in  some  cases  the  term  neutralized  blue  is  used,  and  in  other 
cases  a  bluish  gray,  or  a  grayish  blue.  Browns  are  neutral  orange 
reds,  oranges,  orange  yellows,  or  yellows.  The  term  yellowish  brown 
or  reddish  brown  is  used  here  at  times  for  these  colours,  because  it  is 
more  generally  intelligible  than  the  more  accurate  nomenclature. 
Occasionally  the  term  rose  red  has  been  used  to  indicate  a  field 
painted  with  a  transparent  red  lake  glaze  slightly  tending  towards 
violet. 

The  question  of  the  terms  used  to  describe  the  colours  bears  some 
relation  to  the  study  of  pigments.  The  brilliant  orange  reds  are 
described  as  vermilions,  as  this  indeed  was  the  costly  pigment  which 
produced  them.  The  duller  red  known  as  Venetian  red  or  brick  red, 
and  produced  by  red  ochreous  earths,  is  often  spoken  of  in  this  Cata- 
logue as  a  dull  or  neutral  orange  red  because  it  is  neutral  compared  to 
the  vermilions.  The  colour  produced  by  yellow  and  brown  ochre, 
which  was  often  used  for  the  hair,  and  for  various  draperies,  furni- 
ture, and  architectural  accessories,  is  usually  described  as  neutral 
orange  yellow  or  yellow  brown.  The  ultramarine  blue  made  from 
lapis  lazuli,  which  was  perhaps  the  most  highly  prized  pigment 
known  to  the  mediaeval  master,  appears  in  some  of  the  pictures. 
Azzuro  della  magna  or  azurite  was  the  substitute  most  often  used. 


vi  PREFACE 

It  is  probably  the  pigment  that  was  used  for  the  cloaks  of  the  Ma- 
donnas which  we  now  describe  as  dark  blue.  Many  of  them  appear 
to  be  black.  When  the  picture  was  originally  painted  this  colour  was 
of  a  blue  probably  not  very  different  from  cobalt.  It  has  a  tendency 
to  turn  with  age  to  a  greenish  black. 

A  study  is  being  made  in  the  Museum  of  the  pigments  which  were 
used  by  the  old  masters,  but  the  results  are  not  yet  important  enough 
to  justify  publication.  It  is,  however,  a  field  which  has  possibilities 
of  future  usefulness  and  value  to  students  of  early  Italian  painting. 

EDWARD  W.  FORBES,  Director. 

Fogg  Art  Museum,  Harvard  University, 

Cambridge,  Massachusetts, 

October  5, 1918. 


CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION  ix 

COLLECTION  OF  EARLY  PAINTINGS  xiii 

EXPLANATORY  NOTES  xvi 

PAINTING  —  BIBLIOGRAPHY  xxi 

BYZANTINE  PAINTING  i 

ITALIAN  PAINTING  19 

FLORENTINE  23 

SIENESE  91 

UMBRIAN  141 

NORTH  ITALIAN  181 

VENETIAN  205 

SPANISH  PAINTING  237 

GERMAN  PAINTING  249 

FRENCH  PAINTING  271 

FLEMISH  PAINTING  283 

ENGLISH  PAINTING  3*5 

INDEX  327 


INTRODUCTION 

THE  Fogg  Art  Museum  or  Harvard  University  came  into 
being  as  the  result  of  a  bequest  from  Mrs.  William  Hayes  Fogg 
in  1891,  in  memory  of  her  husband  who  had  died  in  1884.  It  is  said 
that  the  conception  of  the  Fogg  Museum  was  due  to  William  M. 
Prichard,  who  was  born  in  Concord,  and  graduated  from  Harvard  in 
1833.  While  practising  law  in  New  York  he  made  the  suggestion  to 
Mrs.  Fogg  which  resulted  in  the  bequest.  It  is  also  noteworthy  that 
Mr.  Prichard  is  the  one  man  who  has  bequeathed  to  Harvard  a  sum 
of  money  the  whole  income  of  which  must  be  used  for  the  purchase  of 
works  of  art.  In  November,  1892,  the  Corporation  of  Harvard  as- 
signed as  a  site  for  the  Museum  the  land  in  the  College  Yard  lying 
north  of  Appleton  Chapel  and  facing  on  Cambridge  Street.  In  the 
autumn  of  1895  the  building  was  opened  to  the  public.  The  Museum 
was  planned  by  the  architect,  Richard  Morris  Hunt,  of  New  York, 
to  hold  casts  and  photographs  and  the  small  Fogg  collection  of  paint- 
ings and  curios,  as  at  that  time  the  belief  was  held  that  it  would 
never  contain  important  original  works  of  art.  But  even  in  the  first 
year  originals  began  to  appear.  As  the  collections  grew  and  the 
Department  of  Fine  Arts  developed,  the  building  became  more  and 
more  inadequate.  In  the  summer  of  191 2,  through  the  generosity 
of  Alfred  A.  Pope,  of  Farmington,  Connecticut,  the  ground  floor 
was  so  remodelled  that  additional  space  was  secured  for  exhibition 
purposes.  In  the  following  year  the  second  story  was  made  over, 
thanks  to  the  generosity  of  various  friends,  notably  Mrs.  Edward  M. 
Cary,  of  Milton.  Since  then  the  staff  and  the  collections  have  grown 
rapidly  and  the  building  is  now  again  inadequate. 

The  interest  in  the  Fine  Arts  has  been  steadily  growing  in  the 
United  States  during  the  last  fifty  years.  Professor  Charles  Eliot 
Norton  awakened  his  students  to  a  new  understanding  of  the  dignity 
and  importance  of  art;  they  saw  that  it  was  one  of  the  great  forms  of 
human  expression.  His  eloquent  lectures  were  among  the  important 
influences  of  the  earlier  days,  and  are  still  remembered  with  affection 
and  gratitude  by  Harvard  men  who  graduated  between  1875  and 


x  INTRODUCTION 

1900.  His  last  lectures  on  art  were  delivered  in  the  lecture  hall  of  the 
Fogg  Museum.  Among  those  who  heard  his  words,  one  turned  to 
Greece,  another  to  Italy,  another  to  the  East,  but  all  were  on  one 
quest;  and  these  were  the  men  who  first  gave  impetus  to  the  growth 
of  the  Museum. 

The  first  Director  was  Professor  Charles  Herbert  Moore,  the  well- 
known  authority  on  Gothic  architecture.  During  the  years  that  he 
worked  in  Italy  with  his  friend  Ruskin  he  developed  a  delicate  and 
exquisite  skill  in  drawing  and  painting,  and  an  exacting  discrimina- 
tion in  judging  works  of  art.  Many  students  look  back  to  his 
teaching  with  keen  appreciation. 

Among  the  Harvard  men  of  the  younger  generation,  the  first  to 
realize  that  here  was  an  opportunity  for  the  college  to  have  a  gallery 
with  important  original  works  of  art  was  Richard  Norton,  at  that 
time  a  professor  in  the  American  School  at  Rome.  He  was  a  son  of 
Professor  Charles  Eliot  Norton  and  shared  his  father's  love  of  the 
Fine  Arts.  It  was  he  who  influenced  various  Harvard  men  to  lend 
and  give  to  the  Fogg  Museum.  He  gave  generously  of  his  time  and 
thought.  His  taste  and  knowledge,  and  above  all  his  enthusiasm, 
were  of  the  utmost  importance  to  the  Museum  during  its  early  years. 

In  these  later  days  others  have  carried  on  the  work.  Dr.  Denman 
W.  Ross  has  been  not  only  one  of  the  most  liberal  benefactors  of 
the  Museum,  but  has  had  a  far  reaching  influence  as  a  teacher. 
Paul  J.  Sachs  was  appointed  Assistant  Director  of  the  Fogg  Art 
Museum  in  September,  191 5,  and  the  Museum  has  benefited  in  large 
measure  from  his  knowledge  and  enthusiasm.  The  Fogg  Museum 
owes  much  also  to  the  ability  and  devotion  of  the  members  of  the 
Division  of  Fine  Arts  and  of  the  staff  of  the  Museum,  who  have 
carried  on  the  earlier  traditions  and  further  developed  the  teaching 
by  carrying  it  into  new  fields. 

The  collections  have  grown  during  the  last  twenty  years  by  means 
of  gifts,  loans,  and  bequests  from  a  number  of  Harvard  graduates 
and  other  benefactors.  The  group  of  men  who  have  lent  and  given 
works  of  art  to  the  University  have  been  guided  by  the  desire  to  see 
the  great  periods  represented  nobly  in  the  Harvard  Art  Museum. 
Special  emphasis  has  been  laid  on  Greek  sculpture  and  early  Italian 
religious  painting  because  they  are  of  unique  significance  and  funda- 
mental importance  in  the  history  of  art. 


INTRODUCTION  xi 

As  early  as  the  year  1895,  Professor  Norton  and  Professor  Moore 
began  to  collect  original  water-colour  drawings  by  Turner,  Ruskin, 
and  other  members  of  the  English  school.  In  the  same  year  Greek 
vases  were  lent  by  Edward  P.  Warren.  At  this  time  the  famous 
Gray  and  Randall  collections  of  prints  were  in  the  Museum  of  Fine 
Arts  in  Boston  as  a  loan  from  Harvard  College,  since  there  had  been 
no  art  museum  in  Cambridge  in  which  they  could  be  suitably  kept. 
Indeed,  the  existence  of  the  Gray  collection  with  no  adequate  place 
for  its  safe  keeping  and  display  had  been  one  of  the  causes  of  the 
founding  of  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts.  In  the  year  1897,  Professor 
Moore  succeeded  in  persuading  the  authorities  of  Harvard  University 
and  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  to  transfer  the  Gray  collection  to  the 
Fogg  Art  Museum,  and  the  Randall  collection  followed  in  1898. 
These  collections  owed  their  beginnings  to  earlier  days.  Francis 
Calley  Gray  graduated  from  Harvard  in  1809  and  died  in  1856.  His 
collection  was  kept  for  many  years  in  the  Harvard  College  Library, 
and  at  one  time  Professor  George  Herbert  Palmer  was  the  curator. 
In  1876  it  was  removed  to  the  newly  erected  Museum  of  Fine  Arts 
in  Boston.  Dr.  John  Witt  Randall  graduated  in  1834  and  died  in 
1892.  In  this  latter  year  his  collection  was  sent  to  the  Museum  of 
Fine  Arts.  These  two  large  print  collections  have  grown  by  means 
of  purchases,  and  the  Museum  has  been  further  enriched  by  gifts  and 
by  the  bequest  from  Francis  Bullard  of  the  well-known  Battle  of  the 
Nudes  by  Antonio  Pollaiuolo.  By  these  means  the  Fogg  Museum 
collection  of  early  prints  has  grown  to  be,  next  to  that  of  the  Museum 
of  Fine  Arts  in  Boston,  in  all  probability  the  finest  in  the  country. 

Greek  marbles  and  Italian  paintings  first  appeared  as  loans  in  1899. 
In  the  field  of  Italian  painting  one  other  American  university  mu- 
seum was  at  this  time  preeminent.  Yale  had  bought  the  Jarves  col- 
lection in  1871,  thus  at  one  bound  reaching  a  position  difficult  for 
others  to  attain.  The  Harvard  collection  started  in  a  small  way,  and 
has  since  been  slowly  and  steadily  growing. 

In  1903  forty-seven  bronze  reproductions  of  Italian  and  French 
medals  of  the  Renaissance  were  given  to  the  Museum  by  Horatio 
G.  Curtis;  in  1908  a  small  collection  of  Japanese  works  of  art,  lent 
by  Walter  M.  Cabot,  was  placed  in  one  room  on  the  ground  floor; 
in  1909  a  marble  relief  of  a  kneeling  angel,  of  the  Italian  Renaissance 
school,  the  first  and  only  bit  of  Renaissance  sculpture  in  the  Museum, 


xii  INTRODUCTION 

was  given  by  Mrs.  Edward  M.  Cary ;  in  1912  a  large  number  of  inter- 
esting and  rare  rubbings  from  monumental  brasses  in  English 
churches  were  given  by  Mrs.  George  Fiske  in  memory  of  her  husband, 
who  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard.  In  1 9 1 6  a  collection  of  fragments  of 
early  Italian  illuminated  manuscripts  came  as  a  gift  from  William 
Augustus  White;  this  gift,  together  with  a  few  fine  early  illuminated 
law  books  lent  by  the  Harvard  Law  School,  started  the  Museum  in 
a  new  field.  During  the  years  1916-1918  Edward  D.  Bettens  gave 
as  a  memorial  to  his  mother,  Mrs.  Louise  E.  Bettens,  five  American 
paintings:  namely,  a  large  oil  painting,  Lake  O'Hara,  by  John  Singer 
Sargent;  a  large  unfinished  oil  by  Copley;  a  water  colour  by  James 
Abbott  McNeill.  Whistler;  a  water  colour  by  John  La  Farge;  and  a 
water  colour  by  Winslow  Homer.  A  water  colour  by  John  Singer 
Sargent  was  given  to  the  Museum  by  a  group  of  friends,  and  ten 
water  colours  by  Dodge  Macknight  were  the  gift  of  Dr.  Denman 
W.  Ross. 

Thus  each  department  was  started  by  a  gift  or  loan  from  some 
one  individual;  and  in  most  cases  the  first  gift  has  attracted  others 
of  the  same  kind. 

The  Classical  department  has  grown  and  now  contains  original 
Greek  marble  sculptures,  including  the  famous  Meleager  and  the  well- 
known  Greek  idealized  head  of  a  woman  from  the  Ponsonby  col- 
lection of  London,  at  one  time  thought  to  represent  the  mother  of 
Alexander  the  Great;  the  Class  of  1895  has  given  a  Greek  marble 
statue  of  Aphrodite;  the  bequest  of  Edward  P.  Bliss,  of  Lexington, 
includes  a  Greek  torso,  some  vases,  terra  cottas,  and  coins;  James 
Loeb  has  lent  a  collection  of  moulds  and  fragments  of  Arretine  pot- 
tery; and  there  is  also  a  selection  of  reproductions  of  the  ancient 
Minoan  art  of  Crete  given  by  Mrs.  Schuyler  Van  Rensselaer,  of  New 
York,  in  memory  of  her  son,  George  Griswold  Van  Rensselaer.  The 
collection  in  the  Museum  also  includes  various  examples  of  the  minor 
arts  of  the  Greeks  and  the  Romans. 

The  Oriental  collection  has  been  increased,  notably  by  the  well 
chosen  gifts  of  Dr.  Ross  in  1916  and  191 7,  and  more  recently  by  the 
gift  of  Charles  L.  Freer,  of  Detroit,  of  an  early  Chinese  painting, 
so  that  now  this  department  contains  Chinese,  Japanese,  Thibetan, 
Indian,  and  Persian  paintings;  Gandhara  sculptures  representing  the 
Buddhist  art  of  the  monasteries  in  the  Punjab  region  of  India  in  the 


INTRODUCTION  xiii 

early  centuries  of  the  Christian  era;  Chinese  porcelains;  a  small  but 
fine  representative  collection  of  Japanese  prints;  and  a  few  textiles  of 
various  countries  and  periods.  In  the  summer  of  1917,  Captain 
Philip  Lydig  gave  a  few  beautiful  fragments  of  Persian  Moresque 
mosaic  tiles  from  the  mosques  of  Turkestan. 

The  collection  of  drawings  and  water  colours  has  developed. 
Charles  Fairfax  Murray,  of  London,  gave  in  memory  of  his  friend 
William  J.  Stillman  a  Turner  water-colour  drawing  of  Devonport; 
he  also  gave  a  number  of  drawings  by  Burne- Jones.  The  friends 
and  former  pupils  of  Professor  Charles  H.  Moore,  as  a  testimonial 
of  their  admiration  and  affection  for  him,  gave  to  the  Museum  two 
fine  water-colour  drawings  by  Ruskin.  From  James  Loeb  came  a 
gift  of  a  number  of  pencil  drawings  by  Turner;  and  from  William 
Augustus  White  two  drawings  by  William  Blake.  This  department 
has  been  enriched  by  various  other  gifts  and  purchases,  including 
an  original  wash  drawing  by  Rembrandt. 

In  addition  to  the  originals,  the  Fogg  Museum  possesses  a  collec- 
tion of  over  forty-six  thousand  photographs  and  some  thirteen 
thousand  slides  for  use  in  the  Fine  Arts  courses,  as  well  as  a  small 
working  library  which  supplements  the  greater  collection  in  the  Har- 
vard College  Library  —  all  indispensable  material  for  study.  More- 
over, through  the  kindness  of  Dr.  Ross,  there  is  in  one  of  the  galleries 
an  exhibition  of  drawings,  paintings,  and  diagrams  illustrating  the 
principles  of  design  and  of  representation.  Thus  the  Fogg  Museum 
is  not  only  a  treasure  house  of  works  of  art,  but  is  the  working 
laboratory  of  the  Division  of  Fine  Arts. 

It  is  hoped  that  some  day  the  Museum  building  will  be  enlarged  so 
that  the  various  collections  may  be  properly  displayed  to  the  public, 
and  also  that  special  catalogues  will  be  produced  to  describe  them. 
This  Catalogue  is  confined  to  pictures  painted  before  1700. 

THE  COLLECTION  OF  EARLY  PAINTINGS 

From  the  year  1899  the  collection  of  early  pictures  has  steadily 
grown.  By  the  summer  of  1905  there  were  fifteen  Italian  primitives 
in  the  Gallery.  In  1906  the  Museum  received  as  a  bequest  from 
George  W.  Harris,  of  Boston,  the  beautiful  Flemish  diptych  (No.  60) 
attributed  to  Rogier  van  der  Weyden  and  Gerard  David.  In  1908 
the  funds  of  the  Museum  were  used  for  the  first  time  for  the  purchase 


xiv  INTRODUCTION 

of  a  primitive  painting,  the  Visitation  attributed  to  Zeitblom  (No. 
52).  Before  this  such  money  as  was  available  was  used  principally 
for  general  purposes  and  occasionally  for  the  purchase  of  prints. 
Since  then  the  slender  resources  of  the  Museum  have  been  appro- 
priated from  time  to  time  to  help  in  the  purchase  of  pictures,  and  the 
collection  of  paintings  has  grown  partly  by  loans  for  long  and  indefi- 
nite periods,  occasionally  by  purchase,  and  more  recently  also  by 
gifts.  Mrs.  Edward  M.  Cary,  of  Milton,  one  of  the  principal  bene- 
factors of  the  Museum,  showed  her  interest  in  the  collection  of 
paintings  by  giving  four  beautiful  Italian  primitives  at  different 

times. 

The  Society  of  Friends  of  the  Fogg  Art  Museum,  modelled  after 
Les  Amis  du  Louvre,  was  started  in  June,  19 13.  The  members  of  the 
society  numbered  forty-one  in  December,  1913,  and  one  hundred  and 
seventy  in  December,  1917.  The  first  picture  given  by  the  Society 
and  other  friends,  with  the  help  of  the  Prichard  fund,  was  the  An- 
nunciation by  the  Sienese  master  Andrea  Vanni  (No.  20),  which  was 
acquired  in  March,  1914.  Since  then  several  other  pictures  have 
been  given  by  the  Society  and  by  other  friends,  including  the  central 
panel  and  the  wing  of  the  Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece  by  Spinello 
Aretino  (Nos.  4A  and  4B-C),  the  Pesellino  (No.  7),  the  Jacobello  del 
Fiore  (No.  43),  the  portrait  by  van  Dyck  (No.  65),  and  others. 

The  Society  will  undoubtedly  increase  in  size  and  importance,  and 
may  prove  to  be  the  most  potent  element  in  the  future  development 
of  the  Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bernath,  M.  H.    Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Ber- 
lin, Dec.  11,  1908.  viii,  37-39  (Report  of  address  by  M.  H.  Bernath), 
and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.  Feb.  27,  1909.    No.  9,  550-552. 
New  York  und  Boston.     Leipsic,  1912.    (Beriihmte  Kunststatten,  58.) 
Reproductions. 

Beeck,  J.   Notizie  intorno  ai  dipinti  italiani  nel  Fogg  Museum.    Rassegna 
d'arte.    Milan,  Oct.,  1909.   ix  (10),  169-171,  Reproductions. 

Edgeix,  G.  H.    The  loan  exhibition  of  Flemish  painting  in  the  Fogg  Museum, 

Harvard  University..  Nation.    New  York,  Nov.  23,  1916.    ciii  (2682), 

492-493. 

The  loan  exhibition  of  Italian  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  Cambridge. 

Art  and  archaeology.  Baltimore,  July,  1915.  ii  (1),  11-22,  Reproductions. 

The  Fogg  Art  Museum.    Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Boston,  Oct.  25,  1911. 
xiv  (4),  52-56,  Reproductions. 


INTRODUCTION  xv 

Forbes,  E.  W.    Fogg  Art  Museum.    Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    Boston, 
June,  1910.    xviii  (72),  702-704. 
Museum  of  Fine  Arts  bulletin.   Boston,  June,  1909.  vii  (39),  22-29;  Aug., 

1913.  xi  (64),  35-39,  Reproductions. 
Recent  gifts  to  the  Fogg  Art  Museum  and  what  they  signify.    Harvard 
alumni  bulletin.    Boston,  Jan.  25,  1917.  xix  (17),  327-331,  Reproduc- 
tions. 

Moore,  C.  H.  The  Fogg  Art  Museum  of  Harvard  University.  New  England 
magazine.    Boston,  Aug.,  1905.  xxxii  (6),  699-709,  Reproductions. 

Perkins,  F.  M.     Italian  painting  in   the  Fogg  Museum.     Boston  evening 
transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 
Pitture  italiane  nel  Fogg  Museum  a  Cambridge.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan, 
May,  1905.    v  (5),  65-69,  Reproductions. 

Post,  C  R.  The  loan  exhibition  of  Italian  painting  at  the  Fogg  Museum. 
Nation.    New  York,  March  18,  1915.    c  (2594),  313-314. 

Rankin,  W.  Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters  [Yale  University,  the 
Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  the  Fogg  Museum  of  Harvard  Univer- 
sity].   Wellesley,  1905.    5-6,  17. 

Sachs,  P.  J.  Fogg  Art  Museum.  Harvard  graduates'  magazine.  Boston, 
March,  1916.    xxiv  (95),  421-425,  Reproductions. 


EXPLANATORY  NOTES 

The  Catalogue  is  arranged  by  schools,  and  chronologically  under  the 

schools. 

The  medium  in  which  the  picture  is  painted  is  specified,  although  it  is 
often  difficult  to  distinguish  oil  from  tempera. 

The  total  measurements  (greatest  height  and  width)  of  panel  or  canvas 
are  given,  in  inches  and  centimeters.  In  a  few  cases,  the  measurements  of 
the  visible  surface  are  also  stated.  The  abbreviations  H.  for  height  and 
W.  for  width  are  used. 

In  the  description  of  the  paintings  the  terms  "  right "  and  "  left " 
refer  to  the  right  and  left  of  the  spectator,  unless  the  text  obviously 
implies  the  contrary. 

The  pictures  marked  with  an  asterisk  *  are  owned  by  collectors  in 
Cambridge  and  are  lent  to  the  Museum  from  time  to  time.  If  not  on  ex- 
hibition they  may  usually  be  seen  by  appointment  on  application  to  the 
Director. 

A  brief  note  on  the  different  kinds  of  painting  follows,  and  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  preparation  and  painting  of  a  panel  for  a  tempera  painting. 

Since  many  of  the  pictures  in  the  Gallery  are  parts  of  altarpieces,  the 
description  of  a  typical  church  altarpiece  of  the  xrv  and  xv  centuries  is 
also  given. 

Processes  of  Painting 

The  difference  between  the  kinds  of  painting  is  largely  the  difference 
between  the  kinds  of  medium  used  to  bind  the  pigment.  In  all  cases  there 
is  pigment,  which  is  colour  in  the  form  of  a  powder.  In  fresco  the  pigment 
is  mixed  with  water  and  laid  upon  wet  plaster.  As  the  plaster  dries  a 
chemical  action  takes  place  by  which  the  particles  of  pigment  are  bound 
to  the  surface  of  the  wall.  Fresco  a  secco  is  the  method  of  retouching 
fresco  with  tempera  after  the  plaster  has  dried.  In  water  colour  the  pig- 
ment is  mixed  with  gum  arabic  or  other  gum,  in  illumination  with  egg  and 
gum  usually,  in  oil  painting  with  oil,  and  in  tempera  with  egg  or  with  glue. 

It  is  not  always  easy  to  describe  the  exact  process  by  which  a  picture 
was  painted.  The  so-called  oil  painting  of  the  early  Flemish  masters  was 
introduced  into  Venice,  according  to  Vasari,  by  Antonello  da  Messina. 
The  first  Venetian  masters  to  adopt  the  new  method  used  it  in  a  way  not 
dissimilar  to  the  manner  of  the  Flemings.  Titian  and  the  later  Venetians 
developed  a  freer  and  broader  manner,  just  as  Rubens  and  the  xvn 
century  Flemish  masters  did  in  the  north. 


EXPLANATORY  NOTES  xvii 

There  is  a  tradition  that  Baldovinetti  and  other  masters  were  dissatis- 
fied with  the  tempera  technique  and  experimented  with  the  oil  medium 
before  the  approved  Flemish  method  was  introduced  into  Italy.  Vasari 
says  that  the  Flemish  method  was  introduced  into  Florence  by  Domenico 
Veneziano,  who  used  oil  in  his  paintings  in  Santa  Maria  Nuova,  1439-1445. 
But  it  may  be  fairly  assumed  as  a  general  rule  that  any  panel  painted 
before  the  middle  of  the  xv  century  in  Italy  was  executed  in  tempera. 
The  difficulty  is  to  determine  the  exact  process  during  the  last  decades  of 
the  xv  and  the  first  part  of  the  xve  century,  when  the  Italian  masters  were 
gradually  changing  from  the  use  of  tempera  to  the  use  of  oil.  It  is  prob- 
able that  many  of  the  pictures  painted  in  this  period  contained  both 
tempera  and  oil  paint. 

The  later  Renaissance  painters  in  oil  developed  certain  peculiarities 
which  have  been  referred  to  under  the  history  of  Sienese  painting  (p.  100) 
as  chiaroscuro,  morbidezza,  and  sfumatura.  Chiaroscuro,  literally  light 
dark,  means  light  and  shade.  By  the  Italians  the  term  is  used  especially 
with  reference  to  the  modelling  of  surface  obtained  by  the  use  of  light  and 
shade.  Morbidezza,  literally  softness,  mellowness  of  tint,  is  a  term  used 
especially  to  indicate  the  softness  and  transparency  of  flesh  texture  ob- 
tained by  certain  masters,  notably  Correggio,  partly  by  melting  edges 
and  suppression  of  sharp  contours.  Sfumatura,  literally  means  smokiness. 
This  term  in  its  significance  is  not  very  different  from  morbidezza.  It  is 
used  to  express  the  way  in  which  one  field  melts  into  another  without 
sharp  edges,  and  the  modelling  moves  from  light  to  shadow  as  gently  and 
imperceptibly  as  smoke. 

In  this  Catalogue  the  terms  miniature  painting  and  illumination  are  used 
interchangeably,  although  there  is  a  distinction  between  the  two.  The 
word  illuminator  originally  meant  one  who  lighted  up  the  page  with 
bright  colours  and  burnished  gold.  Miniatures  may  be  executed  without 
the  use  of  gold  or  silver.  The  term  miniature  is  derived  from  the  Latin 
word  minium,  or  red  paint,  and  a  "miniaturist"  was  a  person  who  marked 
the  initial  letters  and  titles  of  a  manuscript  in  red  paint.  The  word  minia- 
turist, however,  was  unknown  in  the  Middle  Ages,  during  which  period  the 
decorator  of  books  was  called  an  illuminator. 

Preparation  and  Painting  of  a  Panel 

The  method  of  preparing  a  panel  is  elaborately  described  by  Cennino 
Cennini,  Who  wrote  in  the  late  xrv  or  early  xv  century.  Poplar,  and  less 
often  lime  and  willow,  were  used  by  the  Italians,  and  oak  by  the  masters 
of  the  northern  schools.  The  early  Venetians  are  said  to  have  used 
German  fir. 


xviii  EXPLANATORY  NOTES 

The  panel,  if  made  of  several  pieces,  was  dowelled  together  and  the 
joints  covered  with  strips  of  linen.  Sometimes  the  whole  panel  was 
covered  with  linen  or  more  rarely  with  parchment.  After  that  a  coat  of 
gesso  composed  of  whitening  (chalk)  or  plaster  of  Paris  mixed  with  glue 
was  laid  on  the  panel.  The  design  was  then  sketched  with  a  needle 
fixed  into  a  small  stick,  and  the  outlines  of  the  figures  which  came  against 
such  parts  of  the  background  as  were  to  be  covered  with  gold,  were  en- 
graved. The  parts  of  the  panel  which  were  to  be  gilded  were  covered  with 
a  coat  of  Armenian  bole,  a  reddish  clay,  mixed  with  white  of  egg.  Cen- 
nino  instructs  the  artist  to  cover  the  whole  panel  with  gold  if  he  can  afford 
it.  This  was  sometimes  done,  though  more  often  gold  was  only  laid  on 
where  it  was  to  show.  In  either  event,  the  system  was  more  akin  to  the 
transparent  water-colour  system  than  to  painting  in  oil  with  a  thick  im- 
pasto,  because  the  brilliancy  of  the  white  or  gold  ground  shining  through 
the  paint  produced  an  effect  of  clearness  and  unity  in  the  colours.  When 
these  processes  were  completed  the  panel  was  ready  for  painting.  The 
first  stage  of  the  tempera  painting  was  the  modelling  of  the  faces  and 
the  shadows  of  the  draperies  in  terra  verde,  a  green  earth,  mixed  with  yolk 
of  egg  as  a  medium.  Then  the  successive  coats  were  laid  on  the  panel  ac- 
cording to  definite  rules  until  the  final  effect  was  reached.  Thus  in  the 
flesh  tones  red  and  yellow  paint  superimposed  on  the  green  underpainting 
would  produce  a  resultant  neither  too  warm  nor  too  cold.  The  modern 
painter  as  a  rule  gets  his  balance  of  colours  by  placing  the  different  tints 
side  by  side  instead  of  one  on  top  of  the  other. 

For  the  painting  of  draperies  Cennino  directs  the  artist  to  get  three 
vases  and  mix  three  shades  of  the  colour,  red,  or  whatever  it  may  be,  after 
that  to  put  in  the  darks,  then  the  half  tones  and  then  the  lights  and  finally 
work  up  to  the  highest  lights  with  pure  white.  The  results  of  this  system 
may  be  seen  in  most  of  the  pictures  in  the  Gallery.  The  strongest  colour  is 
in  the  half  tones  and  shadows;  and  the  highest  fights,  which  were  originally 
probably  nearly  white,  in  many  cases  have  mellowed  with  age  to  a  warm 
golden  tone.  Occasionally  the  colour  was  modelled  in  the  lights  to  yellow 
instead  of  white.  The  paintings  in  the  Gallery  by  Flemish,  German  and 
Venetian  masters  may  be  characterized  in  general  in  a  different  way. 
These  later  artists  tended  to  have  the  strongest  colour  in  the  lights  and 
to  neutralize  the  shadows.  The  pictures  in  the  Museum  attributed  to 
Pesellino  (No.  7)  and  to  Bellini  (No.  45)  are  good  examples  of  these  two 
types. 


EXPLANATORY  NOTES  xix 

Altarpiece 

The  typical  church  altarpiece  of  the  xiv  and  xv  centuries  was  in  general 
made  up  of  different  compartments  or  panels.  The  central  panel  was  of 
course  the  most  important,  and  contained  the  chief  scene  or  figures.  On 
either  side  were  wings  on  which  were  represented  subsidiary  scenes  or 
figures  of  saints.  Frequently  scenes  or  figures  were  painted  on  the  out- 
side of  the  wings,  which  then  folded  as  shutters  over  the  central  panel. 
Above  the  large  panels  were  gables  or  pinnacles  usually  containing  half- 
length  single  figures  —  saints,  prophets,  or  angels,  a  representation  of  God 
the  Father  or  God  the  Son,  or  often  the  Virgin  and  the  angel  of  the  Annun- 
ciation. Heads  of  saints  were  sometimes  introduced  into  small  circular 
or  oval  panels,  called  medallions,  or  panels  shaped  like  a  clover  leaf  and 
called  trefoils  or  quatrefoils  according  to  the  number  of  arcs.  These  small 
panels  were  often  inserted  in  the  pinnacles  or  in  the  framework  of  the 
main  panels.  At  the  base  of  the  central  panel  and  the  wings  was  the 
predella,  consisting  of  small  divisions  or  compartments,  in  which  were 
represented  scenes  which  had  some  bearing  on  the  main  panels  —  scenes 
from  the  life  of  Christ,  or  scenes  connected  with  the  saints,  their  miracles 
and  martyrdoms.  The  various  divisions  were  separated  by  frames,  often 
very  elaborate  with  twisted  Gothic  columns  and  carving.  When  the 
woodwork  separating  the  different  divisions  was  richly  ornamented,  the 
pinnacles  were  elaborately  arched  and  decorated  with  crockets  and 
mouldings.  Sometimes  the  frames  were  very  simple  and  the  pinnacles 
were  sharply  pointed  and  ornamented  with  plain  mouldings  only.  An 
example  of  this  kind  is  No.  17  in  this  Gallery  —  a  pinnacle  of  an  altarpiece 
by  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti. 

An  altarpiece  consisting  of  two  panels  which  folded  together  like  a  book 
was  called  a  diptych.  A  triptych  is  an  altarpiece  of  three  divisions,  the 
two  wings  often  closing  as  shutters  over  the  main  panel.  In  this  Gallery 
the  painting  attributed  to  Rogier  van  der  Weyden  and  Gerard  David 
(No.  60)  is  a  diptych,  the  picture  attributed  to  Daddi  (No.  1)  is  a  triptych. 
An  altarpiece  made  up  of  more  than  three  main  divisions  was  called 
a  polyptych.  In  Eastlake's  History  of  Oil  Painting  the  following  note 
on  the  use  of  diptychs  and  triptychs  is  given.  "The  practice  of  en- 
closing pictures  in  cases  with  doors  is  to  be  traced  to  the  use  of  portable 
altarpieces.  The  above  terms  were  originally  applied  to  books  (libelli) 
composed  of  a  few  tablets  or  leaves,  generally  of  ivory.  The  more  orna- 
mented kinds  were  called  simply  diptychs,  because  they  consisted  of 
ivory  covers  only,  in  which  leaves  of  the  same  substance  or  of  vellum 
might  be  inserted.   An  inscription  published  by  Gruter  speaks  of  '  pugil- 


xx  EXPLANATORY  NOTES 

lares  membranaceos  operculis  eboreis.'  The  consular  diptychs,  for  ex- 
ample, were  nothing  more  than  ivory  covers  in  which  the  book  or  libellus 
itself  might  be  enclosed.  They  were  presents  distributed  by  the  consul  on 
his  entering  office,  and  generally  exhibited  the  portrait  and  titles  of  the 
new  dignitary  on  one  side,  and  a  mythological  subject  on  the  other.  The 
covers  were  carved  on  the  outside,  and  were  plain  within. 

"  At  a  very  early  period  in  the  Christian  era  similar  diptychs  of  a  larger 
size  were  employed  in  the  service  of  the  Church.  They  sometimes  con- 
tained the  figures  of  saints  and  martyrs  on  the  inside  (probably  as  a 
means  of  concealing  them  in  times  of  persecution),  and  were  subsequently 
exhibited  on  the  altar  open.  The  circumstance  of  the  principal  represen- 
tation being  on  the  inside,  instead  of  the  outside,  constitutes  the  distinc- 
tion between  the  sacred  and  the  consular  diptychs. 

"  Such  was  the  origin  of  the  mediaeval  altarpiece,  the  size  of  which  long 
remained  small  as  compared  with  later  decorations  of  the  kind."  Many 
altarpieces  have  now  been  broken  up  and  the  different  panels  sold  sep- 
arately, so  that  they  are  scattered  through  various  collections,  public  and 
private,  in  Europe  and  America. 


PAINTING  —  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Collections  of  Documents  and  Early  Writings 

The  Anonimo  [of  Morelli];  notes  on  pictures  and  works  of  art  in  Italy  made 
by  an  anonymous  writer  in  the  sixteenth  century.  Tr.  by  Paolo  Mussi, 
ed.  by  G.  C.  Williamson.    London,  1903. 

Billi,  Antonio.    II  Libro  di  Antonio  Billi;  ed.  by  Karl  Frey.    Berlin,  1892. 

Borghesi,  S.,  and  Banchi,  L.  Nuovi  documenti  per  la  storia  dell'  arte  senese. 
Appendice  alia  raccolta  dei  documenti  pubblicata  dal  Comm.  Gaetano 
Milanesi.    Siena,  1898. 

Boschini,  M.  La  carta  del  navegar  pittoresco;  dialogo  tra  un  senator  dele- 
tan  te  e  un  professor  de  pitura.    Venice,  1660. 

Il  Codice  Magliabecchiano,  contenente  notizie  sopra  1'arte  degli  antichi  e 
quella  de'Fiorentini  da  Cimabue  a  Michelangelo  Buonarroti,  scritte  da 
Anonimo  Fiorentino;  ed.  by  Karl  Frey.    Berlin,  1892. 

Descamps,  J.  B.  La  vie  des  peintres  flamands,  allemands,  et  hollandois.  Paris, 
i7S3~I764-    4  v. 

Fabriczy,  C.  von,  ed.  II  Codice  deli'  Anonimo  Gaddiano,  ed  II  Libro  di 
Antonio  Billi.    Florence,  1891. 

Ghiberti,  L.    Cronaca  del  secolo  xv  tratta  da  manoscritti  da  Augusto  Hagen. 
Florence,  1845. 
Lorenzo  Ghibertis  Denkwurdigkeiten;  ed.  by  Julius  von  Schlosser.    Ber- 
lin, 1912.     2  v. 
Vita  di  Lorenzo  Ghiberti,  con  i  Commentarii  di  Lorenzo  Ghiberti;  ed.  by 
Karl  Frey.    Berlin,  1886. 

Kallab,  W.  Vasaristudien.  Mit  einem  Lebensbilde  des  Verfassers  aus  dessen 
Nachlasse.  Herausgegeben  von  Julius  von  Schlosser.  Vienna,  1908. 
(Quellenschriften  fur  Kunstgeschichte  und  Kunsttechnik.    N.  F.,  xv.) 

Leonardo  da  Vinci.  Literary  works;  ed.  by  Jean  Paul  Richter.  London, 
1883.     2  v. 

Mander,  C.  van.  Le  livre  des  peintres;  vie  des  peintres  flamands,  hollandais, 
et  allemands  (1604).  Traduction,  notes,  et  commentaires  par  Henri 
Hymans.  Paris,  1884-1885.  2  v.  (Bibliotheque  internationale  de 
l'art.) 

Milanesi,  G.  Documenti  per  la  storia  dell'  arte  senese.  Siena,  1854-1856. 
3  v.  in  2. 

Pacheco,  F.    Arte  de  la  pintura,  su  antiguedad  y  grandezas.    Madrid,  1871. 

Palomino  de  Castro  y  Velasco.   El  museo  pictorico  y  escala  optica.   Madrid, 

I79S-I797-    3V. 
Ridolfi,  C.    Le  maraviglie  dell'  arte,  overo  le  vite  de  gl'  illustri  pittori  veneti. 

Venice,  1648.     2  v. 
Valle,  G.  della.    Lettere  senesi  sopra  le  belle  arti.    Venice,  1782-1786.    3  v. 
Vasari,  G.    Le  vite  de'  piu  eccellenti  pittori,  scultori,  e  architetti.    Commen- 

tario  di  Lorenzo  Ghiberti.    Florence,  Le  Monnier,  1 846-1 870.    14  v. 
Lives  of  the  most  eminent  painters,  sculptors,  and  architects.    Tr.  by 

Mrs.  Jonathan  Foster.    London,  1850-1852.    5  v. 


xxii  PAINTING  — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Le  vite  de'  piu  eccellenti  pittori,  scultori,  ed  architettori.   Con  nuove  anno- 

tazioni  e  commenti  di  Gaetano  Milanesi.     Florence,  Sansoni,  1878- 

1885.     9  v. 
Lives  of  seventy  of  the  most  eminent  painters,  sculptors,  and  architects; 

ed.  and  annotated  by  E.  H.  and  E.  W.  Blashfield  and  A.  A.  Hopkins. 

New  York,  191 1.    4  v. 
Le  vite  de'  piu  eccellenti  pittori,  scultori,  e  architettori.    Mit  kritischem 

Apparate.    Herausgegeben  von  Dr.  Karl  Frey.  Pt.  i,  Band  i.    Munich, 

1911. 
Zanetti,  A.  M.    Delia  pittura  veneziana.    Venice,  1771. 

General  Works 

Lowrte,  W.   Monuments  of  the  early  Church.  New  York,  1906.  (Handbooks 

of  archaeology  and  antiquities.) 
Michel,  A.    Histoire  de  l'art  depuis  les  premiers  temps  Chretiens  jusqu'a  nos 

jours,    v.  i-v.    Paris,  1905-1913.    5  v.  in  10. 
Reinach,  S.    Apollo;  an  illustrated  manual  of  the  history  of  art  throughout 

the  ages.    New  York,  1914. 
Repertoire  de  peintures  du  moyen  age  et  de  la  renaissance  (1280-1580). 

Paris,  1905-1910.    3  v. 
Ross,  D.  W.    On  drawing  and  painting.    Boston,  1912. 

Theory  of  pure  design.    Boston,  1907. 
Thteme,  U.,  and  Becker,  F.    Allgemeines  Lexikon  der  bildenden  Ktinstler. 

v.  i-xi.   Leipsic,  1907-1915. 

Technique 

Berger,  E.  Beitrage  zur  Entwickelungs-Geschichte  der  Maltechnik.   Munich, 
1904-1909.    5  v.  in  4. 

Cenntno  Cenntni.    The  book  of  the  art  of  Cennino  Cennini.    Tr.  with  notes 
on  mediaeval  art  methods  by  Christiana  J.  Herringham.   London,  1899. 

Church,  A.  H.    The  chemistry  of  paints  and  painting,  4th  ed.  rev.  and  enl. 
London,  1915. 

Eastlake,  C.  L.    Contributions  to  the  literature  of  the  fine  arts.    London, 
1848-1870.     2  v. 
Materials  for  a  history  of  oil  painting.    London,  1 847-1 869.    2  v. 

Jackson,  F.  H.    Mural  painting.    London,  1904. 

Laurie,  A.  P.  Materials  of  the  painter's  craft.  London,  1910. 
Pigments  and  mediums  of  the  old  masters.  London,  1914. 
Processes,  pigments,  and  vehicles.    London,  1895. 

Merrifield,  M.  P.    Original  treatises,  dating  from  the  xnth  to  xvinth  cen- 
turies on  the  arts  of  painting.    London,  1849.    2  v. 

Vasari,  G.    On  technique.    Tr.  by  Louisa  S.  Maclehose;  ed.  and  annotated 
by  Prof.  G.  Baldwin  Brown.    London,  1907. 


PAINTING  — BIBLIOGRAPHY  xxiii 

Christian  Iconography  —  Legends  of  Saints  — 
Ecclesiastical  Vestments 

Barbier  de  Montault.    Traite  d'  iconographie  chretienne.   Paris,  1890.   2  v. 

Beck,  E.  Ecclesiastical  dress  in  art.  Burlington  magazine.  London,  July- 
Oct.,  Dec,  1905,  Jan.,  1906.  vii-viii  (28-31;  33-34),  281-288;  373-376; 
446-448;  47-50;  197-202;  271-281. 

Dearmer,  P.  The  ornaments  of  the  ministers.  London,  1911.  (Arts  of  the 
Church.) 

Didron,  A.  N.  Christian  iconography.  London,  1891-1896.  2  v.  [v.  2  con- 
tains that  part  of  the  Byzantine  Guide  to  Painting  which  is  concerned 
with  iconography.] 

The  Golden  Legend  of  Jacobus  de  Voragine;  or,  Lives  of  the  saints  as  Eng- 
lished by  William  Caxton.    London,  1900.    7  v.    (Temple  classics.) 

Gruyer,  F.  A.  Les  Vierges  de  Raphael  et  1'iconographie  de  la  Vierge.  Paris, 
1869.    3  v. 

Haig,  E.    The  floral  symbolism  of  the  great  masters.    New  York,  1913. 

Hurll,  E.  M.    Life  of  our  Lord  in  art.     Boston,  1899. 

Jameson,  Mrs.  A.  B.  M.     History  of  our  Lord  .  .  .  completed  by  Lady 
Eastlake.    London,  1872.     2  v. 
Legends  of  the  Madonna;  ed.  with  notes  by  E.  M.  Hurll.    Boston,  1895. 
Legends  of  the  monastic  orders;  ed.  by  E.  M.  Hurll.    Boston,  1895. 
Sacred  and  legendary  art;  ed.  by  E.  M.  Hurll.    Boston,  1895.    2  v. 

Jenner,  Mrs.  H.    Christian  symbolism.    Chicago,  1910.    (Little  books  on  art.) 
Our  Lady  in  art.    Chicago,  191 1.    (Little  books  on  art.) 

Male,  E.    L'art  religieux  de  la  fin  du  moyen  age  en  France.    Paris,  1908. 
Religious  art  in  France,  xih  century.    Tr.  from  the  third  edition  rev.  and 
enl.  by  Dora  Nussey.    London,  1913. 

Catalogues 

In  addition  to  the  catalogues  of  the  important  public  galleries  of 
Europe  and  America,  catalogues  of  private  collections  and  of  exhibitions 
are  of  value.    A  few  such  catalogues  are  listed  below. 

Benson,  R.  H.  Catalogue  of  Italian  pictures  collected  by  Robert  and  Evelyn 
Benson.    London,  1914. 

Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club.  Catalogue  of  a  collection  of  pictures  of  the 
Umbrian  school.  London,  1910. 
Exhibition  of  early  German  art.  London,  1906.  [Introduction;  The  xv 
century,  by  S.  Montague  Peartree.  —  The  schools  of  Cologne,  Ham- 
burg, and  Westphalia,  by  Alban  Head.  —  The  xvi  century,  by  Campbell 
Dodgson.] 
Exhibition  of  pictures  of  the  school  of  Siena  and  examples  of  the  minor 
arts  of  that  city.    London,  1904.     [Introduction  by  Langton  Douglas.] 

Johnson,  J.  G.  Catalogue  of  a  collection  of  paintings  and  some  art  objects. 
Philadelphia,  1913-1914.  3  v.  [Contents.  —  v.  1.  Italian  paintings, 
by  Bernhard  Berenson. — v.  2.    Flemish  and  Dutch  paintings,  by  W.  R. 


xxiv  PAINTING  — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Valentiner.  —  v.  3.  German,  French,  Spanish,  and  English  paintings 
and  art  objects,  by  W.  R.  Valentiner.] 

Martin  Le  Roy,  V.  Catalogue  raisonne  de  la  collection  Martin  Le  Roy.  Paris, 
1909.  v.  5.  Peintures,  par  P.  Leprieur  et  A.  Perat6;  Miniatures  et 
dessins,  par  P.  A.  Lemoisne. 

Morgan,  J.  P.  Pictures  in  the  collection  of  J.  Pierpont  Morgan,  with  an  intro- 
duction by  T.  Humphrey  Ward  and  notes  by  W.  Roberts.  London, 
1907.    v.  2.  Dutch  and  Flemish,  French,  Italian,  Spanish. 

Siren,  O.,  and  Brockwell,  M.  W.  Catalogue  of  a  loan  exhibition  of  Italian 
primitives  in  aid  of  the  American  war  relief.  F.  Kleinberger  Galleries, 
November,  191 7. 

Siren,  O.  Descriptive  catalogue  of  the  pictures  in  the  Jarves  collection  be- 
longing to  Yale  University.    New  Haven,  1916. 

Widener,  P.  A.  B.  Pictures  in  the  collection  of  P.  A.  B.  Widener  at  Lynne- 
wood  Hall,  Elkins  Park,  Pennsylvania.  Philadelphia,  1913-1916.  2  v. 
[Contents.  —  1.  Early  German,  Dutch,  and  Flemish  schools.  With  an 
introduction  by  W.  R.  Valentiner,  and  notes  by  C.  Hofstede  de  Groot 
and  W.  R.  Valentiner.  —  2.  Early  Italian  and  Spanish  schools.  With 
notes  on  the  Italian  painters  by  B.  Berenson,  and  on  the  Spanish  painters 
by  W.  Roberts.] 

Charts 

Dowdeswell  chart,  chronological  chart  of  artists  of  the  Dutch,  Flemish, 
French,  German,  Spanish,  and  British  schools  of  painting,  from  1350  to 
1800,  by  Gerald  Parker  Smith.    London,  1909. 

Engraving 

Dodgson,  C.    Catalogue  of  early  German  and  Flemish  woodcuts  preserved  in 

the  British  Museum.    London,  1903-1911.     2  v. 
Hind,  A.  M.    Catalogue  of  early  Italian  engravings  preserved  in  the  British 

Museum.    London,  1909-1910.    2  v.    [Text  and  plates.] 
Short  history  of  engraving  and  etching.    Boston,  1908. 
Kristeller,  P.    Kupferstich  und  Holzschnitt  in  vier  Jahrhunderten.    Berlin, 

1905. 
Lippmann,  F.    Engraving  and  etching,  3d  ed.    London,  1906. 

Illumination  or  Books  and  Manuscripts 

Bradley,  J.  W.    Illuminated  mss.    Chicago,  1911.    (Little  books  on  art.) 

Herbert,  J.  A.  Illuminated  manuscripts.  London,  191 1.  (The  Connois- 
seur's library.) 

London.  British  Museum.  Reproductions  from  illuminated  manuscripts, 
2d  ed.    London,  1910.    3  v. 

Martin,  H.  Les  peintres  de  manuscrits  et  la  miniature  en  France.  Paris, 
1909.     (Les  grands  artistes.) 

MroDLETON,  J.  H.  Illuminated  manuscripts  in  classical  and  mediaeval  times. 
Cambridge,  1892. 


BYZANTINE   PAINTING 


BYZANTINE  PAINTING 

THE  general  impression  gathered  from  reading  many  histories 
of  Italian  art  is  that  in  the  xni  century  the  great  achievement 
was  the  breaking  loose  from  the  bondage  of  Byzantine  art  which 
had  served  the  purpose  of  an  undesirable,  if  necessary,  parent,  to  be 
apologized  for,  politely  pushed  aside,  and  forgotten  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible. There  is  only  enough  truth  in  this  to  make  it  sound  plausible. 
Granting  that  the  Italians  owed  their  success  partly  to  the  fact  that 
they  did  break  loose  from  the  parent  whose  iron  rule  was  no  longer 
needed,  yet  it  is  surely  worth  while  to  observe  what  they  owed  to 
that  parent. 

In  recent  years  several  scholars  have  devoted  themselves  to  the 
somewhat  difficult  study  of  the  art  of  Byzantium,  which  in  conse- 
quence is  now  better  understood  in  its  many  subtleties  than  in  the 
earlier  days  when  most  people  thought  of  it  merely  as  a  provincial 
form  of  oriental  civilization,  or  a  debased  remnant  of  the  culture  of 
Greece. 

One  of  the  fascinating  subjects  in  history  is  the  intertwining  of  in- 
fluences of  the  various  oriental  and  occidental  countries  during  the 
last  twenty-four  hundred  years.  To  some  western  minds  the  East  is 
something  incomprehensible,  to  be  avoided  and  mistrusted.  Yet  the 
West  has  been  mastered  by  oriental  thought  in  religion,  in  phi- 
losophy, and  in  art.  The  seven  great  religions  of  the  world  were  all 
born  in  Asia,  for  it  was  there  that  abstract  thought  thrived.  Euro- 
pean art  also  has  many  of  its  deepest  roots  in  Asia,  and  much  vital 
nourishment  was  transmitted  through  Byzantium.  Byzantine  art 
owed  its  beginnings  to  a  variety  of  mixed  influences.  While  the 
Greek  artists  in  Rome  were  becoming  Romanized,  those  who  re- 
mained in  Alexandria  and  Antioch  were  affected  by  oriental  in- 
fluences. When  Constantine  established  his  new  capital  in  330  a.d. 
various  currents  from  the  countries  on  the  shores  of  the  Mediterra- 
nean began  to  flow  into  the  main  stream  at  Constantinople.  Persian 
art  also  exerted  a  powerful  influence.  So  when  we  speak  of  the 
Byzantine  tradition,  we  refer  to  that  which  was  made  up  of  a  rich 


4  BYZANTINE  PAINTING 

conglomeration  of  pure  Greek,  provincial  Greek,  Roman,  and 
oriental  traditions;  and  it  may  well  be  that  the  eastern  love  of 
the  abstract  was  the  most  significant  of  them  all. 

The  two  main  sources  of  the  art  of  the  world  were  in  Greece  and  in 
China,  though,  of  course,  Greece  herself  owed  much  to  previous 
civilizations,  notably  that  of  Egypt,  and  China  was  indebted  to 
India.  The  influence  of  Greece  spreading  to  the  east  met  that  of 
China  moving  to  the  west  in  Turkestan,  and  China  prevailed.  These 
Chinese  influences  worked  through  to  Persia,  and  from  there  to 
Byzantium  and  in  a  diluted  form  reached  Europe.  Meanwhile  the 
Greek  tradition  was  carried  even  across  the  Indus  in  the  days  of 
Alexander  the  Great.  The  Gandhara  sculptors1  felt  this  influence, 
and  it  spread  also  in  a  much  diluted  form  to  other  parts  of  India,  to 
China,  and  Japan. 

One  of  the  principal  cosmopolitan  gateways  between  the  East  and 
the  West  was  Byzantium.  Here  it  was  that  the  fusion  of  the  various 
elements  was  completed,  and  a  great  art  was  formed.  It  is  not  en- 
tirely easy  to  define  the  art  of  that  city  in  a  few  words,  because  the 
characteristics  changed  during  the  four  important  periods  into  which 
Byzantine  art  is  usually  divided,  namely: 

First.  From  the  foundation  of  Constantinople  to  the  outbreak  of 
iconoclasm,  a.d.  330-726.  This  includes  the  First  Golden  Age  during 
the  reign  of  Justinian,  527-565.  The  art  of  this  time  was  formative. 
Many  diverse  elements  were  gathered  together  and  unified. 

Second.  The  Iconoclastic  period,  a.d.  726-842.  The  religious  art 
which  in  the  previous  century  had  tended  to  become  over  formalized, 
was  revivified  by  persecution;  and  the  secular  art  went  back  with  a 
fresh  impulse  to  the  classical  models  in  Alexandria.  The  conven- 
tional designs  of  Persia  also  influenced  the  art  of  this  period. 

Third.  From  the  accession  of  Basil  1  to  the  sack  of  Constantinople, 
a.d.  867-1204,  called  the  Second  Golden  Age.  In  this  period,  the 
various  diverging  tendencies  were  unified  again,  and  there  was  a 
period  of  fresh  growth. 

Fourth.  From  the  Restoration  to  the  Turkish  conquest,  a.d. 
1 261-1453,  the  period  of  the  Palaeologi.  After  the  Latin  Emperors 
(1 204-1 261)  came  the  new  life  and  activity  of  the  so-called  Byzan- 
tine Renaissance,  which  flourished  for  about  two  hundred  years, 

1  These  sculptors  are  represented  by  a  few  important  examples  in  the  Fogg  Museum. 


BYZANTINE  PAINTING  5 

and  has  continued  in  Greece  and  Russia  in  a  monotonous  half  alive 
existence  even  to  the  present  day. 

The  study  of  the  various  sources  of  the  types  used  by  Byzantium 
is  important,  because  the  thought,  the  artistic  traditions,  and  partic- 
ularly the  iconography  of  Byzantium  are  the  bedrock  foundations  on 
which  the  art  of  Europe  was  built.  To  Greece  may  be  traced  many 
of  the  characteristics  of  Byzantine  art.  The  early  Christians  began 
by  adopting  certain  Greek  motives  and  applying  them  allegorically 
to  Christianity;  for  instance,  the  Greek  Chriophorus  or  bearer  of  the 
ram  (in  earlier  versions  the  calf  bearer)  became  the  Good  Shepherd, 
the  fish  and  the  anchor  became  symbols  of  Christ.  When  Chris- 
tianity triumphed  and  became  the  official  religion  of  the  Roman 
Empire,  there  arose  a  demand  for  regal  and  sumptuous  churches,  and 
Greek  motives  were  further  developed.  The  Good  Shepherd  became 
the  Christ  Triumphant,  the  King,  the  living  representative  of  God. 
The  ancient  figures  of  Victory  were  used  as  models  for  angels  in  the 
glorious  court  of  Heaven.  This  court  of  Heaven  was  a  projection 
into  realms  of  ideal  thought  modelled  after  the  visible  earthly  courts 
of  the  Eastern  Emperors.  Gorgeous  churches  were  built  and  also 
humbler  ones.  The  clergy  saw  the  need  of  instructing  in  sacred  his- 
tory the  rude  unlettered  peoples  who  nocked  from  the  countryside  to 
worship  at  the  shrines.  In  the  early  days  the  church  was  not  only  a 
place  of  worship,  but  a  club  and  a  hotel  for  the  visiting  peasants  and 
pilgrims.  The  stories  of  the  Bible  were  depicted  on  the  walls  of  the 
church  that  all  might  understand.  Certain  scenes  were  originally 
painted  in  the  churches  on  sacred  sites.  For  instance,  the  Nativity 
and  Adoration  of  the  Magi  were  represented  in  the  basilica  of  Beth- 
lehem. Pilgrims  went  there  in  large  numbers  and  purchased  copies 
of  these  wall  decorations,  and  thus  the  new  historical  compositions 
which  began  to  be  created  about  the  rv  century  assumed  a  traditional 
form.  The  various  types  also  became  crystallized.  Christ  became  the 
partly  Hellenic  and  partly  Syrian  figure  that  has  become  familiar. 
The  Madonna  assumed  her  characteristics,  as  did  Saint  Peter,  with  his 
round  beard  and  gray  hair,  Saint  Paul  with  his  bald  head  and  pointed 
beard,  and  the  other  apostles  and  saints.  In  all  of  these  conceptions 
oriental  influences  predominated.  Though  Greek  forms  were  never 
wholly  forgotten,  the  characteristic  freedom  and  flexibility  of  ancient 
Greece  were  lost,  and  instead  a  more  formal  and  hieratic  manner  of 


6  BYZANTINE  PAINTING 

painting  developed,  perhaps  owing  to  contact  with  Syria.  The  in- 
fluence of  Persia  which  had  been  driven  back  nine  hundred  years 
before,  now  returned.  Architecture  flourished  and  new  ideas  were 
developed;  secular  art  also  grew  up  at  the  same  time. 

The  art  of  Byzantium  was  thus  derived  principally  from  elements  ' 
coming  from  Alexandria,  Antioch,  Ephesus,  and  Rome,  and  the 
civilizations  of  those  cities.  From  the  year  330  a.d.,  when  the  seat 
of  government  was  moved  to  Constantinople,  these  various  arts 
were  in  process  of  fusion,  until  the  First  Golden  Age  culminated 
in  the  reign  of  Justinian. 

In  532  the  great  conflagration  which  swept  the  city  destroyed  the 
basilica  that  Constantine  had  erected.  Justinian's  opportunity  now 
arrived,  and  he  used  to  the  full  his  wealth  and  his  energy  in  realizing 
his  dreams  of  a  city  of  unparalleled  magnificence.  Among  all  the 
stately  palaces  and  splendid  churches  the  greatest  architectural  glory 
was  the  church  of  Hagia  Sophia,  dedicated  to  the  Divine  Wisdom, 
perhaps  a  continuation  of  the  tradition  of  the  worship  of  Athena 
carried  even  into  Christian  days.  All  the  elements  of  decoration  — 
the  mosaics,  rich  in  pictorial  effect  and  splendid  in  their  glowing  gold 
and  sombre  colours,  and  the  beautiful  marbles  —  were  skilfully  har- 
monized with  the  architectural  design  to  which  they  were  sub- 
ordinated. The  Byzantines  in  this  First  Golden  Age  excelled  in 
architecture.  The  mosaic  decorations  of  their  churches  perhaps 
ranked  next,  and  after  that  their  delicate  ivories,  their  enamels,  il- 
luminated manuscripts,  textiles,  and  other  minor  arts.  Fresco  paint- 
ing later  developed  from  the  mosaics.  Sculpture  declined,  perhaps 
chiefly  on  account  of  the  oriental  dislike  of  the  graven  image,  which 
was  one  of  the  causes  of  the  Iconoclastic  period. 

The  fundamental  reasons  for  the  Iconoclastic  controversy  were  of 
long  standing.  In  the  earliest  days  of  Christianity  those  who 
espoused  the  new  faith  had  little  taste  for  art.  The  serious  Jews 
from  Palestine  who  travelled  to  Rome  were  descended  from  the  race 
who  had  abolished  idols  and  fought  against  idolaters  since  the  days 
of  the  golden  calf.  The  people  of  Israel  served  the  "  King  eternal, 
immortal,  invisible,  the  only  wise  God."  They  were  not  unlike  our 
Pilgrim  Fathers  in  their  point  of  view  towards  art.  But  after  a 
while  the  idolatry  which  had  been  crushed  by  the  single  minded 
Hebrews  crept  in  under  various  disguises,  and  the  images  in  the 


BYZANTINE  PAINTING  7 

churches  were  worshipped  and  thought  to  have  supernatural 
powers.  The  opposition  to  this  decadent  form  of  worship  was 
strongest  in  Syria,  where  the  ancient  dislike  of  confusing  material 
and  spiritual  values  was  still  inherent  in  the  people.  In  754  the 
fathers  of  the  church  in  council  declared  that  "Satan  has  reintro- 
duced, little  by  little,  idolatry  under  the  name  of  Christianity  ";  and 
denounced  "  the  ignorant  artist,  who  through  a  sacrilegious  desire 
for  money  represents  that  which  should  not  be  represented,  and 
wishes  with  his  soiled  hands  to  give  form  to  that  which  should  not 
be  felt  except  by  the  heart."  When  internal  and  external  troubles 
overwhelmed  Byzantium,  and  the  Arab,  Mussulman,  and  Slavic 
hordes  swept  over  all  of  the  eastern  possessions  of  the  Empire,  the 
people  thought  of  their  sins,  and  believed  that  they  were  visited  by 
the  judgment  of  God.  Emperor  Leo  m  the  Isaurian  was  the  first 
to  issue  an  edict  against  images,  in  726  a.d.  Through  this  righteous, 
if  extreme  and  intolerant,  movement,  a  large  number  of  the  master- 
pieces of  the  First  Golden  Age  were  destroyed. 

Under  the  Macedonian  and  Comnenian  rulers  a  second  age  of 
prosperity,  called  the  Second  Golden  Age,  blessed  Constantinople. 
New  triumphs  were  achieved  in  military,  political,  commercial,  and 
artistic  fields.  The  different  branches  of  art  developed  and  expanded. 
But  this  period  of  growth  did  not  last  long.  Constantinople  was 
taken  by  the  Latins  in  1204  and  pillaged.  After  some  fifty  or  sixty 
years  of  Frankish  rule,  the  Palaeologi  returned  as  conquerors.  Be- 
tween the  xm  and  xvi  centuries  certain  important  frescoes  were 
executed  in  Macedonia,  Serbia,  Mistra,  and  Mount  Athos.  This 
simpler  method  of  decoration  was  adopted,  as  mosaics  were  too 
luxurious  and  expensive.  Work  in  rich  materials,  such  as  ivory  and 
gold,  that  required  patient  labour,  was  abandoned.  Except  in  a  few 
rare  cases,  miniature  painting  declined. 

The  art  of  Byzantium  gradually  lost  its  spontaneity  and  degen- 
erated into  formalism.  But  it  is  not  fair  to  attack  it  too  seriously  on 
these  grounds  before  the  xv  century.  On  the  contrary,  the  length  of 
life  of  the  school  of  Byzantium,  running  through  four  differents  tages 
during  a  period  of  some  eleven  or  twelve  hundred  years,  is  the  aston- 
ishing feature.  No  European  country  has  held  a  commanding  posi- 
tion in  the  world  of  art  for  such  a  long  period.  This  remarkable  city, 
as  it  received  blow  after  blow,  kept  sending  off  new  waves  of  inspira- 


8  BYZANTINE  PAINTING 

tion  towards  the  East  and  West,  particularly  to  the  West.  Byzantine 
artists  worked  in  Ravenna  and  in  Rome  in  the  First  Golden  Age. 
This  was  owing  largely  perhaps  to  the  long  line  of  Syrian  bishops 
who  filled  the  see  of  Ravenna.  v  At  the  time  of  the  Iconoclasts 
large  numbers  of  able  artists  fled  to  Europe,  principally  to  Italy. 
Again  in  the  Second  Golden  Age  Byzantine  artists  were  in  demand  to 
build  churches  in  Greece,  in  Venice  and  Torcello,  in  Sicily,  in  south- 
ern Italy,  and  in  Rome.  In  1 204,  when  Constantinople  was  captured, 
large  numbers  of  Byzantine  artists  again  departed  to  Sicily  and  Italy 
and  other  places  in  Europe.  These  artists  executed  important 
mosaics  in  several  Italian  cities.  In  some  cases  the  names  of  the 
artists  are  known.  For  instance,  one  Andrea  Tafi,  who  was  born  in 
1 2 13,  brought  the  Greek  mosaicist  Apollonios  from  Venice  to  help 
him  adorn  the  Baptistery  at  Florence  with  mosaics.  Finally,  the 
never  ending  stream  of  eastern  traders  who  invaded  Europe,  and 
also  the  western  pilgrims  returning  from  the  East,  brought  with 
them  Byzantine  ivories,  enamels,  embroideries,  gold  and  silver 
work,  textiles,  illuminated  manuscripts,  and  other  examples  of  the 
arts  of  Byzantium.  These  arts  had  an  immense  influence  in 
Europe.  The  delicately  carved  ivories  had  a  deep  effect  on  the 
mediaeval  sculptors  of  France,  Italy,  England,  and  Germany. 
Byzantine  fresco  painting  was  of  far  reaching  importance  in  its 
influence  on  the  art  of  Giotto,  and  hence  on  that  of  all  later 
Italians.  The  illumination  of  manuscripts  came  originally  from 
Alexandria.  The  Emperor  Constantine  called  numerous  Alexandrian 
scholars  and  illuminators  to  Constantinople,  and  founded  a  library. 
Several  manuscripts  both  sacred  and  profane  of  this  period  still  exist. 
In  the  Vatican  is  preserved  an  Iliad  of  the  rv  or  v  century  executed 
in  a  style  that  is  not  unlike  the  best  frescoes  of  Pompeii.  This  Byzan- 
tine tradition  of  illuminating  manuscripts  spread  all  over  Europe,  and 
had  a  profound  effect  on  miniature  painting  and  on  other  arts.  The 
icons  or  religious  panels  were  the  ancestors  of  the  later  European 
altarpieces.  Among  the  earliest  existing  panel  pictures  in  the  world 
are  the  realistic  portraits,  produced  in  the  Fayoum  in  Egypt  in  the 
ni  century  and  painted  in  the  encaustic  method,  that  is,  with  a  wax 
preparation.1    Probably  the  earliest  Madonnas  were  similar. 

1  In  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  there  is  an  encaustic  portrait  from  EI 
Rubayat,  Fayoum. 


BYZANTINE  PAINTING  9 

We  have  noted  that  the  iconography  began  in  a  simple  and  sym- 
bolic manner,  and  that  then  the  representations  of  scenes  in  the  life 
of  Christ  began  to  take  form  in  the  actual  churches  raised  on  the 
traditional  spot  where  the  event  was  said  to  have  taken  place. 
Gradually  a  newer  and  richer  iconography  developed  in  the  Second 
Golden  Age.  The  ancient  orators  of  Greece  became  the  prophets  of 
Christian  art.  Apollo  not  only  served  as  a  model  for  Buddha  in  the 
East,  but  also  had  his  effect  on  the  development  of  the  type  of  Christ 
in  the  West.  The  tunic  and  mantle  of  the  Italian  religious  pictures 
were  inherited  from  the  Hellenistic  pallium  or  himation.  The  com- 
positions, the  action,  and  the  gestures  of  the  figures  came  from 
Greece;  though  in  regard  to  the  compositions  this  statement  must  be 
somewhat  qualified.  The  early  Greeks  had  an  unfailing  sense  of 
significance.  The  principal  actors  were  so  placed  in  the  scene  as  to 
tell  the  story  effectively.  The  Byzantines  were  influenced  in  their 
compositions  by  the  Persian  love  of  completely  filling  the  spaces  with 
decorative  features,  which  dispersed  the  interest  over  the  whole  field 
instead  of  concentrating  it  at  the  vital  point.  The  types  were  in  part 
Greek.  The  taste  for  gorgeous  colour  and  for  purely  decorative  fea- 
tures, such  as  conventional  animals  and  flowers,  was  introduced  into 
Byzantium  largely  through  the  Persian  textiles.  The  artists,  it  is 
true,  used  the  ideal  types,  but  they  also  studied  nature  to  some  ex- 
tent. Oriental  saints  with  almond-shaped  eyes  and  pointed  beards 
stand  beside  saints  of  the  classical  type  in  the  groups  in  these  pic- 
tures. A  new  scheme  of  symbolism  was  developed  in  the  ix  and  x 
centuries  for  both  the  church  and  its  decorations.  The  dome  was 
Heaven.  In  it  was  a  vast  figure  representing  the  Christ  Pantocrator, 
or  image  of  the  invisible  God.  Then  came  certain  apostles  or  proph- 
ets, and  the  Madonna  ruled  below.  After  that  came  other  scenes 
arranged  in  due  order,  each  saint  or  scene  having  a  special  signifi- 
cance. Twelve  scenes  from  the  life  of  Christ  were  chosen  to  repre- 
sent the  Twelve  Feasts.  The  two  which  were  given  especial  emphasis 
were  the  Crucifixion  and  the  Descent  into  Hell.  Sometimes  the  Last 
Judgment  on  the  western  wall  completed  the  series.  In  the  earlier 
days  the  object  was  to  celebrate  the  triumph  of  the  Church  and  tell 
the  sacred  stories  to  the  people.  In  the  later  days  the  scheme  of 
decoration  was  a  sort  of  liturgy,  and  subjects  came  to  be  used  from 
the  Apocalypse  instead  of  from  the  Old  Testament.  The  life  of  the 
Madonna  and  the  lives  of  various  saints  also  became  more  popular. 


10  BYZANTINE  PAINTING 

Starting  from  the  wreckage  of  one  of  the  greatest  arts  of  the  world, 
Byzantine  art  suffered  from  the  lack  of  an  archaic  stage.  But  in 
essence  it  remained  nevertheless  a  primitive  art.  Its  general  tend- 
ency was  to  pay  scant  attention  to  nature.  The  Greek  loved  the 
human  body,  and  the  freedom  of  the  athlete;  the  Byzantine  held  up 
the  ascetic  as  an  ideal  —  the  body  was  first  concealed  and  then 
ignored.  The  landscape  was  formal  and  conventional.  The  com- 
position of  each  subject  was  decreed  by  the  Council  of  Nicaea  to  be 
fixed  by  the  theologians,  and  the  artists  were  to  follow  their  instruc- 
tions. The  Byzantines  had  a  high  standard  of  workmanship,  which 
is  one  of  the  signs  of  a  great  art.  They  were  the  world's  great  masters 
of  mosaic.  The  deep  rich  glow  that  comes  from  the  walls  of  these 
churches  darkened  to  the  tone  of  twilight  has  the  power  of  enchant- 
ment. Like  music,  mosaic  is  an  abstract  art,  indeed,  the  word 
mosaic  is  said  to  be  of  the  same  root  as  the  word  music. 

It  is  this  aloofness  and  this  symbolic  spirit  that  makes  Byzantine 
art  to  some  extent  like  Indian  art,  which  has  been  thus  described  by 
Havell  in  his  Indian  Sculpture  and  Painting:  "  Realism  to  the  Indian 
artist  has  a  different  meaning  from  what  we  attach  to  it;  for  Indian 
philosophy  regards  all  we  see  in  Nature  as  transitory,  illusive  phe- 
nomena, and  declares  that  the  only  reality  is  the  Divine  Essence,  or 
Spirit.  So  while  European  art  hardly  concerns  itself  with  the  Un- 
seen, but  limits  its  mental  range  to  the  realms  of  Nature,  and  thus 
retains,  even  in  its  highest  flights,  the  sense  and  form  of  its  earthly 
environment,  Indian  art  (like  the  Egyptian  of  which  it  is  the  living 
representative)  is  always  striving  to  realize  something  of  the  Uni- 
versal, the  Eternal,  and  the  Infinite."  "  Greek  and  Italian  art  would 
bring  the  gods  to  earth,  and  make  them  the  most  beautiful  of  men; 
Indian  art  raises  men  up  to  heaven  and  makes  them  even  as  the 
gods." 

Thus,  like  a  tree  which  shoots  its  roots  deep  into  the  earth,  and 
holds  its  arms  out  afar  towards  the  rain  and  the  sunshine,  and  from 
those  varied  elements  in  due  time  produces  series  after  series  of  fruits 
to  nourish  those  in  want,  Byzantium,  which  was  the  centre  of  art  and 
culture  in  Europe  for  hundreds  of  years,  amalgamated  various  incon- 
gruous elements  of  East  and  West,  and  then  gave  forth  inspiration 
freely  to  the  world. 

E.  W.  F. 


BYZANTINE  PAINTING  II 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 


Dalton,  O.  M.    Byzantine  art  and  archaeology.    Oxford,  191 1. 
Diehl,  C.    Manuel  d'art  byzantin.    Paris,  1910. 

Strzygowski,  J.    Orient  oder  Rom;  Beitrage  zur  Geschichte  der  spatantiken 
und  fruhchristlichen  Kunst.    Leipsic,  1901. 


BYZANTINE  SCHOOL 

The  Byzantine  pictures  in  the  Fogg  Art  Museum  are  not  at  present 
on  exhibition  in  the  Gallery,  as  they  are  in  quality  for  the  most  part 
much  below  the  standard  of  the  other  primitives.  They  may,  how- 
ever, be  seen  in  the  Director's  room  by  request.  Six  of  these  have 
been  given  and  four  lent  to  the  Museum. 

For  convenience  they  are  here  designated  by  letters.  Like  most 
Byzantine  pictures  these  paintings  are  hard  to  date  accurately. 

A-B     SAINT  ANDREW  AND  SCENES  FROM  HIS  LIFE 

A.  H.  19!  in.    W.  14I  in.     (48.5  X  37.5  cm.) 

B.  H.  19  A  in.    W.  14I  in.     (48.7  X  37.8  cm.) 

The  most  important  and  interesting  of  these  pictures  is  a  painting 
representing  Saint  Andrew  and  ten  scenes  from  his  life.  Panel  b  was 
bought  in  Athens  in  1907.  It  is  a  crude  example  of  late  Byzantine 
colour.  When  it  reached  the  Fogg  Museum  the  paint  began  to  scale 
off,  and  it  was  found  necessary  to  transfer  the  picture  to  a  new  panel. 
In  the  process,  picture  A,  which  is  painted  on  parchment,  was  found 
underneath  by  William  Allerton,  who  succeeded  in  performing  the 
difficult  operation  of  separating  the  two.  Panel  A  is  of  far  finer 
quality,  and  although  it  is  almost  a  complete  wreck,  enough  of  it 
remains  to  show  that  the  draughtsmanship  and  the  colour  were  both 
exquisite.  The  principal  colours  that  remain  are  vermilion  and  more 
neutral  orange  reds  and  blue  greens.  This  original  picture  (a)  was 
perhaps  painted  as  early  as  the  xn  or  more  probably  the  xni  century. 
Several  centuries  later  it  must  have  become  damaged,  and  the  order 
given  to  paint  a  new  one  over  it.  Fortunately  the  second  painter 
used  the  traditional  Byzantine  method  of  preparing  a  coat  of  plaster 
or  gesso  as  a  ground  instead  of  painting  directly  on  the  surface  of  the 
older  picture.  And  so  it  has  been  possible  to  preserve  them  both.  In 
both  panels  (a  and  b)  the  scenes  are  very  much  the  same,  and  are 
arranged  in  the  same  order. 

Saint  Andrew  stands  in  the  centre,  and  around  him  are  represented 
ten  scenes  from  his  life  which  seem  to  be:  Saint  Andrew  preaching; 
First  Calling  of  Saint  Andrew;  Second  Calling;  Miracle  of  Nicolas; 
Miracle  of  the  Seven  Devils  near  Nice;  Resuscitation  of  the  Youth 


BYZANTINE  SCHOOL  13 

who  had  been  strangled  by  the  Seven  Devils  in  the  Likeness  of  Dogs; 
Saint  Andrew  as  Pilgrim;  Flagellation  of  the  Saint;  Saint  Andrew 
bound  to  the  Cross;  Crucifixion  of  Saint  Andrew. 

In  b  the  donors  are  painted  at  the  feet  of  the  saint.  Between  them 
in  small  letters  is  an  undecipherable  inscription.  Saint  Andrew  holds 
in  his  hand  a  scroll.  His  name  ayios  'Avrpeas  is  written  in  red  paint 
on  the  green  background.  In  the  scene  directly  underneath  the 
figure  of  the  saint,  representing  Saint  Andrew  bound  to  the  Cross,  the 
date  181 2  appears  in  the  same  red  paint  on  the  brown  rocks  of  the 
foreground,  but,  as  these  letters  are  different  in  character  from  the 
older  writing,  and  as  the  style  of  the  picture  indicates  that  it  was 
painted  at  least  one  hundred  years  before  18 12,  it  is  quite  possible 
that  the  date  was  added  later.  The  prevailing  tones  of  the  picture 
are  green,  red,  and  gold. 

C     SAINT  ANDREW  AND  SCENES  FROM  HIS  LIFE 

H.  19H  in.    W.  13!  in.     (50.6  X  35  cm.) 

This  is  another  Saint  Andrew  panel,  but  it  is  cruder  and  probably 
later  than  b,  perhaps  of  the  later  xvin  century.  It  has  eight  scenes 
from  Saint  Andrew's  life,  instead  of  ten;  the  two  omitted  are  the 
Flagellation  of  Saint  Andrew,  and  Saint  Andrew  bound  to  the  Cross. 
In  the  next  to  the  last  scene  the  saint  appears  to  be  preaching, 
holding  a  cross  in  his  arms. 

The  panel  was  bought  in  Switzerland  in  1914. 

D     THE  DESCENT  INTO  HELL 

H.  25 &  in.    W.  i6|  in.     (65  X  42  cm.) 

Christ  wearing  a  gold  garment  and  in  a  blue  mandorla  with  gold 
lines  has  broken  down  the  gate  of  Hell.  An  angel  in  the  foreground 
is  binding  with  chains  the  prostrate  form  of  the  Prince  of  Darkness. 
Several  figures  are  behind  Christ.  In  the  front  of  the  group  are  John 
the  Baptist,  David,  and  Solomon.  On  the  right  is  the  figure  of  Adam. 
Christ  is  holding  him  by  the  wrist  and  pulling  him  up  out  of  a  tomb. 
Eve  is  seen  just  above  Adam's  head.  Both  of  them  wear  red  gar- 
ments and  Adam  has  a  blackish  green  mantle  over  his  gown.  One 
group  of  figures  in  Limbo  recedes  behind  Adam  and  Eve  to  one  of  the 
two  conventional  Byzantine  pointed  mountains  which  represent 


14  BYZANTINE  PAINTING 

Hell;  the  other  group,  on  the  left,  behind  Christ,  recedes  into  the 
depths  of  the  other  mountain.  Two  angels  appear  in  the  sky;  be- 
tween them  is  the  inscription:  17  avaa-raais  tov  Xpiarov  (anastasis, 
literally,  the  rising  up  or  resurrection) .  At  the  bottom  of  the  picture 
is  a  second  inscription:  Aejcris  .  .  .  rod  deov  (literally,  supplication 
or  entreating  ...  of  God). 

The  panel  was  bought  in  Athens  in  1907. 

Professor  Morey  of  Princeton,  judging  from  a  very  poor  photo- 
graph and  basing  his  opinion  chiefly  on  the  iconography  of  the  scene, 
thinks  that  the  panel  may  date  from  the  xrv  century,  as  this  is  the 
characteristic  late  Byzantine  type.  He  says:  "  The  omission  of  the 
cross  in  Christ's  hand  puts  the  scene  after  1200  .  .  .  almost  a 
replica  of  this  composition  is  found  at  Mistra  in  the  Peribleptos 
(Millet,  Mon.  byz.  de  Mistra,  pi.  116,  3),  save  that  the  angel  binding 
Satan  is  larger,  that  the  groups  are  handled  in  a  looser  manner,  and 
Adam  and  Eve  lack  the  nimbi  which  they  wear  in  the  ikon.  The 
Peribleptos  fresco  is  dated  c.  1350." 

Anastasis  was  the  term  used  in  East  Christian  art  for  the  scene 
which  in  the  West  was  called  the  Descent  into  Hell,  or  Christ  in 
Limbo.  The  painting  by  Sassetta  in  the  Gallery  (No.  2  2)  is  a  western 
representation  of  this  scene.  Deesis  was  the  term  used  in  the  East  for 
a  symbolical  group  of  Christ,  the  Virgin,  and  Saint  John  the  Baptist, 
with  Christ  in  the  centre  and  the  two  other  figures  standing  turned 
towards  Him  holding  out  both  hands  in  an  attitude  of  supplication. 

The  Anastasis  was  one  of  the  twelve  principal  Feasts  of  the  liturgi- 
cal calendar  of  the  Eastern  Church,  and  was  a  very  popular  subject 
in  the  Middle  Ages.  The  early  illuminators  all  over  Europe  repre- 
sented the  scene  with  great  frequency.  The  story  of  the  Descent 
into  Hell  is  related  in  the  Apocryphal  Gospel  of  Nicodemus,  but  it 
has  been  suggested  that  early  Egyptian  legend  influenced  the  repre- 
sentations. As  told  in  Nicodemus,  Christ,  Who  usually  bears  a  cross, 
or  later,  particularly  in  the  West,  the  banner  triumphant,  broke 
down  the  gates  of  Hell,  crushing  Death,  and  liberated  the  righteous 
persons  of  the  Old  Testament  who  had  been  kept  in  Limbo  merely 
because  they  were  born  under  the  Old  Dispensation.  Adam  and 
Eve  are  usually  represented  in  a  conspicuous  place,  and  Abraham, 
David,  Solomon,  Isaiah,  Abel,  and  other  Old  Testament  figures 


BYZANTINE  SCHOOL  1 5 

appear.  From  the  beginning  of  the  xi  century  the  Baptist  was  in- 
troduced. In  this  picture  it  is  noteworthy  that  Christ  bears  a  roll 
in  His  hand  instead  of  a  cross.  The  gates  on  which  He  stands  are 
in  the  form  of  a  cross,  as  in  xn  century  and  later  representations. 

E    MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

H.  19  in.    W.  13!  in.     (48.1  X  35  cm.) 

The  Madonna  and  Child  both  have  dark  bluish  black  gowns.  The 
mantle  of  the  Madonna  is  of  a  deep  violet  red,  and  the  mantle  of  the 
Child  is  orange  red  and  is  covered  with  the  conventional  Byzantine 
gold  lines. 

The  panel  was  bought  in  Verona  in  1906. 

As  in  the  case  of  most  of  the  Byzantine  pictures,  it  is  difficult  to 
date  this  one  with  accuracy.  Its  style  suggests  that  it  may  have 
been  produced  in  the  early  part  of  the  xrv  century,  but  it  is  also 
possible  that  it  was  painted  later. 

F    MADONNA  AND  CHILD  WITH  REPRESENTATIONS  OF 
THE  TWELVE  FEASTS 
Vellum  mounted  on  panel.    H.  17!  in.    W.  13!  in.    (44  X  33.3  cm.) 

The  Madonna  and  Child  are  surrounded  by  twelve  scenes  repre- 
senting the  twelve  principal  Feasts  of  the  Eastern  Church,  which  are 
placed  in  the  following  somewhat  unusual  order:  Annunciation, 
Nativity,  Baptism,  Presentation,  Raising  of  Lazarus,  Entry  into 
Jerusalem,  Crucifixion,  Ascension,  Descent  into  Hell,  Ascension  of 
the  Madonna,  Pentecost,  Transfiguration.  Half  effaced  inscriptions 
in  gold  letters  give  the  names  of  the  scenes.  Two  angels  are  in  the 
sky  on  either  side  of  the  Madonna,  and  below  her  are  Saint  Barbara 
and  an  unidentified  saint.  On  either  side  of  these  two  are  two  saints 
on  horseback,  perhaps  Saint  George  and  Saint  Theodore.  As  in  the 
other  pictures,  red  and  green,  much  darkened,  are  the  prevailing 
colours. 

This  picture  was  bought  in  Athens  in  1914.  It  may  have  been 
painted  as  early  as  the  xv  century. 


16  BYZANTINE  PAINTING 

G    PRESENTATION  OF  THE  VIRGIN  AND  SAINTS 

Vellum  mounted  on  panel.    H.  13  H  in.    W.  10&  in.    (35-4  X  26.9  cm.) 

In  the  upper  part  of  the  panel  is  a  Presentation,  represented  in 
accordance  with  the  Byzantine  Guide  to  Painting  and  showing  the 
prophet  Zacharias  in  pontifical  robes  with  his  arms  open,  the  Virgin 
mounting  the  steps  before  him  —  in  this  case  without  the  prescribed 
taper  —  Saint  Joachim  and  Saint  Anna,  and  behind  them  the  crowd 
of  virgins  carrying  tapers.  In  the  upper  part  of  the  scene  is  the  in- 
scription: 17  ev  tc3  facS  ei'croSos  rrjs  BeoTonov  (Entrance  of  the  Mother 
of  God  into  the  temple).  Above  the  inscription  are  represented  the 
Virgin  and  the  archangel  Gabriel,  who  offers  her  bread.  On  either 
side  of  the  Presentation  are  figures  of  Saint  John  the  Baptist,  with 
wings,  as  in  late  representations  of  the  Deesis,  and  Saint  Nicolas. 
Underneath  stand  four  saints,  namely,  Saint  Theodore,  with  his 
palm  branch  and  spear,  Saint  Dionysius,  Saint  Spiridion,  and 
Saint  Charalampus. 

This  picture  was  bought  in  Athens  in  1914.    It  is  crude  in  execu 
tion,  and  probably  was  painted  not  earlier  than  the  xvi  or  xvn 
century. 

H    PRESENTATION  OF  THE  VIRGIN 

H.  17H  in.    W.  13a  in.     (45.2  X  34.9  cm.) 

This  is  a  typical  representation  of  the  subject  with  the  Presenta- 
tion below,  and  Mary  and  the  angel  Gabriel  above. 

The  panel  was  bought  in  Switzerland  in  1914.  It  is  a  crude,  late 
piece,  probably  executed  not  earlier  than  the  xvm  century. 

I     RAISING  OF  LAZARUS 

H.  20ft  in.    W.  13^  in.    (52.5  X  34.9  cm.) 

The  scene  is  represented  in  the  traditional  manner.  Christ  in  a 
blue  and  gold  mantle  with  a  red  tunic  moves  from  the  left,  followed  by 
a  crowd  of  people.  In  His  hand  is  a  scroll  on  which  is  an  inscription 
which  includes  the  word  Lazarus.  On  the  right  Lazarus  stands  up  in 
his  tomb.  One  attendant,  as  in  the  later  representations,  is  begin- 
ning to  unwind  the  wrappings.  At  Christ's  feet  kneel  the  Magdalene 
in  a  red  mantle,  and  Martha.  On  the  left,  in  a  dark  cleft  in  the  rocks, 
appears  a  shadowy  figure  representing  Hades.    This  is  the  only  one 


BYZANTINE  SCHOOL  17 

of  the  Byzantine  panels  in  which  the  blue  sky  is  represented  instead 
of  a  gold  background.  The  picture,  originally  crude,  has  suffered 
from  darkening  and  repainting.  Near  the  top  of  the  panel  is  the 
inscription:  17  iytp<r{i)i$  tov  Aa{apov  (Raising  of  Lazarus). 

The  panel  was  bought  in  Switzerland  in  1914.  The  date  of  the 
picture  is  probably  not  earlier  than  the  xvm  century. 

SCENES  FROM  THE  LIFE  OF  CHRIST  AND  THE  LIFE 
OF  THE  MADONNA 

Lent  by  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston. 
H.  13!  in.    W.  12^-  in.     (34.6  X  30.5  cm.) 

This  panel  contains  numerous  small  scenes  including  the  Last 
Judgment,  scenes  from  the  life  of  Christ  and  the  life  of  the  Madonna, 
and  representations  of  the  Four  Evangelists. 

The  workmanship  of  the  panel  is  delicate.  It  was  probably  not 
painted  earlier  than  the  xvi  century,  and  perhaps  much  later. 


ITALIAN   PAINTING 


ITALIAN  PAINTING  — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Study  and  criticism  of  Italian  art.   London,  1902-1916.    3  ser. 
Brown,  A.  V.  V.,  and  Rankin,  W.    Short  history  of  Italian  painting.    New 

York,  1914. 
Burckhardt,  J.   Der  Cicerone.   Zehnte  Auflage.    Bearbeitet  von  W.  Bode  und 
C.  v.  Fabriczy.   Zweiter  Teil;  Mittelalter  und  Neuere  Zeit;  iii,  Malerei. 
Leipsic,  1910. 
Conway,  W.  M.    Early  Tuscan  art  from  the  xii  to  the  xv  centuries.  London, 

1902. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    A  new  history  of  painting  in  Italy,  from  the  sec- 
ond to  the  sixteenth  century.    London,  1864-1866.    3  v. 
Storia  della  pittura  in  Italia  dal  secolo  11  al  secolo  xvi.    Florence,  1886- 

1908.     11  v. 
A  new  history  of  painting  in  Italy,  from  the  11  to  the  xvi  century;  ed.  by 

Edward  Hutton.    New  York,  1908-1909.    3  v. 
A  history  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Langton  Douglas,  assisted  by  S. 
Arthur  Strong.    New  York,  1903-1914.     6  v.  [v.  3,  ed.  by  Langton 
Douglas;  v.  4,  by  Langton  Douglas,  assisted  by  G.  de  Nicola;  v.  5-6, 
by  Tancred  Borenius.] 
A  history  of  painting  in  North  Italy  from  the  xiv  to  the  xvi  century. 

London,  1871.     2  v. 
A  history  of  painting  in  North  Italy  from  the  xiv  to  the  xvi  century;  ed. 
by  Tancred  Borenius.    New  York,  1912.    3  v. 
Milanesi,  G.    Sulla  storia  dell'  arte  toscana.    Siena,  1873. 

Nuovi  documenti  per  la  storia  dell'  arte  toscana.    Florence,  1901. 
Morelli,  G.    Italian  masters  in  German  galleries — Munich,  Dresden,  Ber- 
lin.   Tr.  by  Louise  M.  Richter.    London,  1883. 
Italian  painters;    the  galleries  of  Munich  and  Dresden.    Tr.  by  Con- 
stance Jocelyn  Ffoulkes.    London,  1893. 
Italian  painters;  the  Borghese  and  Doria  Pamfili  galleries  in  Rome.    Tr. 
by  Constance  Jocelyn  Ffoulkes.    London,  1900. 
Pater,  W.    The  Renaissance.    London,  1914. 
Ruskin,  J.    Works;  ed.  by  E.  T.  Cook  and  Alexander  Wedderburn.    Library 

ed.    London,  1903-1912.    39  v. 
Symonds,  J.  A.    Renaissance  in  Italy.    The  fine  arts.    London,  1914. 
Thode,  H.    Franz  von  Assisi  und  die  Anfange  der  Kunst  der  Renaissance  in 

Italien.    Berlin,  1904. 
Venturi,  A.    Storia  dell'  arte  italiana.   v.  i-vii.    Milan,  1901-1914.    7  v.  in  9. 
Wolitlin,  H.    The  art  of  the  Italian  Renaissance.    New  York,  1913. 

Charts 

Winchester  charts,  by  M.  J.  Rendall.    London,  1908. 

Painters  of  Florence,  Umbria,  Siena,  and  the  Vincian  school  of  Milan. 
Painters  of  North  Italy. 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

ITALIAN  PAINTING,  in  its  beginnings  in  the  xin  and  xiv  cen- 
turies, though  at  first  hardly  to  be  distinguished  from  a  mere 
renewing  and  perfecting  of  the  best  Byzantine  traditions,  was  one 
phase  of  the  Gothic  art  of  western  Europe,  often  indeed  in  close 
touch  with  that  of  France  and  of  other  countries  beyond  the  Alps. 
Its  further  development  in  the  xv  century  was  likewise  largely  a 
carrying  on  of  the  naturalistic  traditions  of  later  Gothic  painting,  but 
to  this  was  added  the  stimulus  of  direct  contact  with  ancient  art  and 
culture,  which  gave  a  special  character  to  this  later  period  known  as 
the  Renaissance. 

To  the  vitality  and  energy  of  Gothic  and  Renaissance  culture  is 
due  the  feeling  for  plastic  form,  for  individualization  of  character, 
and  for  reality  of  action,  which  distinguish  early  Italian  painting 
from  the  stilted  conventionalism  of  the  prevailing  Byzantine  style. 
Nevertheless  in  technique  and  design,  as  well  as  in  general  methods 
of  representation  and  in  iconography,  Italian  painting  was  based  on 
the  traditions  of  Byzantine  art.  Moreover,  the  primary  aim  of  most 
Italian  painting  was,  like  Byzantine,  to  serve  as  decoration  of  wall 
or  panel  surface,  subordinate  to  the  architectural  intent  of  building 
or  furniture  design.  Fresco  was  used  for  the  decoration  of  the  walls 
and  ceilings  of  chapels,  churches,  and  palaces;  tempera,  and  later  oil 
handled  in  much  the  same  manner  as  tempera,  for  the  decoration  of 
the  panels  of  furniture,  either  that  in  churches,  like  altarpieces, 
tabernacles  or  cupboards,  or  that  in  houses,  like  the  marriage  chests 
(cassoni).  A  more  independently  pictorial  style,  as  opposed  to  this 
decorative  style,  was  not  introduced  until  the  latter  part  of  the  xv 
century,  and  then  largely  under  the  influence  of  realistic  Flemish 
painting. 

A  very  large  part  of  the  painting  that  has  been  preserved  is  reli- 
gious; but  by  no  means  all,  even  in  Gothic  times,  was  so.  Secular 
subjects,  in  the  Renaissance  mainly  classical  in  character,  were  com- 
monly treated  in  the  frescoes  and  panels  in  palaces  and  houses.    An 


26 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


Pielro 

Cavallini 

late  xiii  c. 

Duccio  di 

Buoninsegna 

ab.  IZS5-I3I9 

Simone 

Martini 

ab.  1283-1344 


Cimabue,  ab. 
1240-ab.  1301 


Giotto 
1276-1336 


example  of  this  is  the  panel  of  the  Judgment  of  Paris,  No.  13  in  this 
Catalogue.  Even  in  the  paintings  of  religious  subjects,  the  natural- 
istic side,  often  the  chief  interest  of  the  painters  themselves,  was 
entirely  non-religious  in  its  appeal. 

The  first  great  personalities  and  the  first  distinct  schools  in  Italian 
painting  emerge  in  the  latter  part  of  the  xm  century;  Cavallini  in 
Rome,  where  realistic  tendencies  of  classical  Roman  art  seem  to  have 
survived  somewhat  distinct  from  the  otherwise  dominating  Byzan- 
tine style;  Duccio,  followed  by  Simone  Martini,  in  Siena;  Cimabue 
and  Giotto  in  Florence.  With  the  removal  of  the  papacy  to  Avignon 
in  1309,  the  Roman  school  quickly  declined  in  importance,  and  in  the 
xrv  century  Florence  and  Siena  were  the  leading  schools.  Of  these,, 
Siena,  as  the  more  distinctly  Gothic  school,  was  especially  important 
for  the  influence  it  exerted  on  other  Italian  painting,  including  that  of 
Florence.  On  account  of  its  influence  on  French  painting,  partly 
through  Simone  Martini's  sojourn  in  Avignon,  it  also  played  an  im- 
portant part  in  the  development  of  the  so-called  International  style, 
a  naturalistic  and  courtly  phase  of  later  Gothic  painting  of  the  close 
of  the  xrv  and  the  beginning  of  the  xv  century,  in  which  there  was 
comparatively  little  distinction  between  the  art  of  Italy  and  of  the 
north.  In  the  xv  century,  on  the  other  hand,  Florence  took  the  lead 
among  all  the  cities  of  Italy  in  painting,  as  in  the  other  arts  and  in 
politics  and  learning,  for  in  all  the  earlier  Renaissance  Florence  was 
the  recognized  centre  of  culture. 

The  art  of  Cimabue,  the  first  individually  significant  Florentine 
painter,  may,  as  far  as  can  be  judged  from  the  few  scanty,  ruined,  and 
disputed  remains,  which  show  strong  Roman  influence,  be  described 
as  transitional  between  Byzantine  and  Gothic.  Cimabue's  pupil 
Giotto  must  therefore  be  regarded  as  the  first  great  Gothic  artist  of 
Florence,  sculptor  and  architect  as  well  as  painter,  distinguished 
among  all  his  contemporaries  for  his  convincing  expression  of  solid 
form,  his  power  as  a  dramatic  painter,  his  originality  of  observation 
and  invention  in  trying  to  make  his  people  act  like  real  human  beings 
as  he  himself  saw  them  in  the  city  about  him  —  far  less  lovely  than 
Duccio,  who  clung  closer  to  his  Byzantine  models,  but  more  deeply 
significant.  As  Dante  wrote  in  the  "  vulgar  "  tongue,  so  did  Giotto, 
more  than  his  predecessors,  express  himself  in  every  day  "  vulgar  " 
idiom.    It  is  altogether  probable  that  he  was  directly  inspired  in  this 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


27 


by  the  acting  in  the  religious  plays  of  the  day,  for  in  the  general  ar- 
rangement of  the  compositions  the  plays  had  undoubted  influence  on 
the  painting  and  sculpture  of  the  time.  Giotto  was  one  of  the  great 
individual  geniuses,  so  noteworthy  in  Italian  art,  who  seem  each  to 
have  been  a  culmination  of  some  particular  phase  of  thought  and 
expression.  Although  he  had  many  direct  pupils  and  assistants,  and 
numerous  imitators,  who  produced  "  Giottesque  "  art  in  many  parts 
of  Italy,  there  seems  to  have  been  no  great  individual  artist  among 
them.  While  emphasis  on  plastic  form  is  still  found  in  many  works, 
the  more  obvious  emotional  quality  and  the  entertaining  naturalism 
which  are  found  in  Sienese  art  —  which  are  indeed  common  to  all 
Gothic  art  of  the  later  xrv  century  —  seem  to  have  appealed  to  other 
Florentine  artists  more  than  the  stern  majesty  and  the  severe  reality 
of  Giotto.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  one  of  the  principal  changes  in  the 
Florentine  style  in  the  xrv  century  was  that  toward  greater  natural- 
ism in  the  relation  of  the  figures  to  architectural  and  landscape 
setting,  a  change  to  be  noted  in  all  Gothic  art  of  the  time. 

Taddeo  Gaddi  has  always  enjoyed  the  reputation  of  being  the 
principal  direct  follower  of  Giotto,  but  modern  criticism  is  engaged  in 
determining  other  personalities  among  his  many  assistants  and 
pupils.  Some  of  them  may  have  come  closer  to  Giotto  than  Taddeo, 
but  their  names  will  in  most  cases  probably  never  be  known.  Ber- 
nardo Daddi  and  Andrea  di  Cione,  known  as  Orcagna,  possibly 
Daddi's  pupil,  show  Florentine  art  of  the  xrv  century,  after  Giotto, 
at  its  best.  They  were  more  akin  to  the  Sienese  in  spirit,  but  Or- 
cagna, also  a  sculptor,  was  distinctly  sculpturesque  in  the  expression 
of  plastic  form  in  painting.  His  brothers,  Nardo  and  Jacopo  di 
Cione,  were  still  more  inclined  toward  Sienese  Gothic,  while  Agnolo 
Gaddi,  Giovanni  da  Milano,  and  Andrea  da  Firenze  came  directly 
under  Sienese  influence.  Spinello  Aretino,  showing  similar  influences, 
was  a  typical  unprogressive  Gothic  painter  of  the  close  of  the  century, 
preserving  something  of  the  monumental  dignity  of  Giottesque  art 
and  much  of  its  beauty  of  workmanship  and  design,  but  little  of  its 
significance. 

Just  at  the  close  of  the  xrv  century  and  in  the  beginning  of  the  xv 
century  there  was  a  final  "  burst  "  of  the  late  Gothic  style  in  the 
work  of  Lorenzo  Monaco,  of  Fra  Angelico,  probably  Lorenzo's  pupil, 
and  of  Masolino.    Lorenzo's  painting,  in  its  use  of  flowing  line,  is 


Taddeo  Gaddi 

ab.  1300-1366 

Bernardo 

Daddi 

ab.  1280-1348 

Orcagna 

1308W-1368 

Nardo  di 

Cione,  active 

1343-1365 
Jacopo  di 
Cione,  active 
1360-1394 
Agnolo  Gaddi 

ab.  I333-I396 

Giovanni  da 

Milano,  active 

ab.  136s 

Andrea  da 

Firenze 

xiv  c,  2d  half 

Spinello 

Aretino 

i333^)-i4io 

Lorenzo 

Monaco 

ab.  1370-1425 


28 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


Fra  Angelica 
1387-1455 


Masolino 
1384-after 

H35 

Masaccio 
1401-1428 


Domenico 

Ghirlandaio 
1449-1494 

Benozzo 
Gozzoli 
1420-1497 


strongly  suggestive  of  xiv  century  French  Gothic.  Fra  Angelico,  in 
his  architecture  and  costumes,  often  witnesses  the  presence  of  the 
Renaissance  about  him  —  in  fact  he  is  more  often  spoken  of  as  a 
Renaissance  master  —  but  his  style  is  distinctly  Gothic,  showing  in 
many  works  the  gaiety,  grace,  and  charm  of  the  International  style. 
The  works  of  both  of  these  men  are  notable  for  their  pure,  bright 
colour,  especially  attractive  in  their  paintings  on  a  small  scale.  Maso- 
lino's  naive  and  debonair  manner  is  still  more  typically  International. 

With  Masolino's  pupil,  Masaccio,  on  the  other  hand,  we  come  to 
an  entirely  new  epoch,  in  which  art,  under  the  guidance  of  direct 
students  of  the  antique,  like  the  sculptors  Brunelleschi  and  Dona- 
tello,  became  more  conscious  —  more  knowing  in  its  rendering  of 
nature,  more  measured  and  accomplished  in  its  search  for  beauty. 
It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  in  this  new  epoch,  known  as  the 
Renaissance,  even  more  than  in  the  earlier  period,  the  character  of 
Florentine,  indeed  of  all  Italian  art  was  determined  by  the  individual 
genius  of  the  few  great  artists,  while  at  the  same  time  each  of  them 
had  numerous  pupils  and  assistants  who  formed  his  school.  Masac- 
cio was  the  first  of  these  outstanding  geniuses  of  the  xv  century,  and 
in  his  frescoes  in  the  Brancacci  Chapel  in  the  Carmine  in  Florence  he 
set  the  standard  for  wall  painting  in  the  Renaissance.  In  place  of  the 
scattered  compositions  of  most  of  the  historical  works  of  the  xrv 
century,  he  substituted  a  monumental  style  of  composition,  with  the 
figures  arranged  definitely  in  three  dimensions  and  relieved  against  a 
truly  spacious  landscape  background.  He  also  exhibited  great 
power  in  the  expression  of  solidity  and  weight  in  his  figures,  and 
showed  fine  dramatic  feeling.  Other  Florentine  fresco  painters  of  the 
xv  century  followed  in  his  footsteps  in  the  matter  of  monumental 
composition,  while  they  laid  greater  and  greater  emphasis  on  na- 
turalism in  the  handling  of  details  of  costume,  in  the  treatment  of 
architecture  and  landscape,  and  in  the  introduction  of  portraits  of 
contemporary  Florentines  as  attendant  choruses,  which  finally,  as 
in  many  of  Ghirlandaio's  frescoes,  completely  swamp  the  figure 
action  of  the  subject  itself. 

Although  a  more  distinctly  Gothic  tradition  survived  well  on  into 
the  xv  century  in  the  work  of  Fra  Angelico  and  his  pupil  Benozzo, 
and  in  that  of  many  of  the  minor  workshops,  naturalism,  intense  and 
severe  in  some  instances,  gentle  and  appealing  in  others,  was  the 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


29 


keynote  of  the  more  significant  and  typical  Florentine  painting  of  the 
xv  and  xvi  centuries.  The  painters  of  the  xv  century  are  conven- 
iently classified  into  two  groups  according  to  their  tendencies  in  this 
respect:  one  a  group  of  "  intellectuals  "  or  "  scientists,"  including 
Uccello,  Castagno,  Domenico  Veneziano,  Antonio  and  Piero  Pol- 
laiuolo,  Baldovinetti,  Verrocchio;  the  other  including  more  popular 
painters,  who  appealed  more  to  the  average  less  scholarly  taste. 
Filippo  Lippi,  with  his  follower  Pesellino,  is  the  chief  representative 
of  the  latter  group,  to  which  also  belong  the  host  of  painters  in  the 
large  workshops  like  that  of  Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  which  turned 
out  such  a  quantity  of  small  Madonnas  more  or  less  in  the  win- 
some Filippo  style.  The  scientists  gave  especial  attention  to  the 
study  of  various  branches  of  the  science  of  painting  —  anatomy, 
perspective,  foreshortening  —  and  to  experimenting  with  new  tech- 
nical methods  and  media.  Many  of  them  were  uncompromising 
realists,  who,  to  avoid  the  commonplace,  showed  a  conscious  prefer- 
ence for  a  quaint  ungainliness  of  action  or  ugliness  of  countenance. 
This  may  be  seen  in  the  engraving  of  the  Battle  of  the  Nudes  by 
Antonio  Pollaiuolo,  an  impression  of  which  is  in  the  Fogg  Museum, 
and  in  the  Portrait  by  the  same  artist  at  Fenway  Court.  The  signif- 
icance of  these  masters,  however,  does  not  depend  merely,  or  even 
principally,  on  their  contributions  to  science,  for  they  inherited  the 
older  traditions  of  workmanship  and  design,  and  they  often  achieved 
the  greatest  beauty  of  colour  and  composition  as  well  as  an  amazing 
amount  of  vitality  and  life. 

Botticelli,  although  in  training  he  belonged  to  the  more  popular 
school,  for  he  was  pupil  of  Filippo  Lippi  and  master  of  Filippino 
Lippi  and  other  "  sentimentalists,"  may  nevertheless  more  properly 
be  included  among  the  intellectuals  and  scholars.  Some  of  his 
earlier  work  was  in  distinctly  naturalistic  vein,  revealing  Pollaiuolo's 
influence,  but  he  soon  developed  a  less  realistic,  more  poetical  style, 
which  is  shown  in  his  treatment  of  both  classical  and  religious  sub- 
jects. In  his  mode  of  expression  he  was  more  abstract  than  most  of 
his  contemporaries,  especially  in  his  use  of  line.  In  general  concep- 
tion all  his  earlier  work  was  strongly  influenced  by  Neoplatonism. 
Later  on  he  came  under  Savonarola's  spell,  he  abandoned  classical 
subjects,  and  in  the  few  paintings  dating  from  the  last  years  of  his 
life  revealed  the  strong  influence  of  the  Dominican  friar's  teachings. 


Paolo  Uccello 

1397-1475 

Andrea  del 

Castagno 

d.  1457 

Domenico 

Veneziano 

ah.  1400-1461 

Antonio 

Pollaiuolo 

1420-1498 

Piero 

Pollaiuolo 

I443-I496 

Alesso 

Baldovinetti 

1423-1499 

Andrea  del 

Verrocchio 

1435-1488 

Filippo  Lippi 

1406/0-146$ 

Francesco 

Pesellino 

1422-1457 

Pier 

Francesco 

Fiorentino 

active 

1474-1497 


Botticelli 
1444-1510 


3° 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


Pier o  di 

Cosimo 

1462-1521 


Fra 
Bartolommeo 

I475-I5I7 
Andrea  del 
Sarto 
1486-1531 


Leonardo  da 

Vinci 

1452-1519 


Michelangelo 
1475-1564 


In  place  of  the  sculpturesque  conception,  with  its  diffused  light- 
ing, which  prevailed  in  most  of  the  Florentine  painting  in  the  xv 
century,  a  more  distinctly  pictorial  effect,  with  more  naturalistic 
lighting,  was  introduced  by  Piero  di  Cosimo  and  Leonardo  da  Vinci. 
The  influence  of  Flemish  painting  in  this  is  clear,  especially  in  the 
work  of  Piero  di  Cosimo,  who  was  very  directly  inspired  by  the  light- 
ing scheme,  as  well  as  by  the  realistic  types,  employed  by  van  der 
Goes  in  his  altarpiece  painted  for  Santa  Maria  Nuova  about  the 
year  1476.  That  the  Florentine  painters  always  naturally  ap- 
proached painting  from  the  sculptor's  point  of  view,  however,  is 
shown  in  the  strong  contrasts  of  light  and  shadow  developed  by 
Leonardo  and  by  Piero's  followers,  like  Fra  Bartolommeo  and 
Andrea  del  Sarto,  with  the  idea,  first  of  all,  of  expressing  more 
striking  relief  in  the  modelling  of  individual  figures. 

In  the  later  Renaissance,  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and  Michelangelo 
were  the  leading  masters.  To  a  considerable  extent  their  work  may 
be  regarded  as  the  culmination  in  the  development  of  Florentine  art, 
summing  up  its  principal  tendencies.  Leonardo,  who  was  one  of 
the  first  thinkers  on  many  modern  scientific  problems,  was  the  final 
representative  of  the  naturalistic  side  of  Florentine  art,  although  it 
was  in  his  drawings  rather  than  in  his  paintings  that  he  showed 
most  clearly  his  kinship  with  the  earlier  scientists.  In  attempting 
to  achieve  refinement  of  expression,  distinctness  of  individualization, 
and  perfection  of  design,  he  lost  in  directness  and  spontaneity.  Per- 
haps, if  the  time  had  been  ripe,  he  would  have  been  greatest  as  a 
landscape  painter,  for  his  heart  seems  most  clearly  revealed  in  his 
studies  of  rock,  plant  and  tree  forms,  and  in  his  drawings  of  extended 
mountain  landscapes,  and  possibly  it  is  the  handling  of  light  effect 
and  of  space  which  contributes  most  to  make  pictures  like  the  Last 
Supper  and  the  Virgin  of  the  Rocks  enduring  works  of  art,  ranking 
among  the  most  typical,  if  not  the  greatest,  expressions  of  Florentine 
genius. 

Michelangelo  was  the  more  genuinely  imaginative  artist  with 
spontaneous  vision.  As  opposed  to  the  pictorial  style  of  Leonardo, 
he  clung  more  to  the  monumental  traditions  of  fresco  painting,  and, 
although  in  some  ways  not  so  successfully  as  some  of  the  earlier 
painters,  he  made  decoration  of  wall  or  vault  surface  the  controlling 
aim  of  his  composition.    Like  the  greatest  of  the  earlier  painters,  his 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


31 


"  science  "  was  rather  a  means  toward  the  end  of  expression  than  a 
final  interest  in  itself.  In  his  prophets  and  sibyls  and  nude  athletes 
on  the  Sistine  ceiling  he  summed  up  in  quite  overwhelming  fashion 
the  artistic  ideals  of  the  Florentine  figure  painters  in  making  the 
action  of  the  figure  expressive  of  the  various  moods  or  movements  of 
the  spirit,  much  as  this  is  accomplished  in  musical  composition  by 
variations  in  rhythmical  character. 

Michelangelo  was  the  last  of  the  great  painters  of  Florence  —  the 
last  of  the  long  line  of  Florentine  men  of  genius.  His  followers  re- 
produced the  muscles  and  contortions  but  little  of  the  spirit  of  his 
figures.  Leonardo  also  had  no  direct  pupil  of  importance,  but  his 
influence  is  shown  to  a  greater  or  less  degree  in  the  works  of  almost 
all  the  Florentine  painters  of  the  later  Renaissance.  Among  the 
more  important  of  these  were  Andrea  del  Sarto,  Fra  Bartolommeo, 
and  Albertinelli,  pupils  of  Piero  di  Cosimo;  Bacchiacca,  Franciabigio, 
and  Pontormo,  pupils  of  Andrea  del  Sarto;  and  the  minor  eclectic 
painters,  Granacci,  Raffaellino  del  Garbo,  and  Raffaelle  dei  Carli. 
Bronzino  continued  something  of  the  older  traditions  through  the 
third  quarter  of  the  xvi  century. 

The  importance  of  the  Florentine  school  is,  however,  not  to  be 
measured  solely  by  the  works  produced  by  the  masters  of  Florence 
itself.  Its  influence  on  the  other  schools  of  Italy  was  of  supreme 
moment  in  the  development  of  all  Italian  painting  of  the  xv  century. 
In  Umbria,  for  example,  Piero  dei  Franceschi,  one  of  the  greatest  xv 
century  masters  of  Italy,  was  the  pupil  of  the  Florentine  scientist 
Domenico  Veneziano,  and  Piero's  pupil,  Signorelli,  was  also  directly 
influenced  by  the  Florentine  naturalists.  So  to  Fiorenzo,  Perugino, 
Pintoricchio,  and  a  little  later,  Raphael,  Florence  was  the  fountain 
head  of  inspiration.  In  a  similar  way  Renaissance  painting  in  north- 
ern Italy  depended  in  its  beginnings  on  that  of  Florence.  Donatello's 
visit  to  Padua  from  1443  to  1452,  when  he  executed  the  equestrian 
statue  of  Gattamelata  and  the  altar  in  the  church  of  San  Antonio, 
was  of  the  greatest  significance  in  conveying  the  influence  of  the 
Florentine  intellectuals  to  that  city,  which  was  also  visited  by  Paolo 
Uccello  and  Filippo  Lippi.  In  the  third  quarter  of  the  xv  century 
Padua  became  the  artistic  centre  for  the  north,  and  under  Squar- 
cione  and  Mantegna  dominated  the  art  of  all  the  northern  cities,  like 
Ferrara,  Milan,  Cremona,  and  even  Venice.    Later  on  in  the  xv  cen- 


Albertinelli 

1474-1515 

Bacchiacca 

ah.  1494-1557 

Franciabigio 

1482-1525 

Pontormo 

1494-1556 

Granacci 

1477-1543 

Raffaellino  del 

Garbo 

1466-1524(9) 

Raffaelle  dei 

Carli  1470- 

after  1526 

Bronzino 

1 502  (,?)-! 572 


32  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

tury  the  direct  influence  of  Florence  was  extended  to  Milan  in  the 
person  of  Leonardo,  who  took  up  his  abode  there  in  1482.  Practically 
all  the  Milanese  painters  succumbed  to  his  more  or  less  happy  in- 
fluence; some  became  his  direct  assistants  and  imitators.  Florence 
was  indeed  the  mistress  of  Renaissance  painting  in  Italy. 

Arthur  Pope. 

The  Florentine  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum  will  be  found  under  Nos. 
1-16  in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch  the  following  are  rep- 
resented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John 
L.  Gardner  at  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Fea  Angelico,  Madonna  and  Saints. 

Fenway  Court:  Giotto,  Presentation  in  the  Temple;  Daddi,  Madonna  and 
Child;  Agnolo  Gaddi,  Annunciation;  Fra  Angelico,  Death  and  Assumption 
of  the  Virgin;  Attributed  to  Masaccio,  Portrait  of  a  Man;  Pesellino,  Labour 
and  Time,  Love  and  Death;  Antonio  Pollaiuolo,  Portrait;  Domenico  Ven- 
eziano,  Portrait;  Botticelli,  Madonna  and  Child,  Death  of  Lucretia; 
Bacchiacca,  Portrait;  Bronzino,  Portrait. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.    2  v. 

Florentine  painters  of  the  Renaissance,  3d  ed.    New  York,  1909. 
Conway,  W.  M.    Early  Tuscan  art  from  the  xn  to  the  xv  centuries.    Lon- 
don, 1902. 
Siren,  0.    Giottino.    Leipsic,  1908. 

Giotto  and  some  of  his  followers.    English  trans,  by  Frederic  Schenck. 
Cambridge,  1917.     2  v.    [Text  and  plates.] 
Sutda,  W.    Florentinische  Maler  um  die  Mitte  des  xrv.  Jahrhunderts.    Stras- 
bourg, 1905.    (Zur  Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  32.) 


BERNARDO  DADDI  (?) 

About  1280  to  1348 

Bernardo  Daddi  was  an  early  Giottesque  painter  who  has  only 
within  the  past  ten  years  received  the  attention  which  his  work 
merits.  He  has  been  identified  with  the  master  who  signed  himself 
Bernardus  de  Florentia,  by  whom  there  are  three  signed  and  dated 
pictures:  an  altarpiece  of  1328  painted  for  the  church  of  Ognis- 
santi,  Florence,  and  now  in  the  Uffizi;  a  Madonna  in  the  Florence 
Academy,  the  date  of  which  is  partly  damaged,  but  which  was 
probably  1333  or  1334,  and  a  polyptych  now  in  the  collection  of  Sir 
Hubert  Parry,  Highnam  Court,  Gloucester,  dating  from  1348.  Ber- 
nardo was  the  son  of  one  Daddo  di  Simone,  and  was  born  late  in  the 
xni  century,  probably  some  time  after  1280.  He  matriculated  in  the 
Arte  de'  Medici  e  Speziali  about  13 17.  About  1330  he  painted  the 
fresco  over  the  San  Giorgio  gate,  Florence,  and  the  frescoes  of  the 
Martyrdom  of  Saint  Stephen  and  of  Saint  Lawrence  in  Santa  Croce. 
In  1335  he  acquired  the  third  share  of  a  house  on  the  Via  Larga.  Ac- 
cording to  Vasari  he  was  a  pupil  of  Spinello  Aretino  and  "  labouring 
constantly  in  his  native  city  adorned  it  with  very  beautiful  works  in 
painting.  .  .  This  master  ultimately  died  laden  with  years  ...  in  the 
year  1380."  Daddi  could  not  have  been  the  pupil  of  Spinello  as  he 
was  at  least  thirty  years  older  than  the  Aretine  painter,  and  he  died 
before  August  18,  1348;  records  show  that  on  that  date  a  guardian 
was  appointed  for  his  two  minor  sons. 

Although  Daddi  was  born  a  Florentine  and  shows  Florentine 
traits,  the  influence  of  Sienese  masters,  particularly  of  Ambrogio 
Lorenzetti,  predominates  in  his  work.  He  was  the  first  of  the  Giot- 
teschi  to  combine  with  the  naturalism  of  the  Florentines  the  Sienese 
religious  feeling  and  decorative  sense.  Through  Daddi's  pupil, 
Allegretto  Nuzi,  Sienese  influence  was  carried  into  Umbria.  Daddi 
painted  large  altarpieces  and  frescoes,  but  perhaps  his  most  char- 
acteristic works  are  on  a  small  scale.  To  this  class  of  paintings  belong 
a  number  of  portable  altarpieces;  the  Fogg  Museum  triptych  is  one 
of  this  group. 

Dr.  Suida  sees  the  work  of  two  other  artists  in  the  paintings  usually 
thought  to  be  by  Daddi.  One  of  these  painters  he  calls  the  Master  of 
the  Bigallo  triptych,  after  the  altarpiece  in  the  Bigallo  collection 


34 


FLORENTINE  PAINTING 


painted  in  1333.  The  other  painter  he  calls  the  Master  of  the  Cruci- 
fixions. Among  the  paintings  which  he  attributes  to  this  master  are 
the  Siena  Academy  triptych  of  1336  and  a  large  Crucifix  in  the  Uffizi. 
As  is  often  the  case,  at  times  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  between  the 
work  of  the  master  and  the  best  work  of  his  assistants.1 

Other  paintings  attributed  to  Daddi  in  this  country  are  in  the 
Jarves  collection  of  Yale  University;  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collec- 
tion, Philadelphia;  in  the  collections  of  Mrs.  John  L.  Gardner,  Fen- 
way Court,  Boston;  Henry  Walters,  Baltimore;  Dan  Fellows  Piatt, 
Englewood,  N.  J.;  Grenville  L.  Winthrop,  Miss  Belle  da  Costa 
Greene,  New  York;  the  New  York  Historical  Society;  and  in  the 
George  and  Florence  Blumenthal  collection,  New  York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Frizzoni,  G.  La  Galleria  comunale  di  Prato.  Rassegna  d'arte.  July,  1912. 
xii  (7),  112-113. 

Fry,  R.  E.  Pictures  in  the  collection  of  Sir  Hubert  Parry,  at  Highnam  Court, 
near  Gloucester;  i,  Italian  pictures  of  the  fourteenth  century.  Bur- 
lington magazine.    London,  July,  1903.  ii  (5),  125-126. 

Gamba,  C.  Corrieri  artistici;  Firenze.  Rassegna  d'arte.  July,  1904.  iv  (7),  109. 

Loeser,  C.  L'art  italien  au  Musee  des  arts  decoratifs.  Gazette  des  beaux-arts. 
Paris,  Nov.,  1908.    3"  per.,  xl  (617),  407-408. 

Perkins,  F.  M.    Un  dipinto  inedito  di  Bernardo  Daddi.    Rassegna  d'arte. 
Milan,  Nov.,  1913.  xiii  (n),  189. 
Note  su  alcuni  quadri  del  "  Museo  cristiano  "  nel  Vaticano.    Rassegna 
d'arte.     Milan,  July,  1906.  vi  (7),  107-108. 

Schmarsow,  A.  Maltres  italiens  a.  la  galerie  d'Altenburg  et  dans  la  collection 
A.  de  Montor.  Gazette  des  beaux-arts.  Paris,  Dec,  1898.  30  per.,  xx 
(498),  496-500. 

Schubring,  P.  Giottino.  Jahrb.  d.  kon.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.  Berlin,  1900. 
xxi  (3),  163-164. 

Siren,  0.     Alcune  opere  sconosciute  di  Bernardo  Daddi.    L'Arte.  Rome, 
July-Aug.,  1905.  viii  (4),  280-281. 
Dipinti  del  trecento  in  alcuni  musei  tedeschi  di  provincia.    Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  June,  1906.  vi  (6)  83. 
Giotto  and  some  of  his  followers.    Cambridge,  1917.   i,  157-188,  270-272; 

ii,  PI.  138-168. 
Trecento  pictures  in  American  collections.    Burlington  magazine.    Lon- 
don, Dec,  1908.  xiv  (69),  188-193. 

Soulier,  G.  Une  peinture  de  l'eglise  San  Biagio  au  Musee  de  Saint-Marc  a 
Florence.  Revue  del' art  ancienetmoderne.  Paris,  Feb.,  191 2.  xxxi(i79), 
109-116. 

1  See  also  M.  E.  Gilman.    Art  in  America.    Aug.,  1018. 


BERNARDO  DADDI  (?)  35 

Suida,  W.    Einige  Florentinische  Maler  aus  der  Zeit  des  Ubergangs  vom 
Duecento  ins  Trecento;  ii,  Der  Cacilienaltar  der  Uffizien.  Jakrb.  d.  h'dn. 
preuss.  Kunstsamml.    Berlin,  1905.  xxvi  (2),  103-104. 
Studien  zur  Trecentomalerei;    i,  Bemerkungen  iiber  Bernardo  Daddi. 

Repert.  f.  Kunstw.    Berlin,  1904.  xxvii  (5),  385-389. 
Studien  zur  Trecentomalerei;  iii,  Nachtrag  zu  Bernardo  Daddi.    iv,  Der 
Meister  des  Bigallo-Triptychons  von  1333.     v,  Der  Meister  der  Kreu- 
zigungen.    Repert.f.  Kunstw.    Berlin,  1906.  xxix  (2),  108-117. 
Venture,  A.     Un  quadro  di  Bernardo  Daddi  nella  pinacoteca  di  Napoli. 

L'Arte.    Rome,  March-April,  1906.  ix  (2),  150. 
Vitzthum,  G.     In  Thieme-Becker.     Kiinstler-Lexikon.    Leipsic,  1913.    viii, 
2S3-2S4- 
Bernardo  Daddi.    Inaugural  dissertation.    Leipsic,  1903. 

THE  CRUCIFIXION,  SAINTS,  CHRIST  IN  THE  GARDEN 
OFGETHSEMANE  (TRIPTYCH) 

Tempera  on  panel.  Central  panel,  H.  17!  in.  W.  10  in.   (45.5  X  25.5  cm.) 
Left  wing,  H.  17!  in.    W.  5!  in.     (45.1  X  13  cm.) 
Right  wing,  H.  17!  in.  W.  4!  in.     (45.1  X  12.5  cm.) 

Central  panel:    The  Crucifixion 

The  colours  are  clean  and  harmonious.  The  Magdalene  kneeling 
at  the  foot  of  the  cross  wears  a  vermilion  mantle;  the  Madonna  is 
dressed  in  dark  blue.  The  hood  of  her  mantle  is  lined  with  red. 
Saint  John  wears  a  blue  robe  and  rose  coloured  mantle;  the  angels 
have  neutral  violet  robes  and  wings.  The  cross  is  yellow  brown;  on 
the  tablet  at  the  head  of  the  upright  is  a  blurred  inscription  in  gold 
letters  on  a  red  field  which  seems  to  read :  Hie  est  Jesu  Nazarenu  Rex 
Judeorum.  Above  the  tablet  is  the  pelican  with  her  young  birds  in 
a  nest.  The  skull  at  the  foot  of  the  cross  is  yellow  brown  with  blood 
flowing  from  it.  The  drapery  of  Christ  is  transparent  with  bands  of 
golden  embroidery  and  a  thin  line  of  gold  around  the  edge.  Blood 
flows  from  His  wound.  Throughout  the  central  panel  and  the  wings 
the  figures  have  yellow  hair,  except  Saint  Peter  and  Saint  Anthony 
the  Abbot,  who  have  gray  hair  and  beards. 
Left  wing:     Christ  in  the  Garden  of  Gethsemane 

The  figure  of  Christ  is  clad  in  a  rose  coloured  robe  and  a  blue  green 
mantle  fined  with  brown.  There  are  three  different  kinds  of  dark 
green  foliage.  The  trees  farthest  over  to  the  left  are  evidently  orange 
trees  with  orange  coloured  fruit  and  some  of  the  leaves  are  slightly 
tinged  with  this  colour. 


3  6  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

Saint  Peter  and  Saint  Paul 

Saint  Peter  wears  a  blue  tunic,  a  yellow  mantle  lined  with  red,  and 
a  white  stole  on  which  are  black  crosses.  His  keys  are  gold  and  his 
book  neutral  green  with  a  gold  design.  Saint  Paul  wears  a  yellow 
brown  robe  and  a  rose  coloured  mantle  lined  with  dark  gray;  his 
book  is  light  blue  with  a  gold  design.  Throughout  the  triptych  the 
landscape  and  pavements  are  brownish  green,  except  the  pavement 
on  which  Saint  Catherine  and  Saint  Reparata  are  standing,  which 
is  yellow.    The  background  is  gold,  with  incised  borders. 

Right  wing:  Saint  Catherine  and  Saint  Reparata 

Saint  Catherine  wears  a  robe  of  neutral  orange  red  lined  with  gray 
fur  and  bordered  with  gold.  Her  book  is  red  with  a  gold  design. 
Saint  Reparata  wears  a  warm  violet  red  gown  and  mantle  lined  with 
light  blue  and  gray  bordered  with  gold.    Her  cross  is  red. 

Saint  James  the  Great  and  Saint  Anthony  the  Abbot 

Saint  James  wears  a  pale  neutral  violet  tunic  and  a  green  blue  man- 
tle lined  with  warm  red  violet.  On  his  staff  is  a  red  wallet.  The  white 
roll  which  he  carries  has  the  same  significance  as  the  books  which  the 
other  apostles  hold,  namely  the  word  or  doctrine  which  they  preach. 
The  saint  with  him  is  probably  Saint  Anthony  the  Abbot,  the  founder 
of  the  hermit  communities.  He  wears  a  black  habit  and  carries  a  red 
book  and  brown  palm.  The  palm,  although  usually  a  symbol  of 
martyrdom,  was  occasionally  given  to  saints  who  were  not  martyred 
but  who  were  conspicuous  for  their  victories  over  pain  and  tempta- 
tion. It  is  doubtless  for  his  overcoming  of  temptation  that  Saint 
Anthony  is  here  represented  with  the  palm. 

A  partially  effaced  inscription  on  the  base  of  the  frame  reads: . . . 
cxxxim  Mense  Martii  Espi  (?),  which  indicates  that  the  altarpiece 
was  painted  in  1334. 

The  picture  was  bought  by  Charles  C.  Perkins  in  Italy  some  time 
between  1850  and  i860,  and  was  placed  on  exhibition  in  the  Museum 
in  1917.  In  1918  it  was  bought  for  the  Museum  with  money  given  by 
the  Society  of  Friends  of  the  Fogg  Art  Museum  with  the  help  of  the 
Prichard  fund. 

The  triptych  was  first  attributed  to  Daddi  by  Dr.  Osvald  Siren. 
It  repeats  practically  the  same  design  and  the  same  types  found  in 


I     BERNARDO    DADDI   (?) 


BERNARDO  DADDI  (?)  37 

many  other  of  the  small  triptychs  or  diptychs  which  originated  in 
Daddi's  workshop.  Several  examples  of  the  Crucifixion  show  only 
three  figures  as  sorrowful  spectators  of  the  scene,  and  represent  the 
Magdalene,  or,  in  the  case  of  the  Bigallo  triptych,  Saint  Francis, 
kneeling  at  the  foot  of  the  cross.  The  Fogg  Museum  picture,  however, 
is  the  only  one  in  which  the  Madonna  and  Saint  John  are  represented 
as  seated.  The  individual  figures  of  the  Harvard  altarpiece  appear 
again  in  many  other  panels.  All  four  of  the  male  saints  may  be  recog- 
nized among  the  figures  surrounding  the  central  panel  of  the  Bigallo 
triptych;  Saint  Peter  and  Saint  Paul  of  the  left  wing  are  found  in 
almost  the  same  attitudes  on  the  left  wing  of  the  Meiningen  altar- 
piece,  and  appear  among  the  saints  of  the  signed  Madonna  of  the 
Florence  Academy.  These  two  saints  are  also  represented  on  a  large 
scale  in  the  Madonna,  Saints,  and  Angels  of  San  Giusto  a  Signano. 
Saint  Peter  and  Saint  James  are  introduced  again  in  the  panel  of 
the  Sterbini  collection,  Rome.  The  Fogg  Museum  Crucifixion  is 
neither  so  beautiful  and  luminous  in  colour  nor  so  dramatic  in  feeling 
as  the  Crucifixion  owned  by  Mr.  Piatt,  or  the  representation  of  the 
same  scene  belonging  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Blumenthal.  It  is  perhaps  a 
school  piece,  but  it  is  a  delightful  work  and  is  more  probably  by  the 
master  himself. 

The  pelican,  the  symbol  of  the  redemption  of  the  world  through 
Christ's  sacrifice,  and  the  skull  symbolizing  Golgotha  —  according  to 
one  tradition  it  is  the  skull  of  Adam,  who  was  supposed  to  have  been 
buried  here  —  are  represented  at  the  head  and  foot  of  the  cross. 
These  symbols  are  introduced  into  representations  of  the  Crucifixion 
by  masters  of  various  schools,  but  it  is  somewhat  unusual  to  find 
them  both  in  the  same  picture. 

Under  the  life  of  the  artist  on  page  33,  mention  was  made  of  the 
Arte  de'  Medici  e  Speziali,  the  Guild  of  Doctors  and  Apothecaries.  In 
Italy,  as  in  the  northern  countries  of  Europe,  no  man  was  allowed  to 
exercise  a  trade  in  a  town  unless  he  belonged  to  the  guild  of  that 
trade.  An  interesting  account  of  the  guilds  will  be  found  in  Edg- 
cumbe  Staley's  Guilds  of  Florence.  About  1297  the  painters  of 
Florence,  as  they  were  "  beholden  for  their  supplies  of  pigments  to  the 
apothecaries  and  their  agents  in  foreign  lands,"  placed  themselves 
under  the  banner  of  the  Guild  of  Doctors  and  Apothecaries  —  L'Arte 


38  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

de'  Medici  e  Speziali  —  one  of  the  Greater  Guilds.  In  1339  L'Arte 
de'  Pittori  became  a  duly  constituted  corporation,  but  still  dependent 
upon  the  Medici  e  Speziali.  In  1349  a  further  development  took 
place  and  the  Compagnia  e  Fraternita  di  San  Luca  was  formed,  under 
the  special  protection  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  Saint  John  the  Baptist, 
Saint  Zenobius,  and  Saint  Reparata.  The  alternative  title,  La 
Confraternita  de'  Pittori  was  added,  and  the  members  continued  to 
acknowledge  their  dependence  on  the  Guild  of  Doctors  and  Apothe- 
caries. The  Confraternity  reckoned  its  members  not  only  from 
makers  of  pictures,  frescoes,  and  designs,  but  enrolled  also  decorators 
of  stone  and  wood,  metal,  glass,  stucco,  and  leather.  It  has  been 
maintained  that  the  date  of  the  founding  of  the  Compagnia  di  San 
Luca  was  1338-1339.  If  this  is  so,  the  tradition  that  Daddi  was  one 
of  the  founders  and  later  held  a  consulship  in  this  body  is  doubtless 
true. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Gilman,  M.  E.   A  triptych  by  Bernardo  Daddi.    Art  in  America.   New  York, 
Aug.,  1918.  vi  (5),  210-214,  Reproduction. 


MENTIONED 
Sir£n.    Giotto  and  some  of  his  followers,  i,  270. 


SCHOOL  OF  ORCAGNA 

ANDREA  DI  CIONE,  called  ORCAGNA,  1308  (?)-i368 
NARDO  DI  CIONE,  active  from  1343  to  1365 
JACOPO  DI  CIONE,  active  from  1360  to  1394 

A  certain  Florentine  named  Cione  had  four  sons  who  attained  more 
or  less  distinction  in  art.  Andrea  di  Cione,  commonly  known  as 
Orcagna,  was  far  the  ablest.  He  was  ranked  as  the  greatest  figure  in 
Florentine  art  next  to  Giotto  in  the  xrv  century.  Like  many  of  the 
most  distinguished  Florentine  painters,  he  was  also  a  sculptor  and 
architect.  Two  of  his  brothers,  Nardo  and  Jacopo,  were  painters 
and  assisted  Andrea  in  his  work.  Nardo  was  enrolled  in  the  Arte  de' 
Medici  e  Speziali  in  1345,  in  the  Arte  de'  Maestri  di  Pietra  e  Legname 
in  1355,  and  in  the  Compagnia  de'  Pittori  in  1358.  In  1363  he  was 
given  the  commission  for  the  paintings  of  the  vault  of  the  Oratorio 
del  Bigallo,  in  Florence.  Jacopo  was  enrolled  as  an  independent 
master  in  the  Arte  de'  Medici  e  Speziali  in  1369,  the  year  after  Or- 
cagna's  death.  The  works  that  he  executed  alone  after  1369  dete- 
riorated in  quality.  One  of  his  best  works  is  the  Saint  Matthew  in 
the  Uffizi,  which  he  finished  from  Orcagna's  design  in  1368,  at  about 
the  time  of  his  brother's  death. 

Orcagna  also  had  a  large  number  of  followers,  among  whom  was 
Niccold  di  Pietro  Gerini.  Gerini  was  enrolled  in  the  Compagnia  di 
San  Luca  of  Florence  in  1368;  at  various  times  he  worked  with 
Agnolo  Gaddi,  Spinello  Aretino,  and  Jacopo  di  Cione. 

Dr.  Siren,  in  his  recent  publications,  has  attributed  a  number  of 
works  in  various  collections  in  this  country  to  Jacopo  di  Cione  and  his 
brothers.  A  discussion  of  these  attributions  is  beyond  the  compass  of 
this  Catalogue. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Chiappelli,  A.    Antica  tavoletta  del  secolo  xrv  rinvenuta  in  Santa  Maria 

Novella.    L'Arte.    Rome,  March-April,  1906.  ix  (2),  146-150. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy.    London,  1864. 

i,  425-454- 
New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward  Hutton.    New  York, 

1908.  i,  355-379- 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Langton  Douglas.    New  York,  1903. 

ii,  204-226. 


4o  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

Siren,  0.    Catalogue  of  the  Jarves  collection,  Yale  University.    New  Haven, 
1916.  39-46. 
Giottino.    Leipsic,  1908.  65-81,  88-90,  99-102. 
Giotto  and  some  of  his  followers.    Cambridge,  1917.   i,  214-262;  ii,  PI. 

185-220. 
Pictures  in  America  by  Bernardo  Daddi,  Taddeo  Gaddi,  Andrea  Orcagna, 
and  his  brothers.    Art  in  America.    New  York,  June,  Aug.,  1914.  ii, 
(4,  5),  268-275,  325-336. 
Trecento  pictures  in  American  collections.    Burlington  magazine.    Lon- 
don, Dec,  1908.  xiv  (69),  193-194. 
Suida,  W.    Florentinische  Maler  um  die  Mitte  des  xrv.  Jahrhunderts.   Stras- 

burg,  1905.  4-27,  49. 
Venttibi,  A.    Storia  dell'  arte  italiana.    Milan,  1907.  v,  759-776,  889. 

SCENES  FROM  THE  LIFE  OF  CHRIST 

Tempera  on  panel,  arched  top.   H.  32!  in.   W.  2ifin.    (82.5  X  54.3  cm.) 

The  Annunciation  and  Nativity,  with  a  medallion  of  the  Cruci- 
fixion above,  occupy  the  upper  part  of  the  panel;  below  is  the  En- 
tombment. With  the  exception  of  the  scene  of  the  Nativity  and  a 
portion  of  the  Annunciation,  the  background  of  the  panel  is  fiat  gold. 

The  general  effect  of  this  picture  is  astonishingly  rich  and  beautiful 
owing  to  the  brilliancy  of  the  colours.  A  wonderful  orange  red,  a 
deeper  red,  and  a  pale  rose  red  recur  through  the  picture  as  do  masses 
of  rich  blue  and  dark  bluish  black.  There  are  also  fields  of  yellow, 
yellow  orange,  and  various  neutral  greens  and  violets. 

In  the  left  arch  is  the  Annunciation  with  the  Dove  descending  from 
God  the  Father,  Who  is  seen  in  the  sky.  Mary  is  clad  in  a  red  robe 
with  a  dark  blue  mantle.  Her  garments  are  the  same  in  all  four  of  the 
scenes  except  that  in  this  first  one  there  is  a  band  around  her  head 
and  the  mantle  hangs  from  her  shoulders.  In  the  Nativity  her 
mantle  reaches  up  over  her  head,  but  still  shows  a  large  part  of  her 
hair;  and  in  the  more  tragic  scenes  of  the  Crucifixion  and  the  En- 
tombment the  mantle  is  drawn  over  her  forehead  so  that  her  hair  does 
not  show  at  all.  Rose  red  appears  in  the  tunic  of  God  the  Father  and 
the  mantle  of  Gabriel  in  the  Annunciation,  and  in  the  mantle  of 
Saint  John  in  the  Crucifixion.  A  fine  quality  of  blue,  probably  ultra- 
marine, occurs  in  the  mantle  of  God  the  Father,  and  in  the  tunics  of 
Gabriel  and  John.  Vermilion  red  occurs  in  the  hanging  behind  the 
Virgin  in  the  Annunciation;  and  in  the  Nativity,  in  the  wall  behind 
the  Madonna,  in  the  mantle  over  the  swaddling  clothes  of  the  Infant 


2     SCHOOL   OF    ORCAGNA 


SCHOOL  OF  ORCAGNA  41 

Christ,  and  in  the  tunic  of  Saint  Joseph.  Saint  Joseph's  neutral  vi  olet 
mantle  goes  up  to  a  point  at  his  shoulder.  This  same  colour  again 
appears  in  pyramidal  form  in  the  head  of  the  ass  and  in  the  farther 
mountain  to  the  right.  The  shepherd  is  clad  in  brown.  The  manger, 
the  roof  over  it,  and  the  ox  are  orange  yellow. 

In  the  Entombment  the  three  Marys  and  six  apostles  are  present, 
and  two  donors  on  a  much  smaller  scale,  one  dressed  in  blue  and  one 
in  brilliant  vermilion,  are  kneeling  near  the  head  of  Christ.  The 
apostles  and  the  Marys  are  clad  in  a  variety  of  gorgeous  blues  and 
reds  with  occasional  yellows,  greens,  and  grays.  The  kneeling  figure 
in  front  of  the  sarcophagus  in  the  robe  of  flaming  vermilion  orange  is 
perhaps  the  finest  of  all. 

One  small  point  is  of  interest  to  those  who  study  these  pictures 
from  the  technical  side.  The  apostle  who  is  bending  over  in  a 
cramped  position  and  clasping  the  feet  of  Christ  was  perhaps  intro- 
duced into  the  composition  as  an  afterthought.  In  any  case  he  was 
probably  not  included  in  the  original  design.  His  upper  garment  was 
painted  with  a  transparent  red  lake.  Originally,  doubtless,  there  was 
body  enough  to  it  to  hide  what  was  underneath,  but  something  must 
have  faded  or  been  cleaned  off,  and  now  we  can  see  through  this  lake 
glaze  the  line  of  the  end  of  the  sarcophagus  and  the  robe  of  the 
apostle  standing  behind.  This  is  a  very  unusual  feature  in  the  pic- 
ture, for  generally  there  was  a  perfectly  solid  structure  under  each 
figure. 

The  picture  was  sold  in  the  Du  Cluzel  d'  Oloron  sale  in  1882  (Cata- 
logue, No.  28,  attributed  to  Giotto).  It  belonged  at  one  time  to  the 
late  Jean  Dollfus,  and  was  sold  with  the  rest  of  his  collection  in 
191 2  (Catalogue,  No.  63,  attributed  to  Tuscan  school,  beginning  of 
the  xv  century) .  It  was  placed  on  permanent  exhibition  in  the  Fogg 
Museum  in  1 913. 

The  painting  was  published  in  the  Bulletin  of  the  Museum  of  Fine 
Arts,  of  Boston,  August,  1913,  and  attributed  to  Agnolo  Gaddi. 
Since  then  Dr.  Osvald  Siren  has  published  it  as  a  picture  probably 
executed  before  1368  by  Jacopo  di  Cione  when  in  his  brother 
Andrea's  workshop.  He  remarks  on  the  resemblance  of  the  En- 
tombment scene  at  the  bottom  of  the  panel  to  Orcagna's  marble 
relief  of  the  same  subject  in  the  church  of  Or  San  Michele  at  Florence. 
Other  critics  feel  that  there  is  not  sufficient  evidence  definitely  to 


42  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

attribute  the  picture  to  Jacopo  di  Cione.  Niccold  di  Pietro  Gerini 
has  been  suggested  as  the  possible  artist.  His  work  combines  the  ele- 
ments which  would  account  for  the  attributions  to  the  Cione  brothers 
and  to  Agnolo  Gaddi.  Others  think  that  the  picture  might  more 
safely  be  called  School  of  Nardo  di  Cione.  The  illustration  gives  an 
idea  of  the  delicacy  of  the  workmanship  but  not  of  the  beauty  of  the 
colour. 

It  has  already  been  noted  that  the  donor  and  his  wife  are  repre- 
sented kneeling  at  the  head  of  the  sarcophagus  of  Christ.  They  are 
on  a  smaller  scale  than  the  other  figures  and  their  faces  are  in  profile. 

The  custom  of  introducing  the  donor  into  a  religious  composition 
was  an  old  one.  It  appears  frequently  in  the  mosaics.  In  the  vi  cen- 
tury mosaic  of  the  apse  of  San  Vitale,  Ravenna,  the  bishop  Ecclesius 
is  represented  offering  a  model  of  the  church.  He  is  in  front  view,  on 
the  same  scale  as  the  other  figures,  and  standing  beside  them.  At 
the  beginning  of  the  xin  century  the  custom  was  introduced  of  repre- 
senting the  donor  kneeling.  A  xin  century  mosaic  in  the  apse  of 
San  Giovanni  in  Laterano  shows  a  diminutive  kneeling  figure  of 
Pope  Nicolas  rv  as  donor.  In  the  Arena  Chapel  at  Padua  Giotto 
portrayed  the  donor,  Enrico  Scrovegno,  kneeling  and  presenting  to 
the  Madonna  a  model  of  the  chapel.  His  figure  is  on  the  same  scale 
as  the  others  in  the  composition. 

The  early  attempts  at  portraiture  appear  to  be  often  in  front  face. 
The  picture  of  Saint  Francis  preserved  at  Subiaco,  said  to  be  a  xn 
century  contemporary  portrait,  and  the  so-called  portrait  of  Cimabue 
in  the  Spanish  Chapel  of  Santa  Maria  Novella  in  Florence  are  ex- 
amples of  this.  In  like  manner  the  early  Byzantine  Madonnas  stare 
straight  out  of  the  panels  with  their  round  eyes.  The  xrv  century 
painters  generally  showed  their  Madonnas  in  three-quarters  view, 
and  Giotto  and  his  successors  placed  the  various  figures  in  their  com- 
positions at  any  angle  that  pleased  them;  but  they  developed  the 
habit  of  painting  portraits  in  profile,  probably  because  that  was  the 
easiest  way  to  draw  actually  from  life.  Giotto  painted  Enrico 
Scrovegno  in  profile.  Two  portraits  of  Dante,  one  the  famous  fresco 
attributed  to  Giotto,  and  the  other  by  Orcagna  or  his  brother  in 
Santa  Maria  Novella,  are  both  in  profile;  and  so  is  the  well-known 
Guidoriccio  Fogliani  by  Simone  Martini  in  the  Palazzo  Pubblico  at 


SCHOOL  OF  ORCAGNA  43 

Siena.  This  custom  was  continued  even  into  the  xv  century,  though 
Masaccio  and  Fra  Angelico  both,  on  occasions,  varied  from  this  rule. 

The  series  of  female  portraits  attributed  to  Domenico  Veneziano, 
Paolo  Uccello,  Pollaiuolo,  and  Pier  dei'Franceschi  are  in  profile.  Fra 
Filippo  Lippi,  Benozzo  Gozzoli,  Botticelli,  and  the  later  men  de- 
veloped a  greater  freedom,  and  painted  portraits  from  any  position 
that  suited  them. 

The  Flemish  masters  generally  represented  their  sitters  in  three- 
quarters  view.  This  is  illustrated  in  the  diptych  attributed  to  van 
der  Weyden  and  David  (No.  60). 

In  general,  portraits  of  donors  occur  rarely  in  xrv  century  paint- 
ings; in  the  xv  century  they  appear  more  often,  and  usually  are  on  a 
smaller  scale  than  are  the  other  figures,  to  express  the  idea  of  the 
donor's  humility.  If  married,  the  donor  was  accompanied  by  his 
wife  and  children.  The  central  panel  of  the  triptych  by  Niccolo  da 
Foligno  in  this  Gallery  (No.  29)  gives  an  excellent  example  of  a  xv 
century  donor.  He  is  represented  in  profile  and  on  a  small  scale.  In 
the  xvi  century  painting  by  Leandro  Bassano  (No.  50),  however,  the 
portly  and  sophisticated  Venetian  nobleman  is  fully  as  large  as  the 
figure  of  Christ.  The  xvi  century  donor  in  fact  was  apt  to  be  repre- 
sented on  the  same  scale  as  the  other  figures  in  the  picture,  and  in 
profile  or  three-quarters  view  as  well  as  full  face. 

EXHIBITED 

Exposition  des  orphelins  d' Alsace-Lorraine,  Louvre,  1885.  Catalogue.  No.  228. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    35,  Reproduction. 
Dollfus,  J.    Catalogue  des  tableaux  anciens  des  ecoles  primitives  et  de  la 

renaissance,  dependant  des  collections   de  M.  Jean  Dollfus.     Paris, 

1912.  75,  No.  63,  Reproduction  (PI.  63). 
Siren.  Art  in  America.  June,  1914.  274-275;  Aug.,  1914.  330,  Reproduction. 
Giotto  and  some  of  his  followers,  i,  230,  257,  277,  Reproduction  (ii,  PI.  215). 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan-March,  1914.  2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
(Attributed  to  Agnolo  Gaddi);  April-June,  1915.  2d  ser.,  xix  (2),  207. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  13. 
Burlington  magazine.    London,  Nov.,  1914.  xxvi  (140),  90. 
Du  Cluzel  d'Oloron  sale  catalogue,  1882.    No.  28. 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314. 


SPINELLO  ARETINO 
1333  W-1410 

Spinello  di  Luca  Spinelli,  commonly  called  Spinello  Aretino,  was 
one  of  the  better  known  Giottesque  masters.  He  was  probably  born 
at  Arezzo  in  1333,  and  was  trained  by  Jacopo  da  Casentino,  a  feeble, 
local  Giottesque  artist.  Spinello  was  fortunate  in  coming  under  the 
influence  of  the  work  of  Giotto,  and  in  possessing  a  certain  native 
vigour  and  force.  Later  in  life  he  received  an  added  stimulus  from  the 
Sienese  masters.  His  principal  frescoes  in  a  general  way  coincide 
with  the  three  periods  into  which  his  mature  life  may  be  divided: 

1st.  Giottesque,  1380-1390.  Frescoes  at  San  Miniato,  Florence. 
2nd.  Sienese,  1390-1392.  Frescoes  in  the  Campo  Santo,  Pisa. 
3rd.    Sienese,        1404-1410.    Frescoes  in  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  Siena. 

Unfortunately,  his  followers,  Parri  Spinelli  and  the  Bicci,  were  weak 
men;  so  that  Spinello  was  the  one  bright  spot  in  a  feeble  line.  Had 
he  been  a  link  in  an  important  chain,  he  would  hold  a  higher  place  in 
the  history  of  art.  He  did  not  die  in  1400  of  fright  at  his  own 
picture  of  Lucifer,  as  Vasari  picturesquely  states,  but  went  to  Siena 
to  labour  there,  and  died  probably  in  Arezzo  in  1410.  Venturi 
says:  "  Spinello  Aretino  represents  for  the  last  time  in  Tuscany  the 
two  great  currents  that  began  with  Giotto  and  Duccio."  Vitzthum 
says  that  Spinello  was  profoundly  influenced  by  Orcagna  and  that 
he  thus  inherited  the  tradition  of  Andrea  Pisano. 

Spinello  is  represented  in  this  country  by  a  processional  banner  in 
the  Metropolitan  Museum;  a  Crucifixion  in  the  John  G.  Johnson 
collection,  Philadelphia;  a  painting  formerly  belonging  to  Captain 
Horace  Morison,  Boston,  and  now  in  the  collection  of  Martin  A. 
Ryerson,  Chicago;  and  by  the  Fogg  Museum  panels.  In  the  Rhode 
Island  School  of  Design  also  there  is  a  painting  attributed  to  Spinello, 
representing  Saint  Anthony  the  Abbot. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.  A  processional  banner  by  Spinello  Aretino.  Bulletin  of  the 
Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.    New  York,  Feb.,  1914.    ix  (2),  43-46. 

Siren,  0.    Giottino.    Leipsic,  1908.  81-84,  94~95- 

Supino,  I.  B.    II  Camposanto  di  Pisa.    Florence,  1896.  149-159. 

Vitzthum,  G.  Un  cido  di  affreschi  di  Spinello  Aretino,  perduto.  L'Arte. 
Rome,  May-June,  1906.  ix  (3),  199-203. 


■4  ;■* 


3     SPINELLO  ARETINO 


SPINELLO  ARETINO  45 

MADONNA  ENTHRONED  WITH  ANGELS 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  765  in.    W.  44!  in.    (195.3  X  113  cm.)    Frame, 
modern. 

The  Madonna  wears  a  red  gown  and  a  dark  blue  mantle  with  a 
white  lining  bordered  with  a  band  of  incised  gold.  In  her  halo  is  the 
inscription:  Ave  Maria  Gratia  Plena.  Behind  her  is  a  gorgeous 
fabric  of  vermilion  and  gold.  The  lower  part  of  the  Christ  Child  is 
wrapped  in  a  yellow  garment  with  a  lining  of  vermilion.  The  attend- 
ant angels  at  the  top  are  clothed  in  garments  of  varying  shades  of 
yellow  and  pink,  the  two  foremost  ones  having  grayish  green  mantles 
covered  with  a  golden  starlike  design,  and  lined  with  red.  A  similar 
scheme  of  green  and  red  is  used  in  the  robes  of  the  four  angels  kneel- 
ing in  front  of  the  Madonna's  throne.  On  the  right  side,  the  one  in 
front  is  in  rose  pink  and  the  one  behind  in  green.  On  the  left  side,  the 
one  in  front  is  in  yellow  green;  the  other  is  dressed  in  a  robe  which  is 
yellow  in  the  light,  and  vermilion  in  the  shadow.  In  the  foreground 
is  a  rich  design  of  olive  green  on  a  gold  field.  The  background  is 
gold;  the  decorative  effect  of  the  whole  picture  is  sumptuous  and 
imposing. 

The  painting  was  at  one  time  in  the  collection  of  the  Cavaliere 
Giuseppe  Toscanelli,  which  was  sold  in  Florence  in  1883.  It  was 
No.  52  in  the  catalogue  of  that  collection  and  was  attributed  to  Don 
Lorenzo  Monaco.  The  catalogue  states  that  the  painting  was  found 
stored  in  the  church  of  San  Michele  in  Borgo,  at  Pisa.  Later  it  ap- 
peared in  the  collection  of  C.  Fairfax  Murray  in  London,  who  at- 
tributed it  to  Spinello.    It  came  to  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1905. 

There  has  been  a  misunderstanding  about  the  identity  of  this  paint- 
ing. In  1908  Dr.  Osvald  Sir6n,  in  his  book  on  Giottino,  ventured  the 
surmise  that  it  was  the  missing  central  panel  of  the  Monte  Oliveto 
altarpiece  by  Spinello,  described  by  Vasari.  Several  writers  have 
since  accepted  this  theory  and  it  has  been  stated  as  a  fact  in  a  num- 
ber of  publications.  It  was  not  until  the  right  wing  of  this  altarpiece 
(No.  4B  in  this  Catalogue)  was  seen  beside  the  Madonna  that  this 
hypothesis  was  seriously  doubted  here  and  since  then  the  real  central 
panel  has  been  acquired  by  the  Museum  (see  No.  4A).  So  we  now 
believe  the  Fogg  Museum  painting  No.  3  to  be  an  undated  but 
stately  Madonna  by  Spinello. 


46  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston.   Museum  of  Fine  Arts.  Bulletin.  June,  1909.  22-24,  Reproduction. 
Beeck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.  170,  Reproduction. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.  Oct.  4,  1905. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1905.    v,  162. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1910.   2d  ser.,  xiv  (1),  137. 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  14- 

Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    68. 

Bibliografia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1909.    xii  (6),  480,  No.  204. 

Borenius,  T.    A  little  known  collection  at  Oxford.    Burlington  magazine. 

London,  April,  1915.  xxvii  (145),  22. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.   54,  55. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    March,  1916.  422. 
Khvoshinsky,  B.,  and  Salmi,  M.    I  pittori  toscani  dal  xiii  al  xvi  secolo. 

Rome,  1914.  ii,  52. 
Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Dec.  n,  1908.    viii, 

38, No.  8  (School  of  AgnoloGaddi),and  same  in  Deutsche  Liter aturzeitung. 

Feb.  27, 1909.   551,  No.  8. 
London.    National  Gallery.    Catalogue,  1913.    p.  666. 
Mather.    Bulletin  of  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.    Feb.,  1914.    44. 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314. 

New  England  magazine.    Aug.,  1905.   702,  Reproduction  (708). 
Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.     17,  No.  13. 
Reinach.    Repertoire  de  peintures.    1905.    i,  259,  Reproduction. 
Siren.    Giottino.    83, 94. 

Some  early  Italian  paintings  in  the  Museum  collection.    Museum  of  Fine 

Arts  bulletin.    Boston,  April,  1916.    xiv  (82),  12. 
Trecento  pictures  in  American  collections.  Burlington  magazine.   London, 

Dec,  1908.    xiv  (69),  194. 
ToscANELLi,  G.    Catalogue  de  tableaux,  meubles,  et  objets  d'art  formant  la 

galerie  de  M.  le  Chev.  Toscanelli.    Florence,  1883.    14,  No.  52,  Re- 
production (Album  PI.  vii). 

4A-D  MONTE  OLIVETO  ALTARPIECE  (PANELS  OF) 

A    Central  Panel:  Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels 

B    Right  Wing:  Saint  Benedict  and  Saint  Lucilla 

C    Predella  of  Right  Wing:  Death  of  Saint  Benedict. — 

Saint  Augustine.  —  Martyrdom  of  Saint  Lucilla 
D    Saint 

4A      Central  panel:  Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels 

Tempera  on  panel,  arched  top.   H.  66f  in.    W.  35  in.   (169.5  X  88.8  cm.) 
Frame  made  in  imitation  of  the  frame  of  4B  which  is  the  original. 


'<*'  » 


■   ■  ■  I 


4A     SPINELLO   ARETINO 


4b     SPINELLO   ARETINO 


SPINELLO  ARETINO  47 

The  Madonna's  gown  is  vermilion  decorated  with  gold ;  her  mantle 
is  dark  blue,  bordered  with  a  solid  band  of  incised  gold.  Her  halo  is 
embossed  in  very  high  relief  with  the  letters:  Ave  Maria  Gratia 
Plena  Domi.  The  Child's  dress  is  of  a  bluish  gray,  richly  em- 
broidered with  gold;  His  mantle  is  a  neutral  rose,  embroidered  and 
bordered  with  gold;  His  halo  is  embossed  in  high  relief  with  the 
words:  Filius  Dei  Su.  The  morse  or  clasp  which  fastens  the  Ma- 
donna's mantle,  the  halos  of  Madonna  and  Child,  and  the  gold  band 
around  the  neck  of  the  Child's  dress  are  unusual  in  that  they  are 
decorated  with  jewels,  or,  to  be  more  exact,  coloured  glass,  which 
may  have  been  in  the  panel  originally,  or  may  have  been  substituted 
later  for  jewels.  Cennino  Cennini  refers  to  this  practice  of  affixing 
precious  stones  or  glass  to  pictures.  The  bird  is  brown  with  red 
markings  around  its  eye.  The  drapery  of  the  throne  has  suffered,  and 
is  now  of  a  golden  tone.  It  was  probably  originally  of  red  and  gold. 
The  angels  wear  robes  of  varying  shades  of  neutral  blue,  green,  and 
red,  trimmed  with  bands  of  gold.  Their  wings  are  of  a  variety  of 
neutral  tones  incised  with  golden  lines.  They,  like  the  Madonna  and 
Child,  have  yellow  hair,  and  each  one  wears  a  diadem  of  red.  Though 
the  top  part  of  the  picture  has  suffered,  the  two  angels  kneeling  at  the 
Madonna's  feet  are  fortunately  both  well  preserved.  The  one  on  the 
left  wears  a  light  blue  robe;  the  one  on  the  right  is  clad  in  rose  pink. 
The  background  is  gold.  At  the  base  of  the  throne  is  the  inscription : 
Spinellus  de  Aretio  picsit. 

4B    Right  wing:  Saint  Benedict  and  Saint  Lucilla 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  74!  in.    W.  36!  in.    (189.5  X  92  cm.)    Visible 
surface,  H.  55  in.    (139.7  cm0 

The  right  wing  of  this  altarpiece  contains  Saint  Benedict  and  Saint 
Lucilla.  Saint  Lucilla  was  the  daughter  of  Saint  Nemesius,  who, 
with  Saint  John  the  Baptist,  appears  in  the  left  wing  of  the  altarpiece 
now  in  the  Budapest  Gallery. 

Saint  Benedict  is  dressed  in  the  white  habit  of  the  reformed  Bene- 
dictine order  of  the  Olivetans,  and  a  red  cope  decorated  with  a  design 
in  gold,  lined  with  green.  In  his  halo  is  the  inscription  in  unusually 
high  relief :  Santus  Benedictus  Abas.  In  his  right  hand  he  holds  a 
crosier  and  in  his  left  a  book  with  a  blue  cover  and  a  gold  design. 
Saint  Lucilla  wears  a  yellow  green  gown  and  a  rose  violet  mantle,  both 


48  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

decorated  with  a  gold  figured  design.  The  mantle  is  lined  with  blue 
and  has  a  border  of  a  curiously  wrought  red  and  blue  design  with  gold 
figures.  Her  mantle  and  that  of  Saint  Benedict  have  clasps,  which  at 
one  time  may  have  contained  real  jewels,  but  now  contain  glass,  sub- 
stituted perhaps  by  a  less  pious  hand.  Her  halo  is  embossed  in  high 
relief  with  the  words:  Santa  Lucilla  Virgo  Et.  In  her  right  hand 
is  a  sword  and  in  her  left  is  her  decapitated  head,  similar  in  features 
to  her  living  head,  but  of  the  pallid  colour  of  death.  The  saints  stand 
on  a  field  of  blue  and  gold.  In  the  quatrefoil  is  Daniel  in  a  blue  robe 
and  a  mantle  that  is  a  rose  pink  on  his  right  shoulder  and  a  darker 
rose  as  it  falls  over  his  left  shoulder;  the  lining  is  green.  In  his  right 
hand  is  a  pen  and  in  his  left  hand  a  scroll,  which  reads:  Daniel  Cum 
Venerit  Santus  Santorum. 

The  panel  is  still  in  the  original  frame,  and  at  the  bottom  is  the 
inscription  in  raised  gilt  gesso  partly  damaged:  Gabriellus  Saraceni 
de  Senis  Auravit  mccclxxxv  (?) ;  the  signature  to  which  Vasari 
refers,  but  which  differs  slightly  from  the  wording  which  he  gives. 
The  background  is  gold. 

4C    Predella  which  belongs  under  4B 

Tempera  on  panel. 
Saint  Benedict  panel,  H.  13^  in.    W.  13&  in.     (35.4  X  34.5  cm.) 
Saint  Lucilla  panel,  H.  13H  in.    W.  12H  in.     (354  X  32.8  cm.) 
Saint  Augustine  panel,  H.  i2§  in.    W.  2,ts  in-     (32.3  X  7.8  cm.) 

In  the  left-hand  side  is  the  Death  of  Saint  Benedict.  Several 
monks  dressed  in  white  are  chanting  the  burial  service  beside  the 
bier  of  the  saint.  The  one  at  the  head  appears  to  be  reading  the  serv- 
ice from  a  red  book  by  the  light  of  a  candle,  the  flame  of  which 
flares  up  against  the  gold  background.  He  wears  a  white  stole  on 
which  are  black  crosses.  The  next  monk  but  one  holds  what  may  be 
a  vessel  containing  holy  water,  and  an  aspergillum,  or  perhaps  a  mal- 
let with  which  to  tap  the  forehead  of  the  dead  saint.  The  next  monk 
carries  a  cross,  the  next  but  one  is  an  old  man  leaning  on  his  staff,  and 
two  of  the  brothers  are  kneeling,  one  clasping  the  saint's  hand  and  the 
other  his  feet.  The  bier  is  a  primitive  structure  covered  with  a  red 
cloth  ornamented  with  gold,  which  stands  out  among  the  prevailing 
tones  of  white  as  the  brightest  spot  of  colour  in  the  picture.  The 
ground  is  a  violet  red  tone. 


4C     SPINELLO   ARETINO 


4D     SPINELLO   ARETINO 


SPINELLO  ARETINO  49 

Underthe  picture  of  Saint  Lucilla  is  a  representation  of  her  martyr- 
dom. She  kneels  on  the  ground  dressed  in  a  garment  of  pale  yellow 
green  about  the  same  colour  as  her  gown  in  the  picture  above.  The 
executioner,  brutally  clutching  her  by  her  hair,  is  cutting  her  head 
off;  he  wears  a  garment  probably  originally  red,  but  the  colour, 
except  in  the  shadows,  has  faded  or  been  removed  in  the  process  of 
cleaning.  Just  above  him  is  a  man  in  a  blue  robe  and  cape  with  a 
pale  violet  red  mantle.  Behind  him  stands  a  man  in  yellow  armour 
and  a  blue  mantle,  who  appears  to  be  goading  on  the  executioner; 
and  on  the  right  are  two  soldiers.  One  dressed  in  green  and  yellow 
bears  a  large  shield;  the  other,  in  neutral  violet  red,  is  holding  the 
garment  of  a  saint  clad  in  red  —  Saint  Nemesius  the  father  of  Saint 
Lucilla,  who  was  beheaded  after  her,  and  who  stands  with  bowed 
head  watching  the  scene.    The  ground  is  neutral  yellow  green. 

In  a  niche  separating  the  Death  of  Saint  Benedict  from  the  Mar- 
tyrdom of  Saint  Lucilla  is  Saint  Augustine,  in  the  black  habit  of  an 
Augustinian  friar  over  which  is  a  faded  rose  red  cope.  He  wears  his 
bishop's  mitre  and  carries  a  crosier  and  book.  The  background 
throughout  the  panel  is  gold. 

In  the  panel  representing  the  Death  of  Saint  Benedict  mention  was 
made  of  a  small  instrument  in  the  hands  of  one  of  the  monks  which 
might  be  either  an  aspergillum,  a  metallic  instrument  or  brush  used 
for  sprinkling  holy  water,  or  a  mallet  with  which  to  tap  the  forehead 
of  the  dead  saint.  There  are  other  Italian  xrv  century  pictures, 
representing  the  Dormition  of  the  Madonna,  which  show  one  of  the 
figures  holding  what  seems  to  be  a  small  mallet.  The  artist  probably 
had  in  mind  the  custom  practised  on  the  death  of  a  pope,  in  which  the 
cardinal  chamberlain,  standing  by  the  body,  called  three  times  the 
baptismal  name  of  the  dead  man  and  tapped  three  times  on  his 
forehead  with  a  silver  mallet  or  hammer. 

It  has  already  been  stated  that  Saint  Augustine  is  wearing  a  cope 
and  mitre  and  carrying  his  crosier.  A  cope  is  a  large  mantle  of  silk 
or  other  material,  usually  semicircular  in  shape,  and  fastened  in  the 
front  at  the  height  of  the  shoulders  by  a  clasp  or  piece  of  material, 
called  a  morse.  Along  the  straight  edge  is  a  border  or  orphrey,  often 
richly  embroidered.  The  round  edge  is  often  fringed.  The  cope  has 
never  been  a  distinctively  clerical  vestment.   A  mitre  is  a  head-dress 


50  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

worn  by  bishops,  abbots,  and  in  certain  cases  by  other  distinguished 
ecclesiastics.  The  mitre  came  to  be  richly  ornamented  and  jewelled, 
and  thus  these  varieties  became  convenient:  the  Mitra  pretiosa, 
jewelled;  the  Mitra  aurifrigiata,  without  jewels,  used  at  times  of  less 
solemnity;  and  the  Mitra  simplex,  of  plain  linen,  used  on  ordinary 
days  and  on  penitential  occasions.  A  crosier  is  the  pastoral  staff 
given  to  the  bishop  at  his  consecration  as  the  symbol  of  the  authority 
with  which  he  rules  his  flock.  The  crosier  is  given  to  abbots  also  at 
their  blessing.  The  cope,  mitre,  and  crosier  may  also  be  seen  in  the 
picture  by  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni  in  this  Gallery  (No.  26)  and  in  the 
Flemish  diptych  (No.  6ob).  This  picture  (No.  6ob)  shows  the 
lappets  or  small  decorative  folds  attached  to  the  mitre. 

4D    Saint 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  i2f  in.    W.  337  in-    (32-3  X  7.8  cm.) 

The  figure  of  a  saint  as  yet  unidentified  is  clad  in  a  neutral  orange 
tunic  and  a  red  violet  mantle,  with  its  orange  lining  showing  around 
his  neck.  In  his  hand  is  a  red  book.  This  saint  and  his  companion 
figures,  Saints  Philip  and  James  and  another  apostle,  probably 
belonged  in  niches  between  the  predelle  on  the  base. 

4A,  4B,  4c,  and  4d  are  all  parts  of  a  well-known  altarpiece  by 
Spinello  Aretino  which  has  a  curious  and  picturesque  history.  Vasari 
describes  it  as  follows,  in  his  life  of  Spinello  Aretino:  "  While  these 
works  were  proceeding,  Don  Jacopo  d'Arezzo  was  made  general  of 
the  Confraternity  of  Monte  Oliveto,  which  appointment  he  received 
nineteen  years  after  he  had  caused  Spinello  to  execute  the  different 
paintings  in  Florence  and  Arezzo,  to  which  we  have  before  alluded. 
And  as  Don  Jacopo,  after  the  manner  of  his  predecessors,  lived  for 
the  most  part  at  Monte  Oliveto  di  Chiusuri,  that  being  the  principal 
seat  of  the  order  and  the  most  important  monastery  within  the  terri- 
tory of  Siena,  he  conceived  the  wish  to  have  a  very  beautiful  picture 
executed  for  that  place;  wherefore,  having  sent  for  Spinello,  by 
whom  Don  Jacopo  had  formerly  found  that  he  was  admirably  served, 
the  general  caused  him  to  paint  a  picture  in  distemper,  for  the  prin- 
cipal chapel,  and  in  this  the  master  depicted  an  immense  number  of 
figures  of  middle  size,  very  judiciously  executed,  and  on  a  ground  of 
gold.  The  picture  was  surrounded  by  a  rich  ornament  or  framework 
in  mezzo-rilievo,  carved  in  wood  by  the  Florentine,  Simone  Cini,  and 


SPINELLO  ARETINO  5 1 

further  adorned  with  mouldings  in  stucco,  tempered  with  a  rather 
stiff  glue,  and  treated  in  such  a  manner  that  the  whole  succeeded 
perfectly,  and  was  very  beautiful.  It  was  afterwards  gilt  all  over 
with  gold  by  Gabriello  Saracini,  and  this  same  Gabriel  inscribed  the 
three  names  of  the  artists  at  the  foot  of  the  picture  in  the  following 
manner:  '  Simone  Cini  Florentino  fece  l'intaglio,  Gabriello  Saracini 
la  messe  d'oro,  e  Spinello  di  Luca  d'Arezzo  la  dipinse  l'anno  1385.' 
This  work  being  completed,  Spinello  returned  to  Arezzo,  having 
received  great  kindness  from  the  general  and  his  monks,  and  being 
moreover  very  largely  rewarded." 

The  central  panel  of  the  altarpiece  disappeared,  and  as  before 
stated,  Dr.  Osvald  Siren  surmised  that  No.  3  in  this  Catalogue  was 
this  missing  panel.  He  published  it  as  such  in  Giottino  (p.  94) ,  and  in 
his  article  on  Trecento  Pictures  in  American  Collections,  in  the  Bur- 
lington magazine  for  December,  1908.  This  statement  was  accepted 
as  a  plausible  theory  and  was  repeated  in  the  Burlington  magazine 
for  April,  1915,  and  in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  Bulletin 
for  June,  1909.  In  1915,  through  the  courtesy  of  Charles  F.  Bell, 
Director  of  the  Ashmolean  Museum,  of  Oxford,  word  was  received  at 
the  Fogg  Art  Museum  that  the  right  wing  of  the  altarpiece  was  to  be 
sold  at  auction  in  London,  and  the  picture  was  purchased  for  the 
Museum.  When  it  arrived  and  was  placed  beside  the  large  Madonna 
(No.  3.  See  page  45)  it  was  found  that  they  did  not  belong  together, 
as  the  scale,  the  colour  scheme,  and  the  technique  were  different. 
As  the  result  of  further  inquiry  by  the  Fogg  Museum,  Captain 
Langton  Douglas  brought  to  light  the  fact  that  the  real  central 
panel  of  the  altarpiece  was  in  the  hands  of  Mrs.  Harry  Quilter  of 
London.  This  panel  had  been  bought  by  Mr.  Quilter  at  the  sale  of 
the  collection  of  Howel  Wills,  of  Florence,  at  Christie's,  February 
17,  1894.  Henry  Goldman,  of  New  York,  bought  the  picture  from 
Mrs.  Quilter  and  presented  it  to  the  Fogg  Museum  in  191 7.  When 
the  panel  came  to  the  Museum  and  was  seen  beside  the  right  wing,  it 
at  once  became  clear  that  this  was  indeed  the  central  panel  of  the 
Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece.  Moreover,  it  answers  better  than  did  the 
larger  panel  already  in  the  Museum  to  Vasari's  description  of  the 
picture,  in  which  he  speaks  of  the  "  immense  number  of  figures  of 
middle  size." 


s  2  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

The  picture  fortunately  crossed  the  ocean  safely  on  the  steamship 
Saint  Paul  on  her  last  voyage  from  England  before  the  entrance  of  the 
United  States  into  the  war,  arriving  in  New  York  February  5,  191 7. 

The  gable  that  belongs  above  it  representing  the  Coronation  of  the 
Madonna,  and  the  predella  that  belongs  under  it  representing  her 
death,  are  now  in  the  Gallery  of  Siena  (Catalogue,  1903.  Nos.  119, 
125).  The  predella  was  removed  in  1810  from  Monte  Oliveto  to 
Siena. 

The  right  and  left  wings  with  their  accompanying  predelle  were 
transported  to  a  small  chapel  at  Rapolano  in  the  territory  of  Siena 
before  the  convent  was  suppressed.  This  chapel  was  later  used  as  a 
hayloft,  "where  they  were  shamefully  abandoned  for  many  years." 
Here  they  were  discovered  in  1840.  Johann  Anton  Ramboux,  Di- 
rector of  the  Gallery  at  Cologne,  bought  them  two  years  later  for 
his  collection.  This  collection  was  placed  on  exhibition  in  the 
Cologne  Gallery  in  1862.  The  owner  died  in  1866,  and  on  May  23, 
1867,  the  collection  was  dispersed  at  auction.  The  left  wing,  repre- 
senting Saint  Nemesius  and  Saint  John  the  Baptist,  with  the  accom- 
panying predella  showing  the  martyrdom  of  each  of  these  saints, 
and  Isaiah  in  the  gable,  is  now  in  the  Gallery  at  Budapest  (Catalogue, 
1 913.  No.  21).  The  right  wing  and  its  predella  found  their  way 
into  the  collection  of  Thomas  W.  Jackson,  Fellow  of  Worcester  Col- 
lege, Oxford,  who  died  in  1 914.  At  the  auction  sale  of  his  pictures 
in  London,  May  14, 191 5,  these  were  bought  by  the  Friends  of  the 
Fogg,  Museum  and  were  presented  to  Harvard.  They  are  now 
numbers  4B  and  4c. 

Finally  there  are  four  small  figures  of  saints,  which  apparently 
belonged  somewhere  in  the  altarpiece,  probably  on  the  base  between 
the  different  predelle.  These  also  were  in  the  Ramboux  collection. 
One  of  them  (4D)  was  bought  by  the  Fogg  Museum  with  the  right 
wing  at  the  Jackson  sale.  Dr.  Tancred  Borenius  in  his  article  on 
the  Jackson  collection  says  that  the  companion  figures,  namely  Saint 
Philip,  Saint  James,  and  another  apostle,  have  disappeared,  although 
Dr.  Siren  in  his  Giottino  (p.  95)  and  Captain  Langton  Douglas  in  his 
edition  of  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  (ii,  p.  258,  note  3)  state  that  two 
of  these  figures  are  in  the  Gallery  at  Cologne.  Edward  Hutton  in 
his  edition  of  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  (i,  p.  426,  note  3)  states  that 
a  saint  in  monkish  dress,  No.  87  in  the  Ramboux  sale  catalogue,  is 


SPINELLO   ARETINO.      MONTE   OLIVETO    ALTARPIECE   (RECONSTRUCTION) 


SPINELLO  ARETINO  53 

now  in  the  Perth  Gallery.  There  is,  however,  some  confusion  here,  as 
this  is  the  small  saint  now  in  the  Fogg  Museum  (4D)  which  was 
bought  at  the  Jackson  sale. 

Mr.  F.  Mason  Perkins  has  published  the  altarpiece  with  a  recon- 
struction in  Rassegna  d'  Arte  for  January-February,  1918. 

EXHIBITED 
Central  panel,  Madonna  Enthroned,  Dudley  Gallery,  1895. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Borenius,  T.    A  little  known  collection  at  Oxford.    Burlington  magazine. 

London,  April,  1915.   xxvii  (145),  22-27,  Reproductions. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.   New  history  of  painting  in  Italy.    1864.  ii,  11-12. 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Langton  Douglas.    1903.    ii,  258, 

and  "  Corrigenda  and  addenda  "  (entry  under  258,  note  4). 
New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward  Hutton.    1908.  i,  426. 
Jackson,  T.  W.    Catalogue  of  pictures  by  old  masters,  the  property  of  Thomas 
Watson  Jackson,  Esq.,  which  will  be  sold  by  Messrs.  Christie,  Manson, 
and  Woods,  May  14, 1915.  9-10,  Nos.  37-39. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan,  Jan.-Feb.,  1918.  Reproductions. 
Vasari.    Le  Monnier.     1846.  ii,  193-194. 
Tr.  by  Mrs.  Foster.     1850.  i,  264-266. 
Ed.  by  Milanesi.    Sansoni,  1878.  i,  687-689. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1917.    xiv,  135. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.   2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 

Bryan's  Dictionary  of  painters  and  engravers,  new  ed.     New  York,  1905. 

v,  no. 
Budapest.    Museum  der  Bildenden  Kunste.    Katalog,  1913.    219-220, 

No.  21. 
Cennino  Cennini.    Tr.  by  C.  J.  Herringham.  239. 
Eastlake.    Materials  for  a  history  of  oil  painting.     73. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Jan.  25,  1917.  328. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    March,  1916.  422. 
Khvoshinsky  and  Salmi,    ii,  51. 
Quilter,  H.    Catalogue  of  [his]  collection  of  pictures  which  will  be  sold  by 

auction  by  Messrs.  Christie,  Manson,  and  Woods,  on  April  7,  1906  and 

April  9.     15,  No.  76. 
Ramboux,  J.  A.    Catalogue  des  collections  d'  objets  d'  art  de  la  succession  de 

M.  Jean  Ant.  Ramboux.    Cologne,  1867.  Nos.  82  (left  wing),  83  (right 

wing  with  predella),  84  (St.  Philip),  85  (St.  James),  86  (Saint,  apostle), 

87  (Saint,  apostle,  in  religious  costume  carrying  a  book).    (Of  these, 

Nos.  83  and  87  are  in  the  Fogg  Museum.) 


54  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

Siena.    Galleria  del  R.  istituto  provinciale  di  belle  arti.    Catalogo. 
Siena,  1903.    Nos.  119,  125  (gable  and  predella  to  central  panel). 

Siren.    Burlington  magazine.    Dec,  1908.  194. 
Giottino.    94,  95. 

Suida,  W.    Alcuni  quadri  italiani  primitivi  nella  Galleria  Nazionale  di  Buda- 
pest.   L'Arte.    Rome,  May-June,  1907.   x  (3),  181. 

Venturi.    v,  882. 

Vitzthum.    L'Arte.    Rome,  May-June,  1906.  ix  (3),  202. 

Wills,  H.    Catalogue  of  [his]  collection  of  pictures  by  old  masters  to  be  sold  by 
auction  by  Messrs.  Christie,  Manson,  and  Woods,  Feb.  1 7, 1894.   No.  44. 


MASTER  OF  THE  INNOCENTI  CORONATION 

About  1420  to  1480 

Dr.  Osvald  Siren  believes  that  he  has  found  two  other  works,  be- 
sides the  one  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  by  a  Florentine  master  of  the  xv 
century  whose  name  it  is  not  easy  to  determine.  He  has  given  this 
painter  the  name  of  the  Master  of  the  Innocenti  Coronation,  because 
in  the  Gallery  of  the  Spedale  degli  Innocenti  in  Florence  there  is  a 
Coronation  of  the  Madonna,  which  is  the  largest  and  most  important 
of  the  three  examples.  The  third  of  these  is  in  the  collection  of  Sir 
Hubert  Parry  in  England.  The  master  was  a  "retardataire"  influ- 
enced by  Don  Lorenzo  Monaco  and  also  by  Masolino,  Masaccio, 
and  Filippo  Lippi. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Siren,  O.    An  early  Italian  picture  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  Cambridge.    Art 
in  America.    New  York,  Dec,  1914.  iii  (1),  36-40. 

MADONNA  ENTHRONED  BETWEEN  SAINT  FRANCIS 
AND  SAINT  PETER  MARTYR.  —  GABLE :  ANNUN- 
CIATION. —  PREDELLA:  NATD7ITY,  VISITATION 

Lent  by  Mrs.  Theodore  C.  Beebe. 

Tempera  on  panel,  arched  top.    H.  27^  in.   W.  12  A  in-    (7°  X  31  cm.) 

The  prevailing  tones  of  the  four  pictures  included  in  this  panel  are 
pale  rose  reds  and  grayish  blues  of  different  shades  harmoniously 
placed  in  front  of  the  gold  background  and  spotted  with  a  few  effec- 
tive brilliant  touches  of  vermilion.  In  each  of  the  four  scenes  the 
Madonna  has  a  neutral  blue  green  mantle.  In  the  large  central  panel 
her  gown  is  pale  red  violet;  in  the  other  three  it  is  a  deeper  red.  In 
the  Annunciation  the  angel  Gabriel  is  clad  in  rose  red.  Saint  Francis 
wears  a  gray  habit  and  carries  a  cross  in  his  right  hand.  A  few  ves- 
tiges of  paint  still  adhering  to  the  gold  indicate  that  this  cross  was 
once  red  and  was  painted  over  the  gold  background.  A  bright  red 
book  is  in  the  saint's  left  hand;  a  white  cord  hangs  from  his  waist. 
Saint  Peter  Martyr  wears  a  gray  white  tunic  and  scapular  with  a  blue 
black  mantle.  Blood  spurts  from  the  wound  in  his  head,  and  the 
same  colour  is  echoed  in  the  cross  on  his  white  flag  and  in  the  red 


56  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

book  in  his  hand.  The  Madonna's  throne  and  the  garment  of  the 
Child  are  of  a  salmon  pink. 

In  the  Nativity,  the  Madonna  wears  a  red  violet  gown  and  mantle 
of  gray  blue  as  before.  The  Child  is  dressed  in  bright  vermilion 
swaddling  clothes.  Saint  Joseph  is  in  a  dark  gown  and  yellow  mantle. 
The  prevailing  tone  of  the  landscape  is  brown.  The  roof  of  the  stable 
is  yellow;  the  angels  are  dressed  in  red,  red  violet,  and  blue.  In  the 
Visitation,  Saint  Elizabeth  is  clad  in  a  vermilion  gown  with  a  neutral 
violet  mantle.  The  earth  is  brown  and  the  wall  behind  the  figures  is 
of  a  cold  gray  with  a  little  golden  sky  showing  above.  The  gold  is  in 
good  condition  on  the  whole  panel,  and  the  surface  of  the  paint  is 
also,  in  the  main,  well  preserved. 

The  picture  was  at  one  time  in  the  collection  of  Charles  C.  Perkins, 
who  bought  it  in  Italy  some  time  between  the  years  1850  and  i860. 
It  was  bought  by  Dr.  F.  L.  D.  Rust  in  1910  and  lent  to  the  Fogg 
Museum.  It  is  in  the  Gallery  as  an  indefinite  loan  from  his  widow, 
now  Mrs.  Theodore  C.  Beebe. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Siren.    Art  in  America.    Dec,  1914.  36-40,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Oct.-Dec,  1915.    2d  ser.,  xix  (4),  494-496. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    38.    (Paolo  di 

Giovanni  Fei.) 
Burlington  magazine.    London,  April,  1915.  xxvii  (145),  45. 


m 


S  MASTER  OF  THE  INNOCENTI  CORONATION 


FRA  FILIPPO  LIPPI  (?)  AND  FRA  DIAMANTE  (?) 

FRA  FILIPPO  LIPPI  (?) 

1406/9-1469 

Filippo  Lippi,  the  son  of  a  butcher,  while  still  very  young  was 
taken  off  the  streets  by  the  friars  of  the  convent  of  Santa  Maria  del 
Carmine  in  Florence,  and  in  142 1  he  took  the  vows  of  the  Carmelite 
order.  He  probably  received  instruction  from  Lorenzo  Monaco 
(about  1370-1425),  and  was  influenced  by  his  contemporary,  Fra 
Angelico  (1387-1455).  He  must  have  watched  the  painting  by 
Masolino  and  Masaccio  of  the  frescoes  in  the  Brancacci  Chapel  of  the 
Carmine,  by  which  he  was  profoundly  influenced.  He  became  one 
of  the  most  important  Florentine  painters  of  the  early  xv  century, 
and  executed  a  number  of  exquisitely  beautiful  tempera  paint- 
ings on  panel.  He  lived  in  Prato  most  of  the  time  from  1452  to  1467. 
Here,  assisted  by  Fra  Diamante,  he  painted  in  the  Duomo  the  fine 
series  of  frescoes  of  scenes  from  the  lives  of  Saint  John  the  Baptist, 
Saint  Stephen,  and  Saint  Bernard.  It  was  here  also  that  he  met 
Lucrezia  Buti,  and  became  the  father  of  Filippino  Lippi.  In  1467 
he  went  to  Spoleto  and  began  his  other  famous  series  of  frescoes 
representing  the  life  of  Mary.  Here  he  died  in  1469,  leaving  Fra 
Diamante  to  finish  his  work.  Pesellino  and  Botticelli  were  his 
greatest  followers. 

Fra  Filippo  is  best  known  to  the  world  as  a  painter  of  Madonnas. 
These  panels,  particularly  the  early  ones,  show  an  emotional  quality 
as  well  as  a  delicate  sense  of  beauty.  On  the  other  hand,  in  his 
spacious  and  impressive  frescoes,  Fra  Filippo  carried  on  the  monu- 
mental tradition  of  Masaccio.  Vasari's  life  of  the  erratic  friar  is 
delightfully  picturesque. 

By  Fra  Filippo  in  this  country  is  an  altarpiece  in  the  collection  of 
John  Pierpont  Morgan,  New  York.  There  are  various  other  pic- 
tures connected  with  his  name,  including  a  damaged  wing  of  an 
altarpiece  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum. 


5  8  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

FRA  DIAMANTE  (?) 

1430  to  after  1498 

Fra  Diamante,  an  assistant  of  Fra  Filippo,  was  born  in  Terranuova 
in  the  Val  d'  Arno  in  1430.  When  he  was  very  young  he  entered  the 
convent  of  the  Carmelite  order  at  Prato.  In  1463  he  withdrew  from 
that  order  and  became  a  Vallombrosan  monk.  Fra  Diamante  is 
mentioned  as  Fra  Filippo's  assistant  in  1452,  the  year  in  which  the 
artist  commenced  his  frescoes  at  Prato,  and  worked  with  him  almost 
continuously  until  Filippo's  death  in  1469.  After  completing  the 
Spoleto  frescoes  in  1470,  Fra  Diamante  returned  to  Prato.  In  1472 
he  was  living  in  Florence  and  was  enrolled  in  the  Compagnia  di  San 
Luca.  In  1481  and  1482  he  was  in  Rome  painting  in  the  Sistine 
Chapel  for  Sixtus  rv.  The  last  record  which  we  have  of  him  is  a 
letter  dated  1498,  written  by  the  Ferrarese  ambassador  in  Florence 
to  Duke  Ercole  1  on  behalf  of  Fra  Diamante,  "  Excellente  pictore," 
who  had  been  imprisoned  by  the  Abbot  of  San  Salvi. 

No  work  can  with  certainty  be  ascribed  to  Fra  Diamante,  though 
a  few  may  plausibly  be  given  to  him.  Mr.  Berenson,  in  his  Drawings 
of  the  Florentine  Painters,  lists  the  pictures  which  he  believes  to  be 
by  this  painter.  Among  them  are  the  picture  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  a 
Madonna  with  Saint  John  the  Baptist,  Saint  Stephen,  and  Donors 
in  the  Prato  Gallery,  and  the  execution  of  most  of  the  frescoes  at 
Spoleto.  Dr.  Steinmann  definitely  ascribes  to  him  certain  of  the 
figures  of  popes  in  the  Sistine  Chapel.  A  study  of  the  work  which 
may  probably  be  attributed  to  Fra  Diamante  shows  him  to  be 
rather  a  weak  painter,  with  little  feeling  for  form. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(Fra  Filippo  and  Fra  Diamante) 

Berenson,  B.    Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.  i,  52-53; 

ii,  Nos.  1385-1387  (Fra  Filippo);    i,  53-54;    ii,  Nos.  744-747.  1388 

(Fra  Diamante). 
Browning,  R.    Fra  Filippo  Lippi. 
Carmichael,  M.    Fra  Lippo  Lippi's  portrait.    Burlington  magazine.   London, 

July,  1912.  xxi  (112),  194-200. 
Colasanti,  A.    Nuovi  dipinti  di  Filippo  e  di  Filippino  Lippi.    L'Arte.    Rome, 

Aug.-Oct,  1903.  vi  (8-10),  299-302. 
Gronau,  G.    Fra  Diamante.    In  Thieme-Becker.    Ktinstler-Lexikon.  Leipsic, 

1913.  ix,  202-203. 


' 


< 


FRA  FILIPPO  LIPPI  (?)  AND  FRA  DIAMANTE  (?)  59 

Mendelsohn,  H.    Fra  Filippo  Lippi.    Berlin,  1909. 

Steinmann,  E.     Die  Sixtinische  Kapelle.     Munich,  1901.    i,  202-208  (Fra 

Diamante). 
Strutt,  E.  C.    Fra  Filippo  Lippi.    London,  1906. 
Supino,  I.  B.    Les  deux  Lippi.    Florence,  1904. 
Toesca,  P.    Una  tavola  di  Filippo  Lippi.  Bollettino  d'arte.  Rome,  May-July, 

1917.  xi  (5-7),  105-110. 
Ulmann,  H.    Sandro  Botticelli.    Munich,  1893.  3-21. 

SAINT  JEROME  IN  THE  DESERT  WITH  SAINT  JOHN 
THE  BAPTIST  AND  ANOTHER  SAINT  (SAINT 
THECLA  ?) 

Tempera  on  panel,  arched  top.   H.  62!  in.   W.  74!  in.  (159  X  189.8  cm.) 

The  general  tonality  of  this  picture  is  a  warm  gray,  as  befits  a 
desert  scene  of  "  scathed  rock  and  arid  waste,"  to  use  Ruskin's  ex- 
pression in  describing  a  similar  landscape  by  Filippo  Lippi.  The 
composition  is  pyramidal.  The  three  halos  suggest  an  obtuse  angle, 
whereas  the  neutral  red  pinks,  which  are  the  principal  colour  in  the 
picture,  form  another  pyramid  with  a  sharper  point. 

The  neutral  rose  pink  robe  of  Saint  John  is  repeated  by  the  moun- 
tain just  above  his  head.  A  similar  colour  in  paler  form  on  Saint 
Jerome's  left  shoulder  carries  the  eye  down  to  the  stronger  reds  of 
the  lining  of  Saint  Thecla's  orange  yellow  garment  and  the  flaming 
vermilion  red  heart  in  her  hand.  The  cross  in  Saint  John's  hand  is 
also  of  vermilion.  The  blood  spurting  from  Saint  Jerome's  breast, 
which  he  is  beating  with  a  stone,  flows  from  the  wound  and  makes  a 
pool  on  the  ground.  The  other  principal  colour  is  the  pale  neutral 
blue  in  Saint  Thecla's  tunic,  which  is  not  very  different  from  the 
greenish  blue  of  the  sky.  The  carefully  finished  vegetation  is  a 
dark  yellowish  green.  The  rest  of  the  picture,  including  the  trunks 
of  the  trees,  the  rocks,  flesh  tones,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  robe 
of  Saint  Jerome,  is  composed  of  various  neutral  yellow  grays.  Saint 
Jerome's  garment  seems  to  be  unfinished,  though  it  is  possible  that 
its  present  appearance  is  due  to  the  fading  of  the  original  lake  glaze. 
The  underpainting  is  of  terra  verde,  neutralized  by  a  varnish  slightly 
darkened  with  age,  producing  the  effect  of  yellowish  gray  green. 
Certain  crude,  sketchy,  parallel  lines  which  indicated  the  shadow 
mass  still  show.  Such  bits  of  evidence  of  process  are  rare,  and  hence 
technically  interesting.    Another  curious  feature  is  the  faded  red 


6o  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

glaze,  probably  of  lake,  that  is  clearly  marked  in  the  drapery  over 
the  left  shoulder  and  gradually  fades  away  in  the  nether  parts.  The 
right  side  shows  no  trace  of  this  red. 

Saint  John  the  Baptist  wears  a  brownish  hairy  garment.  The 
martyr  on  the  other  side  appears  to  be  a  youth,  but  has  been  called 
Saint  Thecla  by  several  writers  beginning  with  Baldanzi  and  Mil- 
anesi.  It  is  possible  that  the  picture  was  never  completed,  although 
the  vegetation  was  finished  with  the  greatest  care  and  elaboration. 

The  painting  was  formerly  in  the  Cappella  Dragoni  of  the  Carmine 
at  Prato  and  was  probably  removed  in  Napoleonic  times.  When 
seen  by  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  it  belonged  to  Signor  Grissato  Berti. 
Later  it  appeared  in  a  collection  in  Scotland.  It  came  to  America 
and  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1902. 

There  is  a  difference  of  opinion  among  critics  as  to  the  authorship 
and  quality  of  the  painting.  Many  fail  to  recognize  the  character- 
istics of  Fra  Filippo  himself  and  think  that  it  is  by  Fra  Diamante. 
Canon  Baldanzi  writing  in  1835,  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  Milanesi, 
and  Mr.  Berenson  take  this  view.  Herbert  P.  Home  is  reported  to 
have  said  that  the  picture  is  the  one  certain  painting  by  Fra  Dia- 
mante. Several  other  well-known  critics  have  stated  that  they  believe 
it  to  be  by  Filippo  himself,  in  some  cases  forming  their  judgment  only 
on  the  basis  of  a  photograph.  The  truth  perhaps  lies  between  the 
two  extremes.  The  head  of  Saint  Jerome  is  finer  in  quality  than  the 
other  parts.  It  is  possible  that  Fra  Filippo  himself  began  the  picture, 
and  that  it  was  continued  by  Fra  Diamante.  It  would  be  interesting 
to  know  whether  this  painting  of  Saint  Jerome  is  the  one  referred  to 
by  Browning  in  his  poem  on  Filippo  Lippi. 

Saint  Jerome  is  here  represented  as  penitent.  Generally  when  he 
was  portrayed  in  this  character  he  was  accompanied  by  the  Hon, 
symbol  of  his  fervent  nature  and  his  life  in  the  desert.  The  legend  of 
the  saint  removing  the  thorn  from  the  lion's  paw  was  a  late  invention 
to  explain  the  symbol.  The  painting  in  the  Gallery  by  Matteo  di 
Giovanni  (No.  25)  and  the  picture  by  Polidoro  (No.  49)  represent 
Saint  Jerome  in  his  character  of  translator  of  the  Scriptures. 


FRA  FHJPPO  LIPPI  (?)  AND  FRA  DIAMANTE  (?)  6l 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Baldanzi,  F.    Delle  pitture  di  Fra  Filippo  Lippi  nel  coro  della  cattedrale  di 

Prato.    Prato,  1835.  52-53. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaseixe.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy.    1864.    ii,  353. 

New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward  Hutton.    1909.  ii,  347. 

History  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Langton  Douglas.    1911.  iv,  179-180. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 

Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  65-66,  Reproduction. 
Vasari.    Le  Monnier.     1848.  iv,  127,  note  2. 

Tr.  by  Mrs.  Foster.     1851.  ii,  85,  note. 

Ed.  by  Milanesi.    Sansoni,  1878.  ii,  627,  note  2;  641. 

MENTIONED 

American  architect  and  building  news.    Boston,  Jan.  17, 1903.  lxxix  (1412),  18. 
American  journal  of  archaeology.   July-Sept.,  1903.  2d  ser.,  vii  (3),  404;  Oct- 

Dec,  1905.  2d  ser.,  ix  (4),  498. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  17. 
Berenson.    Florentine  drawings,    i,  54. 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    68,  70,  Reproduction  (71). 
Bibliograeia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1905.    viii  (4),  315,  No.  283. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.   June,  1909.    24,  No.  2. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  191 1.  55. 
Kunstgeschichtliche   Gesellschaft.     Sitzungsbericht.     Dec.    11,   1908. 

viii,  39,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551. 
Milanesi.    L'Art.    Paris,  Jan.  20,  1878.    4e  annee,  i  (3),  64. 
New  England  magazine.    Aug.,  1905.  702. 
Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.     17,  No.  7. 
Thteme-Becker.  ix,  203. 
Ulmann.    Sandro  Botticelli.     5,  note  4. 


FRANCESCO  PESELLINO  (?) 

1422-1457 

Francesco  di  Stefano,  called  Pesellino,  was  born  in  Florence  in 
1422.  His  father  and  grandfather  were  both  painters,  and  it  is  prob- 
able that  Francesco  was  the  pupil  of  his  grandfather  Giuliano.  He 
was  a  close  follower  of  Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  and  was  also  influenced  by 
Fra  Angelico,  Masaccio,  and  especially  by  Domenico  Veneziano. 

Pesellino  was  particularly  happy  as  a  painter  of  small  religious 
panels  and  predelle,  and  as  a  decorator  of  cassoni.  In  the  John  G. 
Johnson  collection  in  Philadelphia  is  a  remarkably  beautiful  Ma- 
donna and  Saints  by  him.  The  predella  panels  in  the  Louvre  and  in 
the  Academy  at  Florence,  the  Annunciation  in  the  collection  of  Sir 
Hubert  Parry,  Highnam  Court,  Gloucester,  which  reveals  Pesel- 
lino's  close  relationship  with  Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  and  the  Madonna 
and  Child  and  Saints  of  Dorchester  House,  are  also  very  lovely 
examples  of  his  art.  Pesellino's  romantic  temperament  and  the 
grace,  gaiety,  and  courtliness  of  his  style  recall  the  spirit  of  the  In- 
ternational school.  He  was  a  refined  colourist  and  altogether  one 
of  the  most  delicate  and  charming  of  Florentine  painters;  he  died 
in  Florence  in  1457. 

Authentic  works  by  Pesellino  are  rare  and  highly  valued.  The 
following  pictures  which  are  usually  admitted  to  be  by  him  are  in  this 
country  and  may  aid  in  the  study  of  the  problem  of  the  authorship 
of  our  panel:  the  miniature  altarpiece  in  the  Johnson  collection, 
already  mentioned;  two  cassone  panels  at  Fenway  Court,  Boston; 
and  a  Madonna  and  Saints  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum,  New  York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bacci,  P.  La  "Trinita"  del  Pesellino  della  National  Gallery  di  Londra. 
Nuovi  documenti.    Rivista  d'arte.    Florence,  1904.  ii  (8-9),  160-177. 

Berenson,  B.    Una  Annunciazione  del  Pesellino.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan, 
March,  1905.  v  (3),  42-43- 
Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.   i,  54-59;  ii,  Nos. 
1838-1841. 

Cust,  L.,  and  Fry,  R.  E.  Notes  on  paintings  in  the  Royal  collections;  xiv, 
A  group  of  two  saints,  S.  Giacomo  and  S.  Mamante,  painted  by  Pesel- 
lino, by  Lionel  Cust.  —  Pesellino's  altarpiece,  by  Roger  E.  Fry.  Bur- 
lington magazine.    London,  Dec,  1909.  xvi  (81),  124-128. 


w 
o 

< 

to 


FRANCESCO  PESELLINO  (?)  63 

Logan,  M.    Compagno  di  Pesellino  et  quelques  peintures  de  l'ecole.    Gazette 

des  beaux-arts.    Paris,  July,  Oct.,  1901.  3e  per.,  xxvi,  18-34,  333-343. 
Mackowsky,  H.  Die  Verkundigung  und  die  Verlobung  der  Heiligen  Katharina 

von  Francesco  Pesellino.   Zeitschr.  f.  bild.  Kunst.    Leipsic,  1899.    N.  F., 

x  (4),  81-85. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    La  tavola  complementare  della  predelle  del  Pesellino  nella 

Galleria  Doria.    L'Arte.    Rome,  April,  1916.  xix  (2),  70-71. 
Weisbach,  W.  Francesco  Pesellino  und  die  Romantik  der  Renaissance.  Berlin, 

1901. 

7     BUILDING  OF  THE  TEMPLE 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  2ifj  in.    W.  23!  in.    (53.5  X  60.3  cm.) 

This  picture  is  given  an  especial  charm  by  its  rather  gay  colouring. 
The  brightest  colour  is  furnished  by  the  singularly  luminous  red 
shadows  in  the  tunic  of  the  carpenter  on  the  right,  the  cap  of  the  car- 
penter inside  the  building,  the  tunic  of  the  mason  inside  the  building, 
the  gown  of  the  king,  and  finally  in  smaller  quantity  in  the  hose  of 
the  mason  with  the  mortar  board  on  his  head.  A  more  neutral  red 
appears  in  the  wall  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  picture,  which  vanishes 
and  reappears  in  the  opening  between  the  two  buildings.  Further,  a 
spotting  of  orange  yellow  is  furnished  by  the  beams  on  the  ground, 
in  the  hands  of  the  carpenters,  and  on  the  roof,  together  with  the 
same  colour  in  the  mortar  board,  and  in  the  shoes,  harp,  and  hair  of 
the  king,  and  the  whole  panel  is  given  character  and  emphasis  by  the 
black  hose  and  cap  of  the  carpenter  on  the  right,  the  dark  cap  of  the 
mason  with  the  trowel,  and  the  black  robe  of  the  king.  The  sky  is  a 
deep  blue  green.  Harmonizing  neutral  grays  are  provided  by  the 
building  and  the  pavement. 

The  picture  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  the  Rev.  Arthur  F. 
Sutton,  Brant  Broughton,  Newark,  England.  It  was  placed  in  the 
Museum  in  t:qi6,  and  later  purchased  with  money  given  by  the 
Society  of  Friends  of  the  Fogg  Art  Museum,  with  the  help  of  a  few 
special  gifts. 

In  its  clear,  bright  colour  and  lithe,  slim  figures,  in  its  gaiety  and 
charm,  the  painting  is  characteristic  of  the  master.  The  question  has 
been  raised  whether  this  is  a  work  by  Pesellino  himself.  Mary  Logan 
has  made  a  special  study  of  a  master  whom  she  calls  "  Compagno  di 
Pesellino,"  and  whose  work  she  and  Mr.  Berenson  believe  has  often 
been  confused  with  that  of  Pesellino.     Mr,  Berenson  and  other 


64  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

critics  believe  that  this  painting  is  by  the  "  Compagno  di  Pesellino." 
It  is  quite  possible  that  works  by  more  than  one  man  are  included 
under  the  name  of  "  Compagno  di  Pesellino,"  and  that  further  study 
will  develop  two  or  more  personalities.  A  picture  which  is  of  interest 
in  this  connection  is  a  beautiful  Annunciation  belonging  to  Philip 
Lehman  of  New  York,  which  appears  to  have  some  relation  to  the 
picture  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  and  may  conceivably  be  by  the  same 
master.  Mr.  Lehman's  painting  was  reproduced  in  the  catalogue 
of  the  Loan  Exhibition  of  Italian  Primitives  held  in  New  York  in 
November,  1917  (p.  55,  No.  19).  There  are  said  to  be  two  other 
panels  of  the  same  series  as  the  Fogg  Museum  panel  in  the  Museum 
at  Le  Mans.  Further  study  may  convincingly  establish  the  belief 
that  the  painter  is  Pesellino  himself. 

EXHIBITED 

Grafton  Galleries,  ion.  Catalogue  .  .  .  by  R.  E.  Fry  and  M.  W.  Brockwell. 
No.  13,  Reproduction  (PI.  xi). 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1917.    xiv,  135. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.  2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 

Arundel  Club.    Portfolio,  1908.    No.  14,  Reproduction. 

Burlington  magazine.  London,  Dec,  1908.  xiv  (69),  174.  (Arundel  Club,  1908.) 

Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Jan.  25,  1917.  328,  Reproduction. 


BENOZZO  GOZZOLI 

1420-1497 

Benozzo  di  Lese  di  Sandro,  called  Benozzo  Gozzoli,  was  born  at 
Florence  in  1420.  It  is  possible  that  he  studied  under  Giuliano 
Pesello,  but  he  is  better  known  as  the  most  distinguished  pupil  of 
Fra  Angelico.  He  was  fortunate  enough  to  be  an  assistant  of  that 
great  master  in  Orvieto  and  Rome  during  the  years  1447  t°  1449.  In 
1450-1452,  as  an  independent  master,  he  painted  a  series  of  fres- 
coes of  the  life  of  Saint  Francis  at  Montefalco.  It  is  probable  that 
from  1450  to  1458  he  laboured  for  the  most  part  in  various  cities 
in  Umbria.  He  influenced  a  number  of  the  most  important  Umbrian 
masters  of  that  day,  and  was  one  of  the  men  who  deserve  the  credit 
of  bringing  into  small  provincial  towns  the  great  Florentine  tradition 
which  later  helped  to  produce  such  men  as  Pintoricchio,  Perugino, 
and  Raphael.  There  are  some  pictures  now  in  the  Fogg  Museum  by 
the  masters  who  felt  his  influence.  In  1459  he  returned  to  his  native 
city  and  was  chosen  among  all  the  painters  in  Florence  to  decorate 
the  chapel  in  the  palace  of  the  Medici,  now  known  as  the  Riccardi 
Palace.  The  decoration  of  this  chapel  is  one  of  the  most  delightful 
bits  of  pageant  painting  of  the  Renaissance  and  is  remarkable  for  its 
unity  of  conception  and  treatment.  From  about  1463  to  1467  he 
worked  at  San  Gimignano.  From  1468  to  1484  he  was  at  work  in 
the  Campo  Santo  at  Pisa,  painting  a  series  of  frescoes,  covering  an 
enormous  space,  and  picturing  scenes  from  the  Old  Testament.  He 
died  at  Pistoia  in  1497. 

Benozzo  is  represented  in  this  country  by  panels  in  the  Metro- 
politan Museum;  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection  and  the  P.  A.  B. 
Widener  collection,  Philadelphia;  and  in  the  Worcester  Art  Museum; 
as  well  as  by  the  Fogg  Museum  Madonna. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Achiardi,  P.  d'.    Una  tavola  di  Benozzo.    L'Arte.    Rome,  Jan.-April,  1903. 

vi  (1-4),  122-124. 
Bacci,  P.    Gli  affreschi  inediti  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli  a  Legoli  (Pisa).    Bollettino 

d'arte.    Rome,  Dec,  1914.  viii  (12),  387-398. 
Benventjti,  G.  B.    Gli  affreschi  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli  nella  cappella  del  Palazzo 

Riccardi.    Florence,  1901. 


66  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

Berenson,  B.    Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.  i,  6-12; 

ii,  Nos.  530-546. 
Biasiotti,  G.    Affreschi  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli  in  S.  Maria  Maggiore  in  Roma. 

Bollettino  d'arte.    Rome,  March,  1913.  vii  (3),  76-86. 
Carnevali,  N.    Un  affresco  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan, 

Feb.,  1909.  ix  (2),  24. 
Cust,  L.,  and  Horne,  H.    Notes  on  pictures  in  the  Royal  collections;  viii, 

The  story  of  Simon  Magus,  part  of  a  predella  painting  by  Benozzo 

Gozzoli.  Burlington  magazine.  London,  Aug.,  1905.  vii  (29),  377-383. 
Gronau,  G.  In  Thieme-Becker.  Kiinstler-Lexikon.  Leipsic,  1909.  iii,  341-349. 
Loeser,  C.    Note  intorno  ai  disegni  conservati  nella  R.  galleria  di  Venezia. 

Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan,  Dec,  1903.  iii  (12),  178,  179. 
Mengin,  U.    Benozzo  Gozzoli.    Paris,  1908.    (Les  maltres  de  l'art.) 
Pacchioni,  G.    Gli  inizi  artistici  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli.    L'Arte.    Rome,  1910. 

xiii,  423-442- 
Papini,  R.    II  deperimento  delle  pitture  murali  nel  Campo  Santo  di  Pisa. 

Bollettino  d'arte.    Rome,  Dec,  1909.   iii  (12),  441-457. 
Dai  disegni  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli.    L'Arte.    Rome,  1910.  xiii,  288-291. 
L'opera  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli  in  Santa  Rosa  di  Viterbo.    L'Arte.    Rome, 

1910.  xiii,  35-42. 
Rossi,  A.    Un  affresco  di  Benozzo  Gozzoli.    L'Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1902. 

v  (7-8),  252-254. 
Venturi,  A.    Beato  Angelico  e  Benozzo  Gozzoli.    L'Arte.    Rome,  1901.  iv, 

1-29. 
Wickhoff,  F.    Die  Sammlung  Tucher.     Munchner  Jahrb.  d.  bild.  Kunst. 

Munich,  1908.  iii  (1),  22,  PL  opp.  p.  30. 

8     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  18  in.    W.  14!  in.    (45.7  X  37  cm.) 
On  the  base  of  the  frame  is  the  inscription:  Ave  Gratia  Plena  Dominus 
Tecu. 

The  Madonna  wears  a  red  gown  and  a  mantle  probably  once  pale 
blue.  A  hint  of  the  original  colour  may  still  be  seen  on  the  right 
shoulder  through  a  brownish  varnish  which  obscures  the  true  colour. 
The  mantleis  lined  with  black.  In  the  Madonna's  halo  in  black  letters 
is  the  inscription,  probably  modern :  Ave  Regina  Celorum  Mater  An. 
The  Child  is  in  a  white  tunic,  much  yellowed,  and  decorated  with  a 
flowered  design  in  gold.  A  neutral  blue  violet  mantle  which  at  first 
sight  appears  to  be  a  part  of  His  tunic  lies  over  His  knees.  A  part  of 
the  mantle  may  be  seen  behind  His  left  shoulder,  apparently  sup- 
ported rather  awkwardly  by  the  Madonna's  left  thumb.  A  gold- 
finch stands  on  the  Child's  knee  looking  at  the  pomegranate  that  He 
holds  in  His  hand.    The  bird  was  painted  over  the  mantle  of  the 


S     BENOZZO    GOZZOLI 


BENOZZO  GOZZOLI  67 

Madonna,  as  the  mantle  shows  through  the  more  or  less  transparent 
colours  of  the  bird. 

The  painting  was  once  in  the  collection  of  Signora  Salvatori,  of 
Florence,  and  later  in  Commendatore  Professore  Volpi's  possession. 
It  passed  into  the  collection  of  Baron  Tucher  of  Vienna,  and  thence 
went  to  Munich,  where  it  was  bought  in  1907  and  brought  to  the 
Fogg  Art  Museum. 

The  picture  appears  to  be  another  version  of  a  Madonna  by 
Benozzo  Gozzoli,  which  was  published  in  1908  in  the  Munchner 
Jahrbuch,  and  which,  curiously  enough,  also  belonged  to  Baron 
Tucher,  Bavarian  minister  at  Vienna.  The  two  pictures  evidently 
were  drawn  from  the  same  cartoon,  or  else  one  is  a  copy  of  the  other. 
In  Baron  Tucher's  version  there  are  angels  in  the  background,  the 
Child  holds  the  bird  in  His  hand,  and  the  piece  of  drapery  behind 
His  neck  more  obviously  belongs  to  His  mantle.  In  the  Fogg 
Museum  picture  there  is  a  renovated  gold  background,  without 
angels;  the  Child  holds  a  pomegranate  and  the  bird  stands  on  His 
knee.  The  two  paintings  also  show  a  slight  difference  in  the  treat- 
ment of  the  drapery  around  the  Child.  Moreover,  Baron  Tucher's 
picture  is  decidedly  reminiscent  of  Fra  Angelico,  whereas  the  Fogg 
Museum  panel  is  slightly  so,  particularly  in  the  type  of  the  Child, 
Who  bears  a  strong  resemblance  to  the  Child  in  the  Perugia  panel  by 
Benozzo.  It  is  further  interesting  to  compare  this  painting  with  two 
pictures  by  Umbrians  whom  Benozzo  influenced.  One  of  these,  in 
the  National  Gallery  in  London,  is  by  Bonfigli  (No.  1843).  The 
other,  by  Mezzastris,  a  fresco,  Madonna  with  Saints,  in  Santa  Lucia, 
Foligno,  is  so  similar  in  composition  that  it  may  have  some  connec- 
tion with  the  Madonna  in  the  Fogg  Museum.  Mr.  Berenson  thinks 
that  Benozzo  painted  the  Fogg  Museum  Madonna  in  1465. 

In  this  painting  as  in  Nos.  9, 10, 12,  and  30,  the  Christ  Child  has  a 
red  cross  in  His  halo.  This  so-called  cruciform  (more  exactly  cruci- 
ferous, cross-bearing)  nimbus,  with  the  cross  sometimes  painted  red 
and  sometimes  indicated  by  incised  lines  or  painted  in  gold,  was  only 
used  for  members  of  the  Trinity  — the  Father,  the  Son,  or  the 
Divine  Lamb  symbolizing  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  represented 
by  the  Dove  —  although  its  use  was  not  universal.  It  is  doubtful  if 
this  was  intended  to  signify  the  cross  of  Christ.    The  halo  encircling 


68  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

the  heads  of  several  Buddhist  and  Hindu  divinities  is  marked  with 
a  similar  cross. 

The  pomegranate  in  the  hand  of  the  Child  bursting  open  and 
showing  the  seeds  has  been  variously  interpreted.  It  may  be  a  sym- 
bol of  the  hope  in  eternity  which  the  Christ  gives  to  man,  signified 
by  the  unexpected  sweetness  of  the  fruit  within  the  hard  rind.  In  the 
writings  of  the  early  fathers  the  fruit  is  also  interpreted  as  the  em- 
blem of  congregations,  because  of  its  many  seeds,  or  as  the  emblem 
of  the  Christian  Church  because  of  the  inner  unity  of  countless  seeds 
in  one  and  the  same  fruit.  The  bird  was  the  symbol  of  the  soul  — 
the  spiritual  as  opposed  to  the  material.  It  appears  in  many  of  the 
paintings  in  the  Gallery.  Later  the  symbol  lost  its  meaning  and  the 
bird  was  introduced  as  an  ornamental  accessory  or  as  a  plaything. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    24,  No.  3,  Repro- 
duction (28). 
Breck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.  1 70-1 71,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1908.    vi,  143. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1910.  2d  ser.,  xiv  (1),  137. 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  17. 

Berenson.    Florentine  painters,  3d  ed.  113. 

Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.  68. 

Bibliografia.    L 'Arte.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1909.  xii  (6),  480,  No.  204. 

Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  55. 

Thteme-Becker.    iii,  348. 

Venturi.    vii,  pt.  1,  430,  note  1. 


PIER  FRANCESCO  FIORENTINO 

Active  from  1474  to  1497 

This  master  has  been  dragged  from  oblivion  in  recent  years.  Crowe 
and  Cavalcaselle  discovered  his  existence.  Recently  Mr.  Berenson 
has  to  some  extent  reconstructed  his  somewhat  puzzling  artistic  per- 
sonality. Other  modern  critics  believe  that  pictures  by  at  least  two 
or  three  hands  are  now  attributed  to  this  painter. 

Pier  Francesco  himself  was  a  priest.  An  altarpiece  by  him  now  in 
the  Gallery  at  Empoli  dates  probably  from  about  1474.  He  signed  a 
Madonna  and  Saints  in  Sant'  Agostino,  San  Gimignano,  in  1494,  and 
a  picture  of  Tobias  and  the  Angels  in  1497.  It  is  said  that  he  as- 
sisted Ghirlandaio  at  San  Gimignano  about  1475.  He  and  the  other 
painters  whose  types  are  so  similar  that  they  are  often  confused  with 
him  were  eclectics,  who  probably  had  a  workshop  of  a  commercial 
nature  in  which  Madonnas  were  produced  in  great  numbers.  The 
master  or  masters  were  perhaps  pupils  of  Benozzo  Gozzoli  or  Fra 
Filippo  Lippi,  and  were  strongly  influenced  by  Neri  di  Bicci,  Baldo- 
vinetti,  and  Pesellino.  Their  designs  were  usually  copied  from  the 
greater  men.  Their  work  also  seems  to  bear  a  relationship  to  the 
recently  reconstructed  painter  known  as  "  Compagno  di  Pesellino," 
already  referred  to  on  page  63. 

Three  pictures  in  this  Catalogue  have  been  associated  with  this 
name.  No.  9  is  essentially  Florentine  and  looks  like  the  work  of  a 
pupil  of  Fra  Filippo  Lippi;  No.  10  is  probably  by  another  hand,  also 
an  imitator  of  Fra  Filippo  Lippi;  and  No.  30,  which  is  almost  cer- 
tainly by  some  one  else,  is  a  very  puzzling  picture.  Some  critics  feel 
sure  that  it  is  Florentine,  others  that  it  is  Umbrian,  and  others  have 
suggested  that  it  is  by  a  North  Italian  painter.  In  this  Gallery  it  is 
catalogued  as  an  Umbrian  picture  and  will  be  described  later. 

Mr.  Berenson  says  that  the  sojourn  of  Pier  Francesco  at  San 
Gimignano  during  the  last  thirty  years  of  the  xv  century  accounts 
for  the  Sienese  and  Umbrian  qualities  in  his  works.  Even  though 
some  of  his  paintings  may  have  these  characteristics,  the  great  ma- 
jority of  the  works  called  by  this  name  are  purely  Florentine,  which 
suggests  either  that  the  coworkers  of  Pier  Francesco  remained  in 
Florence,  or  that  he  and  his  associates  carried  some  Florentine  de- 


yo  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

signs  by  the  great  masters  to  San  Gimignano  with  them,  and  held  to 
their  Florentine  traditions  with  some  tenacity  in  spite  of  the  proxim- 
ity of  Siena. 

Listed  under  Nos.  9-10  of  this  Catalogue  will  be  found  the  works 
in  this  country  associated  with  the  name  of  Pier  Francesco  Fioren- 
tino,  which  are  related  to  the  pictures  in  the  Fogg  Museum.  Other 
pictures  connected  with  the  master  in  America,  though  not  all  by 
him,  are  in  the  Detroit  Museum  of  Art;  in  the  Jarves  collection;  in 
the  Holden  collection,  Cleveland;  in  the  George  and  Florence  Blu- 
menthal  collection,  New  York;  and  in  the  collections  of  Michael 
Dreicer,  the  late  Robert  S.  Minturn,  Grenville  L.  Winthrop,  New 
York;  and  Mrs.  W.  Austin  Wadsworth,  Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY1 

Aynard,  E.    Catalogue  des  tableaux  anciens  .  .  .  composant  la  collection  de 
feu  M.  Edouard  Aynard.    Paris,  1913.  Nos.  43,  59. 

Beeenson,  B.    Catalogue  of  a  collection  of  paintings  and  some  art  objects 
(John  G.  Johnson  collection);    Italian  paintings.    Philadelphia,  1913.  i, 
25-27,  Nos.  39-43- 
Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.    i,  12-13;  ii,  Nos. 

551-554,  1864-1897. 
Florentine  painters  of  the  Renaissance,  3d  ed.    New  York,  1909.  166. 

Bibliografia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  Jan.-Feb.,  1905.  viii  (1),  75,  No.  60. 

Cavalcaselle  and  Crowe.    Storia  della  pittura  in  Italia.   Florence,  1896.  vii, 
498-507. 

Di  alcuni  qtjadri  sconosciuti  di  Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino.    Rassegna  d'  arte. 
Milan,  Sept.,  1906.  vi  (9),  136. 

Giglioli,  O.  H.    Empoli  artistica.     Florence,  1906.    74-79.     (La  Toscana 
illustrata,  ii.) 

Gnoli,  U.    L'arte  italiana  in  alcune  gallerie  francesi  di  Provincia.    Rassegna 
d'arte.    Milan,  Nov.,  1908.  viii  (11),  186-187. 

Hoe,  R.    Art  collection.    Catalogue.    New  York,  191 1.    No.  97. 

Logan,  M.    Compagno  di  Pesellino  et  quelques  peintures  de  l'ecole.    Gazette 
des  beaux-arts.    Paris,  July,  Oct.,  1901;  30  p6r.,  xxvi,  18-34,  333-343. 

Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.    Pictures  in  the  Robert  Hoe  collection.    Burlington  maga- 
zine.   London,  Aug.,  1910.  xvii  (89),  315. 

Pennsylvania  Academy  of  Fine  Arts.     Album  of  reproductions.     Phila- 
delphia, 1892.    (Attributed  to  Benozzo  Gozzoli.) 

Perkins,  F.  M.   Pitture  italiane  nella  raccolta  Johnson  a  Filadelfia.   Rassegna 
d'arte.    Milan,  Aug.,  1905.  v  (8),  116. 

1  Includes  references  to  paintings  similar  to  the  pictures  attributed  to  Pier  Fran- 
cesco Fiorentino  in  the  Fogg  Museum. 


9     PIER  FRANCESCO  FIORENTINO 


PIER  FRANCESCO  FIORENTINO  71 

Poggi,  G.    Una  tavola  di  Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino  nella  Collegiata  d'  Empoli. 

Rivista  d'arte.    Florence,  Jan.-Feb.,  1909.  vi  (1),  65-67. 
Yerkes,  C.  T.    Charles  T.  Yerkes  collection  of  ancient  and  modern  paintings. 

Catalogue.    New  York,  1910.  No.  105. 

9     MADONNA  AND  CHILD* 

Tempera  on  panel,  arched  top.    H.  33  in.    W.  22  in.    (83.8  X  55.8  cm.) 
In  the  original  frame. 

The  Madonna,  in  a  blue  mantle  with  olive  green  lining  over  a  rose 
red  gown,  supports  with  both  hands  the  Child,  Who  stands  on  a  par- 
apet. In  His  left  hand  He  holds  a  bird.  The  drapery  held  around 
Him  by  His  mother  is  of  a  silvery  white,  as  is  the  veil  which  is  wound 
around  the  Madonna's  head  and  falls  over  her  shoulders.  The  hair 
of  the  Madonna  and  of  the  Child  is  of  a  warm  golden  yellow.  The 
cross  in  the  Child's  halo  is  of  red. 

The  condition  of  the  picture  is  excellent.  Though  it  is  a  little  hard 
in  some  ways,  the  colour  is  clear  and  fresh  and  cleanly  put  on.  The 
flesh  is  delicately  modelled,  the  outline  firm,  and  the  drapery  well 
handled.  The  gold  background  with  radiating  lines  is  well  preserved. 
The  frame  is  of  the  design  so  often  used  by  Pier  Francesco  Fioren- 
tino, and  is  decorated  in  blue  and  gold.  The  panel  is  a  delightful 
example  of  the  work  of  this  master. 

The  painting  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  Philip  Lydig, 
which  was  sold  in  New  York  in  April,  1913.  It  was  No.  125  in  the 
catalogue  of  that  sale,  and  was  attributed  to  a  Florentine  artist 
(about  1475).  Though  the  catalogue  states  that  the  picture  was  at 
one  time  in  the  collection  of  F.  Mason  Perkins,  Mr.  Perkins  writes 
that  "  unhappily  "  he  never  owned  it. 

The  picture  was  evidently  painted  from  the  same  design  as  a 
similar  picture  formerly  in  the  Aynard  collection,  Lyons  (No.  59  in 
the  sale  catalogue),  although  the  Aynard  collection  picture  has  a 
background  of  roses  instead  of  a  plain  gold  background.  The  picture 
(No.  9)  is  similar  also  to  two  paintings  attributed  to  Compagno  di 
Pesellino,  more  particularly  to  a  Madonna  and  Child  and  Angels, 
formerly  in  the  Hainauer  collection,  Berlin,  now  belonging  to  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Harold  I.  Pratt  of  New  York,  and  to  some  extent  to  No.  43 
in  the  catalogue  of  the  Aynard  collection.  This  latter  picture  has  a 
certain  resemblance  to  a  picture  at  Fenway  Court  attributed  also  to 


y2  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

Compagno  di  Pesellino.  A  replica  of  the  Hainauer  Madonna  attrib- 
uted to  Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino  is  in  the  Uffizi  Gallery.  Similar 
paintings  attributed  to  Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino  are  in  the  Kaiser- 
Friedrich  Museum, Berlin;  in  the  collection  of  Lady  Henry  Somerset, 
Eastnor  Castle,  Ledbury;  in  the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum,  Lon- 
don; in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia;  in  the  P.  A.  B. 
Widener  collection,  Elkins  Park,  Philadelphia;  in  the  Academy  of 
Fine  Arts,  Philadelphia;  and  in  the  collection  of  Henry  Walters, 
Baltimore. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Valentiner,  W.  R.,  and  Friedley,  D.    Illustrated  catalogue  of  the  Rita 
Lydig  collection.    New  York,  1913.  No.  125,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 
Nation.    March  18, 1915.  314. 

10    MADONNA  AND  CHILD  AND  SAINT  JOHN 

Tempera  on  panel,  with  arched  top.    H.  33I  in.    W.  22^  in.    (86  X 
58  cm.)    In  the  original  frame. 

The  colours  in  this  picture  are  much  darker  than  in  most  of  those 
attributed  to  Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino.  Usually  these  pictures  are 
characterized  by  pale  delicate  blues  and  pinks.  The  Madonna's 
gown  is  red  ornamented  with  a  band  of  gold  embroidery  at  the  neck 
and  waist;  her  mantle  is  dark  blue.  She  wears  a  transparent  cream 
white  kerchief.  The  Child  is  half  covered  with  a  bluish  white 
drapery.  His  hair,  like  that  of  His  mother,  is  of  a  warm  orange  yel- 
low; the  cross  in  His  halo  is  red.  The  goldfinch  is  brown  with  a  touch 
of  red  on  its  head.  The  little  Saint  John  wears  a  goat-skin  of  greenish 
brown  somewhat  darker  than  his  hair.  The  background  is  of  gold 
incised  with  lines  and  indentations.  Around  the  edge  of  the  panel 
is  the  inscription:  Gloria  in  Excelsis  Deo  et  in  Terra  Pax  Hominibus 
Bone  Voluntatis  Laudamus,  and  at  the  base:  Ave  Maria  Gratia 
Plena.  The  letters  are  gold  on  a  red  ground,  with  a  foliage  decora- 
tion in  gold.  The  frame  of  gold  and  dark  blue  decorated  with  gold 
stars  is  similar  to  the  frame  of  No.  9,  except  that  it  has  darkened. 

The  painting  was  bought  in  Italy  and  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in 
1904.    It  is  one  of  numerous  representations  by  the  master  of  the 


IO     PIER   FRANCESCO   FIORENTINO 


PIER  FRANCESCO  FIORENTINO  73 

Madonna  and  Child,  with  or  without  the  little  Saint  John  and 
angels  in  attendance.  Other  paintings  similar  in  composition  are  in 
the  Budapest  Gallery;  in  the  Walker  Art  Gallery,  Liverpool;  in  the 
collections  of  Lord  Battersea,  London  (1905) ;  Dan  Fellows  Piatt, 
Englewood,  N.  J. ;  Arthur  Lehman,  New  York;  and  a  Madonna  and 
Child,  formerly  in  the  Yerkes  collection.  In  execution  No.  10  re- 
sembles still  other  paintings  attributed  to  this  master.  The  sug- 
gestion has  been  made  that  the  original,  of  which  all  these  pictures 
similar  in  design  are  variations,  is  perhaps  a  work  of  the  so-called 
Compagno  di  Pesellino,  belonging  to  Herr  Bracht  of  Berlin  (1909). 
The  fine  Madonna  and  Child  attributed  to  Compagno  di  Pesellino 
at  Fenway  Court,  Boston,  is  also  closely  related  in  composition  to 
the  series.  The  Fogg  Museum  Madonna  is  not  one  of  the  best,  yet 
it  is  not  without  charm. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

McMahan,  U.    Une  exposition  documentaire  en  Pensylvanie.    Gazette  des 
beaux-arts.    Paris,  Feb.,  1909.  4"  per.,  i  (620),  179-181,  Reproduction. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 
Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  66. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1905.    v,  162.   (Attributed  to  a  follower 

of  Pesellino.) 
American  journal  of  archaeology.    April-June,  1907.   2d  ser.,  xi  (2),  240. 
Berenson.    Florentine  painters,  3d  ed.  167. 
Bibliografia.    L'Arle.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1906.    ix  (6),  480. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    24,  No.  6. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.  Boston,  Dec,  1904.  xiii  (50),  278,  279.  (Pesellino.) 
Kunstgeschichtliche    Gesellschaft.     Sitzungsbericht.     Dec.    11,    1908. 

viii,  37,  No.  2,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909. 

550—551,  No.  2. 
London.    National  Gallery.    Catalogue,  1913.    p.  541- 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314- 

Rankin.   Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.    17,  No.  3. 
Rassegna  d'arte.    Sept.,  1906.  136. 
Valentiner,  W.  R.,  and  Friedley,  D.   Illustrated  catalogue  of  the  Rita  Lydig 

collection.    No.  125. 


DOMENICO  GHIRLANDAIO 

1449-1494 

Domenico  di  Tommaso  Curradi  di  Doffo  Bigordi  was  born  in  1449 
in  Florence,  and  probably  was  trained  as  a  goldsmith,  in  connection 
with  which  art  he  or  his  father  is  supposed  to  have  been  given  the 
name,  Ghirlandaio,  the  Garland  Maker.  While  still  young  he  re- 
ceived his  training  as  a  painter  at  the  hands  of  Alesso  Baldovinetti. 
He  was  influenced  by  Verrocchio  and  to  some  extent  by  Botticelli. 

The  work  usually  considered  his  first  is  the  San  Gimignano  series 
of  frescoes  of  1475.  He  went  to  Rome  in  the  same  year,  and  worked 
in  the  Vatican  Library.  On  his  return  to  Florence  he  executed 
some  frescoes  in  that  city.  In  1481  he  went  again  to  Rome  and 
painted  in  the  Sistine  Chapel.  Between  the  years  1483  and  i486  he 
painted  the  life  of  Saint  Francis  in  Santa  Trinita  in  Florence.  On 
September  1,  1485,  he  and  his  brother  David  received  the  com- 
mission from  Giovanni  Tornabuoni  to  decorate  the  walls  of  the 
choir  of  Santa  Maria  Novella  with  scenes  from  the  lives  of  the  Ma- 
donna and  Saint  John  the  Baptist,  as  the  frescoes  which  Orcagna 
had  painted  on  these  same  walls  in  1358  were  damaged  beyond 
repair.  Ghirlandaio's  frescoes  were  completed  in  1490.  Vasari  gives 
an  amusing  description  of  certain  episodes  connected  with  this  work. 
It  appears  that  the  master's  health  broke  down  soon  after  this. 
The  last  works  painted  in  his  bottega  during  his  lifetime  were  exe- 
cuted largely  by  his  assistants.    He  died  of  the  plague  in  1494. 

Ghirlandaio  was  a  facile  decorator  with  a  singular  ability  for 
portraiture.  He  executed  numerous  panel  pictures;  but,  like  most  of 
the  great  Florentines,  he  was  chiefly  remarkable  for  his  frescoes.  Per- 
haps more  than  any  one  of  his  day  he  carried  on  the  tradition  of 
monumental  art  which  came  direct  from  Giotto  and  Masaccio.  He 
had  the  honour  of  being  the  master  of  Michelangelo.  Among  the 
numerous  pupils  whose  style  closely  resembled  his  own  were  his  two 
brothers,  David  and  Benedetto,  and  his  brother-in-law,  Bastiano 
Mainardi.  Ghirlandaio  clung  to  the  use  of  tempera  for  his  panel 
pictures,  and  did  not  adopt  oil  as  did  many  of  his  contemporaries. 

By  Ghirlandaio  in  this  country  is  a  profile  portrait  of  Giovanna 
Tornabuoni,  in  Mr.  Morgan's  collection.    There  is  in  the  Jarves 


II     DOMENICO    GHIRLANDAIO 


DOMENICO  GHIRLANDAIO  75 

collection  a  much  damaged  portrait  head  in  fresco,  which  has  been 
attributed  to  him. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bekenson,  B.    Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.  i,  110- 

115;  ii,  Nos.  863-893. 
Davies,  G.  S.    Ghirlandaio.     1908. 

Hatjvette,  H.    Ghirlandaio.    Paris,  1907.    (Les  maitres  de  l'art.) 
Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.    Domenico  Ghirlandaio.    Nation.    New  York,  Aug.  20, 

1908.  lxxxvii  (2251),  167-170. 
Pietri,  A.  B.    Di  due  tavole  del  Ghirlandaio  nel  Museo  civico  di  Pisa.    Bol- 

lettino  A' arte.    Rome,  Sept.,  1909.  iii  (9),  326-339. 
Steinmann,  E.    Ghirlandaio.    Leipsic,  1897.    (Kiinstler-Monographien,  25.) 

Die  Sixtinische  Kapelle.    Munich,  1901.   i,  208-215,  368-391. 


II     KNEELING  VIRGIN  (FRAGMENT  OF  ANNUNCIATION)* 

Fresco,  transferred  to  canvas  on  panel,  with  arched  top.    H.  57!  in. 
W.  4of  in.     (147  X  103.5  cm-) 

The  Virgin  kneels,  with  a  book  in  her  hand,  in  front  of  a  parapet  of 
red  and  green  marble.  She  wears  a  rose  red  gown  similar  to  the  red 
of  the  marble  in  colour.  Her  mantle  is  of  a  beautiful  pale  blue,  lined 
with  a  cool  bluish  green  which  is  repeated  in  the  green  of  the  marble 
and  the  foliage  of  the  background.  Her  hair  is  yellow.  Her  halo  is 
of  a  red  very  similar  to  the  other  reds  in  the  picture;  it  was  probably 
originally  gilded.  On  the  parapet  are  the  vestiges  of  a  rose  red  vase 
of  flowers,  probably  lilies,  but  almost  obliterated.  In  the  distance 
are  cypresses  and  other  trees. 

The  fresco  was  bought  in  Italy  in  1905.  It  was  formerly  in  the 
collection  of  the  Cavaliere  Giuseppe  Toscanelli,  which  was  sold  in 
Florence  in  1883.  The  picture  was  No.  68  in  the  sale  catalogue  and 
was  attributed  to  Benozzo  Gozzoli.  It  is  described  on  page  18  as  fol- 
lows :  "  Fresque  qui  ornait  le  dessus  de  la  porte  de  la  Villa  Michelozzi 
situee  pres  de  San  Gemignano.  En  la  de'tachant,  l'ange  ayant  ete 
dStruit,  il  ne  reste  que  la  Vierge.  Figure  a  genoux  de  grandeur 
naturelle.    Haut:  1  m.  46  cent.,  larg.  1  m.  3  cent." 

As  Benozzo  Gozzoli,  Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  and  Ghirlandaio 
were  the  three  Florentines  who  worked  in  San  Gimignano,  it  was 
evidently  assumed  at  that  time  that  the  picture  was  by  Benozzo 
Gozzoli.    For  years  the  resemblance  to  Ghirlandaio's  San  Gimignano 


y6  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

frescoes  has  been  remarked.  Mr.  Berenson  was  the  first  to  recognize 
it  as  a  work  of  this  master.  Before  he  knew  that  it  came  from  San 
Gimignano  he  said  that  he  thought  it  was  Ghirlandaio's  earliest 
extant  fresco,  and  various  other  critics  have  since  agreed  with  that 
attribution.  So  there  seems  to  be  little  reasonable  doubt  that  this 
is  the  earliest  or  one  of  the  earliest  existing  frescoes  by  the  master, 
painted  while  he  was  still  strongly  under  the  influence  of  Baldovinetti. 
The  picture  has  been  transferred  from  a  wall  to  a  canvas  on  panel. 
It  is  a  ghost  of  its  former  self  but  a  very  beautiful  one,  as  it  has  not 
been  repainted.  The  colours  are  pale  and  harmonious  and  suggestive 
of  Domenico  Veneziano  and  Baldovinetti. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Edgell,  G.  H.   An  early  fresco  by  Gbirlandaio.    Art  in  America.    New  York, 
Oct.,  1917.  v  (6),  293-299,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    April-June,  1918.    2d  ser.,  xxii  (2),  232. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    24,  No.  5. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  191 1.    55. 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.    314. 

Toscanelli,  G.    Catalogue  de  tableaux,  meubles,  et  objets  d'art  formant  la 
galerie  de  M.  le  Chev.  Toscanelli.    Florence,  1883.   18,  No.  68. 


ECLECTIC  FOLLOWER  OF 
GHIRLANDAIO  AND  FILIPPINO  LIPPI 

A  sketch  of  the  life  of  Ghirlandaio  will  be  found  on  page  74. 

Filippino  Lippi  (1457-1504)  was  the  son  of  Fra  Filippo  Lippi  and 
the  pupil  of  Botticelli.  Among  his  finest  works  are  his  fresco  paint- 
ings in  the  Brancacci  Chapel,  where  he  finished  the  decoration  begun 
by  Masolino  and  Masaccio,  and  his  Vision  of  Saint  Bernard,  in  the 
Badia.  Later  his  work  became  baroque  in  style  and  mawkish  in 
sentiment,  and  he  anticipated  the  decadence  of  Italian  painting. 

12    MADONNA  ENTHRONED  BETWEEN  SAINT  SEBASTIAN 
AND  SAINT  ROCH 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  59!  in.    W.  53!  in.     (151  X  135  cm.) 

From  the  point  of  view  of  composition  this  picture  is  well  and  care- 
fully balanced.  From  the  point  of  view  of  colour  the  interest  swings 
to  the  right  on  account  of  the  splendid  red  robe  of  Saint  Roch,  which 
is  scarcely  balanced  by  the  somewhat  dull,  neutral  orange  yellow 
mantle  of  Saint  Sebastian  —  though  indeed  the  strong  red  is  carried 
through  the  picture  by  means  of  the  Madonna's  gown,  the  rug  in  the 
foreground,  and  the  hose  of  Saint  Sebastian.  The  Madonna's  cloak 
is  of  a  rich  deep  green  blue;  this  colour  appears  again  in  the  tunic  of 
Saint  Sebastian.  Saint  Roch's  tunic  is  green,  making  a  transition  to 
the  browner  green  of  the  trees;  his  black  hose  terminate  in  buff 
coloured  shoes.  The  saints  have  brown  hair,  but  the  hair  of  the  Ma- 
donna and  of  the  Child  is  yellow.  The  canopy  is  of  cold  gray  marble 
supported  by  ornate  columns  of  orange  yellow.  This  last  colour  is 
also  carried  through  the  picture  by  means  of  the  vases  on  the  parapet, 
the  robe  of  Saint  Sebastian,  and  the  staff  and  shoes  of  Saint  Roch. 
The  prevailing  tones  of  the  landscape  are  rather  dark  grays  and 
neutral  greens,  enlivened  by  the  red  roofs  of  the  buildings  in  the  mid- 
dle distance.  The  halos  of  the  Madonna  and  saints  are  narrow  lines 
of  gold.  The  Child's  halo  is  cruciform.  A  Turkish  rug  with  pre- 
vailing tones  of  red,  black,  and  greens  of  various  shades  falls  from 
the  step  and  lies  on  the  pavement,  which  is  of  black  and  white  marble 
slabs,  separated  and  bordered  with  narrow  bands  of  neutral  green. 


78  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

This  picture  belonged  to  the  Hemenway  family  of  Boston,  and  was 
transferred  from  panel  to  canvas  probably  about  1 862 .  A  letter  from 
James  J.  Jarves,  dated  June  i2;  1862,  refers  to  the  transferring  from 
panel  to  canvas  of  a  picture  which  he  calls  "  a  rare  and  beautiful 
specimen  of  Ghirlandaio  of  Florence."  There  is  evidence  which 
points  to  the  fact  that  he  refers  to  the  Fogg  Museum  painting.  The 
picture,  however,  went  to  pieces  badly  during  the  ensuing  fifty 
years.  In  191 2  it  was  given  to  the  Fogg  Museum  by  Augustus 
Hemenway,  Louis  Cabot,  and  W.  E.  C.  Eustis  of  Boston.  It  was 
then  transferred  once  more  to  a  panel  and  was  placed  on  exhibi- 
tion in  the  Museum  in  1916,  in  remarkably  good  condition  con- 
sidering the  precarious  state  in  which  it  had  been  more  than  once. 
The  original  surface  is  in  certain  parts  intact,  although  in  places, 
notably  on  the  Child  and  on  Saint  Sebastian,  the  original  paint  has 
been  replaced. 

As  has  been  said,  Domenico  Ghirlandaio  was  succeeded  by  two 
brothers  and  a  brother-in-law.  In  the  next  generation  of  painters, 
among  his  followers  were  his  son,  Ridolfo  Ghirlandaio,  who  was  per- 
haps a  stronger  painter  than  any  of  Domenico's  other  imitators, 
Raffaelle  dei  Carli,  Alunno  di  Domenico,  whose  real  name  appears 
to  have  been  Bartolommeo  di  Giovanni,  Francesco  Granacci,  and 
Jacopo  del  Sellaio.  Filippino  Lippi  was  the  master  of  Raffaellino  del 
Garbo.  One  of  these  above  mentioned  masters  or  some  other  fol- 
lower of  Ghirlandaio  and  Filippino  doubtless  executed  this  picture 
(No.  12).  It  bears  a  striking  resemblance  in  certain  particulars  to 
other  paintings,  notably:  Madonna  and  Saints,  Naples,  attributed  to 
Ghirlandaio,  but  now  thought  to  be  a  work  of  his  school;  two  paint- 
ings in  the  Berlin  Museum  (Nos.  87  and  98),  attributed  to  Raf- 
faellino del  Garbo,  but  one  of  which  (No.  98)  Mr.  Berenson  believes 
to  be  by  Sellaio  and  the  other  by  a  journeyman  who  worked  for 
Filippino;  Madonna  and  Saints,  Volterra,  perhaps  by  Carli;  the 
Pistoia  altarpiece,  attributed  to  Lorenzo  di  Credi;  Madonna  and 
Saints,  Academy,  Florence  (No.  66),  Madonna  and  Saints,  Uffizi 
Gallery  (No.  1297),  both  by  Domenico  Ghirlandaio.  This  perhaps 
indicates  that  the  design  originated  in  Ghirlandaio's  studio.  As  the 
types  are  more  closely  connected  with  the  Filippino  atelier,  it  would 
seem  to  show  that  the  picture  was  executed  by  an  eclectic  follower  of 
Ghirlandaio  and  Filippino. 


12      ECLECTIC    FOLLOWER   OF    GHIRLANDAIO    AND    FILIPPINO    LIPPI 


FOLLOWER  OF  GHIRLANDAIO  AND  FILIPPINO  LIPPI     79 

The  flowers  in  the  vases  are  pink  carnations,  jasmine,  and  myrtle. 
Myrtle  was  one  of  the  Madonna's  flowers  and  symbolized  her  purity 
and  other  virtues.  The  jasmine,  though  not  strictly  a  sacred  flower, 
is  often  found  in  religious  paintings  —  the  star-shaped  blossom  ap- 
parently symbolized  divine  hope  or  heavenly  joy.  It  is  often  found 
with  roses  and  lilies  beside  the  Madonna.  The  carnation  had  no 
definite  symbolic  meaning,  but  was  frequently  used  instead  of  the 
rose;  then  it  had  the  same  significance  as  the  rose,  the  symbol  of 
divine  love,  sacred  to  the  Madonna. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.    2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 
Howorth,  G.    On  the  restoration  of  oil  paintings,  with  a  few  practical  hints 
to  the  owners  of  pictures,  2d  ed.    Boston,  1864.  12. 


"PARIS  MASTER"  (?) 
xv  century 

"  Paris  Master  "  is  the  name  adopted  by  Dr.  Paul  Schubring  for 
the  painter  of  a  series  of  cassone  panels  which  heretofore  have  been 
considered  close  either  to  Cosimo  Rosselli  or  Utili  da  Faenza.  In 
Dr.  Schubring's  book,  Cassoni,  which  appeared  in  191 5,  he  points  out 
that  the  work  of  this  master  finds  its  inspiration  in  Greek  mythology, 
from  which  he  draws  the  most  delightful  episodes  for  his  pictures.  In 
these  panels  the  landscape  backgrounds  are  usually  suffused  with 
brilliant  light,  in  which  mountain  scenery,  trees  and  flowers  are  well 
represented.  The  master  has  conceived  a  sort  of  earthly  Paradise  in 
which  one  meets  happy  Florentine  princes.  Dr.  Schubring  thinks 
that  the  out-of-door  quality  of  the  panels  points  on  the  one  hand  to 
the  influence  of  Domenico  Veneziano,  and  on  the  other  to  that  of 
Neri  di  Bicci,  who  was  the  master  of  Cosimo  Rosselli. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Schubring,  P.    Cassoni.    Leipsic,  1915.    i,  109;  260-265,  Nos.  163-185;   ii, 
PI.  xxxiii-xxxviii. 

13     JUDGMENT  OF  PARIS 

Tempera.    Panel  transferred  to  canvas.   H.  25!  in.   W.43xi"i-    (65.1  X 
1 10.9  cm.) 

On  the  left  are  Juno,  Venus,  and  Minerva  disputing  about  the 
apple,  on  which  there  is  the  partially  effaced  inscription:  TH  KAAH 
(Tg  Kakfj).  Jupiter,  who  stands  with  the  three  goddesses,  advises 
them  to  abide  by  the  decision  of  the  handsomest  of  men,  the  herds- 
man Paris.  On  the  right  the  goddesses  stand  before  Paris,  who  is 
seated  on  a  tree  stump  with  his  dog  and  herds  near  by.  He  is  holding 
out  the  apple  to  Venus.  Here,  as  often  in  mediaeval  and  Renais- 
sance Italian  paintings,  different  parts  of  the  same  story  are  repre- 
sented in  the  same  picture,  by  what  has  been  called  "  the  continuous 
method  of  representation."  This  is  the  only  instance  in  the  Gallery 
which  illustrates  this  custom. 

The  most  brilliant  spot  of  colour  in  the  picture  is  furnished  by  the 
gorgeous  vermilion  hose  of  Paris.   The  pale  green  blue  of  the  tunic  of 


"PARIS  MASTER"  (?)  8 1 

Paris  is  repeated  in  the  mantle  of  Jupiter  and  echoed  again  in  the  far 
fields,  distant  mountains,  and  sky.  Jupiter  wears  a  gorgeous  robe 
and  head-dress  of  gold  and  red.  This  same  combination  of  red  and 
gold  appears  in  the  head-dresses  of  Juno  and  Venus,  in  the  apple,  and 
in  the  collar  of  the  dog.  The  peacock  feathers  on  Juno's  dark  green 
gown  are  wrought  in  gold  also.  Her  mantle  is  violet  red  in  the 
shadow  and  neutral  green  in  the  light,  and  her  shoes  are  red.  Venus 
wears  the  brightest  garments  of  the  three  goddesses.  Her  gown  is 
yellow  in  the  light  and  red  in  the  shadows.  Minerva,  in  a  white 
gown  and  tunic  of  dark  blue  green,  wears  the  soberest  colours.  The 
golden  flowers  embroidered  on  her  tunic  in  the  scene  where  Paris  is 
making  his  choice  are  designed  in  the  same  way  as  the  little  white 
flowers  spotted  over  the  dark  brownish  green  grass  of  the  field.  This 
colour  is  carried  up  into  the  upper  half  of  the  picture  by  means  of  the 
foliage.  Two  of  the  cows  and  a  calf  on  the  right-hand  side  are  neutral 
red.  A  series  of  warm  grays  runs  across  the  picture.  This  tone 
appears  with  varied  modifications  in  three  of  the  cows,  the  goat,  the 
dog,  in  the  nearer  mountains  and  meadows,  in  the  sky  at  the  horizon, 
in  the  cloak  which  Paris  wears  over  his  blue  tunic,  in  the  scarf  of 
Juno,  and  in  the  hair  and  beard  of  Jupiter. 

The  picture  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  Charles  Butler,  which 
was  sold  in  London  in  1911.  Dr.  Schubring  speaks  of  it  as  in  the 
John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia,  which  is  an  error.  It  was 
placed  in  the  Museum  in  1 916  as  a  loan. 

The  picture  is  of  especial  interest,  as  it  represents  a  secular  subject 
and  illustrates  the  classical  spirit  that  was  creeping  into  Florence  at 
this  time.  Cosimo  de'  Medici  had  originated  the  idea  of  the  Pla- 
tonic Academy  after  his  meeting  with  the  Greek,  Georgios  Gemistos, 
in  1439,  and  had  educated  Marsilio  Ficino  to  interpret  Greek  phi- 
losophy. Lorenzo  de'  Medici,  Pico  della  Mirandola,  Angelo  Poliziano, 
and  Leo  Battista  Alberti  were  much  interested  in  the  revival  of  learn- 
ing and  the  study  of  the  classics.  Botticelli,  Pier  di  Cosimo,  and 
others  among  the  great  masters  painted  pictures  representing  the 
Greek  myths.  Even  in  the  earlier  days  of  Paolo  Uccello  the  custom 
existed  of  decorating  with  paintings  cassoni  or  bridal  chests,  other 
furniture,  and  wall  panels.  These  were  often  decorated  by  the 
second-rate  men,  but  occasionally  some  of  the  great  artists  like 


82  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

Pesellino  painted  them.  The  subjects  were  seldom  religious;  more 
often  artists  represented  allegories,  legends,  mythological  scenes,  and 
contemporary  festivities,  such  as  pageants,  feasts,  and  tournaments. 
It  is  difficult  to  tell  whether  this  panel  of  the  Judgment  of  Paris 
was  used  to  decorate  a  wall  or  whether  it  was  a  panel  in  a  cassone 
or  other  piece  of  furniture. 

EXHIBITED 

London.    Burlington  House,  1887. 

London.   New  Gallery,  1893-1894.  Exhibition  of  early  Italian  art  from  1300  to 
1500.    Catalogue.     27,  No.  142. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Schubring.    i,  261-262,  No.  168,  Reproduction  (ii,  PL  xxxv). 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.   2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  17,  Reproduction  (15). 

L'Arte.    Rome,  Jan.-Feb.,  1917.  xx  (1),  64. 

Butler,  C.    Catalogue  of  [his]  highly  important  pictures  by  old  masters 

which  will  be  sold  by  auction  by  Messrs.  Christie,  Manson,  and  Woods 

...  on  May  25  and  May  26,  1911.    10,  No.  26. 
Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.    Bride-chests  of  Renaissance  Italy.    Arts  and  decoration. 

New  York,  Dec,  1915.    vi  (2),  Reproduction  (Frontispiece). 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314.     (Utili  da  Faenza.) 
Reinach.    Repertoire  de  peintures.    i,  638,  Reproduction. 


LORENZO  DI  CREDI  (?) 

Lorenzo  d'Andrea  d'Oderigo  Credi  was  born  in  Florence  in  1457. 
He  came  of  a  family  of  goldsmiths;  he  himself  probably  started 
life  in  that  calling  in  his  father's  workshop.  At  his  father's  death 
he  became  assistant  to  Verrocchio,  the  great  painter-goldsmith  and 
sculptor,  in  whose  workshop  he  had  the  privilege  of  being  a  fellow 
student  with  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and  Perugino.  Credi  was  a  con- 
scientious, laborious  painter  of  highly  finished  oil  easel  pictures, 
chiefly  of  religious  subjects.  Sometimes  his  colour  is  fine,  often  it  is 
inharmonious.  His  drawings  show  that  he  had  a  sense  of  beauty,  but 
his  paintings  are  seldom  inspiring.  He  was  a  faithful  friend  and  fol- 
lower of  Verrocchio.  In  his  old  age  he  was  employed  to  restore 
pictures  by  the  earlier  men.    He  died  in  Florence  in  1537. 

Vasari  gives  the  following  account  of  his  methods,  which  incident- 
ally gives  evidence  concerning  the  practice  of  other  painters  of  that 
day:  "  Lorenzo  was  not  anxious  to  undertake  many  large  works,  but 
took  great  pains  in  the  execution  of  all  that  he  did,  and  subjected 
himself  to  almost  inconceivable  labours  for  that  purpose;  he  had  his 
colours  more  particularly  ground  to  excessive  fineness,  carefully 
purifying  and  distilling  the  nut-oil  with  which  he  mixed  them;  he 
would  place  a  vast  number  of  colours  on  his  palette,  arranging  them 
from  the  palest  of  light  tints  to  the  deepest  of  the  dark  colours,  grad- 
uating them  with  what  must  needs  be  called  a  too  minute  and  super- 
fluous care,  until  he  would  sometimes  have  as  much  as  twenty-five  or 
thirty  on  his  palette  at  one  time,  and  for  every  tint  he  had  a  separate 
pencil.  Wherever  Lorenzo  was  working,  he  would  suffer  no  move- 
ment to  be  made  that  would  occasion  dust  to  rise;  but  all  this  excess 
of  care  is  perhaps  little  more  worthy  of  praise  than  negligence,  for 
there  should  in  all  things  be  observed  a  certain  measure,  and  it 
is  always  good  to  avoid  extremes,  which  are,  for  the  most  part, 
injurious." 

Credi  is  represented  in  this  country  by  paintings  in  the  Metro- 
politan Museum;  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John  L.  Gardner,  Boston; 
in  the  Holden  collection,  Cleveland;  in  the  P.  A.  B.  Widener  collec- 
tion, Philadelphia;  and  in  the  collections  of  Otto  H.  Kahn  and  Mrs. 
C.  P.  Huntington,  New  York. 


84  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.    i,  41- 

48;  ii,  Nos.  671-734. 
Fry,  R.  E.   A  tondo  by  Lorenzo  di  Credi.   Bulletin  of  the  Metropolitan  Museum 

of  Art.    New  York,  Oct.,  1909.    iv  (10),  186-188. 
Gronatj,  G.  In  Thieme-Becker.  Ktinstler-Lexikon.  Leipsic,  1913.  viii,  73-77. 
Loeser,  C.    L'autoritratto  di  Lorenzo  di  Credi.    Atto  di  nascita  dell'  artista. 

L'Arte.    Rome,  1901.  iv,  135-137. 
Ross,  D.  W.    A  drawing  by  Lorenzo  di  Credi.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts  bulletin. 

Boston,  Aug.,  1911.    ix  (52),  36-37. 

14    THE  ANNUNCIATION 

Lent  by  W.  E.  C.  Eustis. 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  13^  in.    W.  10^  in.    (33.2  X  25.5  cm.)    Measure- 
ments inside  frame. 

The  bright  rose  red  gown  of  the  angel  is  the  strongest  colour  in  the 
picture;  it  even  overpowers  the  vermilion  in  the  covering  of  the  bed. 
The  Madonna  wears  a  neutral  violet  gown,  the  colour  of  which  is 
not  unlike  that  of  the  architectural  setting  of  the  room.  Her  cloak 
is  pale  blue.  This  pale  blue  and  neutral  violet  both  occur  in  the 
angel's  wings,  and  the  violet  appears  in  the  shadows  of  the  fluttering 
mantle  over  his  shoulders  and  the  clouds  on  which  his  feet  rest.  The 
floor  is  of  a  subdued  red  violet,  and  notes  of  yellow  and  brown  occur 
in  the  lining  of  the  Madonna's  mantle,  the  hair  of  the  angel  and  of 
the  Madonna,  the  chair  and  the  ledge  around  the  bed.  The  Dove 
and  the  curtain  are  a  somewhat  pearly  gray,  much  like  the  angel's 
mantle.  The  canopy  of  the  bed  is  green.  The  sky  seen  through 
the  window  is  pale  blue. 

On  the  canopy  of  the  bed  is  an  inscription  in  Latin.  On  the 
side  of  the  Virgin's  chair  is  the  date  mcccccvhi  (1508).  At  the  base 
of  the  picture  is  a  quotation  from  Saint  Jerome's  Commentary  on  the 
Gospel  of  Saint  Matthew,  ix,  9:  "Certe  fulgor  ipse,  et  majestas  di- 
vinitatis  occultae  quae  etiam  in  humana  facie  refulgebat  [relucebat 
in  original]  ex  primo  ad  se  videntes  trahere  poterat  aspectu."  Writ- 
ten on  paper  and  formerly  pasted  on  to  the  back  of  the  panel,  but 
now  removed,  were  the  four  letters  of  the  Latin  correspondence  of 
Saint  Ignatius  with  Saint  John  and  the  Virgin  and  a  selection  on 
Saint  Ignatius  from  Saint  Jerome's  Liber  de  Viris  Inlustribus, 
chapter  xvi. 


14     LORENZO    DI    CREDI   (?) 


15      MARIOTTO   ALBERTINELLI 


LORENZO  DI  CREDI  (?)  85 

The  picture  was  lent  to  the  Museum  for  a  few  months  in  1910  by 
W.  E.  C.  Eustis  of  Boston.  In  1915  it  was  again  placed  in  the 
Museum  as  a  loan. 

There  is  a  difference  of  opinion  among  critics  as  to  the  authorship 
of  the  panel,  and  there  is  a  good  deal  of  doubt  as  to  whether  it  is  by 
Lorenzo  di  Credi  himself.  It  has  been  called  an  early  work  of  Credi, 
also  the  work  of  a  late  follower  of  this  master.  In  both  cases  the 
opinion  was  based  on  a  photograph  of  the  picture. 

MENTIONED 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  17. 


MARIOTTO  ALBERTINELLI 

1474-1515 

Mariotto  di  Bigio  di  Bindo  Albertinelli  was  born  in  1474.  He 
began  life  as  a  gold  beater,  but  soon  entered  the  workshop  of  the 
painter,  Cosimo  Rosselli.  There  he  became  intimate  with  his  fellow 
pupil,  Baccio  della  Porta,  commonly  known  as  Fra  Bartolommeo, 
and  they  formed  a  partnership  perhaps  about  1493-  -  Save  for  a  brief 
separation  in  1494,  the  two  artists  worked  together  until  1500,  when 
Baccio,  through  the  influence  of  Savonarola,  joined  the  community 
of  San  Marco  of  the  Dominican  order,  under  the  name  of  Fra  Bar- 
tolommeo. The  partnership  was  renewed  in  1509,  when  Fra  Bar- 
tolommeo asked  for  Albertinelli's  help  in  reorganizing  the  atelier  of 
San  Marco.  In  151 2  the  two  men  separated  again.  According  to 
Vasari,  Albertinelli,  in  a  fit  of  disgust  and  ill-temper,  decided  to  keep 
an  inn.  This  freak  did  not  last  long,  and  in  March,  15 13,  he  was 
painting  again.  Vasari  further  relates  how  Albertinelli,  on  his  way 
home  from  Rome,  was  seized  with  a  sickness  at  Viterbo  and  was 
carried  in  a  Utter  back  to  Florence,  where  he  died  in  November,  1515. 

Little  work  in  fresco  by  Albertinelli  has  been  preserved;  his  panel 
pictures  are  scattered  over  Europe.  In  this  country  he  is  represented 
by  a  Nativity,  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia,  and 
a  figure  of  the  Virgin  Annunciate  in  the  Untermeyer  collection  at 
Yonkers,  N.  Y. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Drawings  of  the  Florentine  painters.    London,  1903.   i,  141- 

143;  ii,  Nos.  1-20. 
Frizzoni,  G.    La  pinacoteca  Strossmayer  nell'  Accademia  di  scienze  ed  arti 

in  Agram.  L'Arte.  Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1904.  vii,  N.  S.,i  (11-12),  435-436. 
Grthter,  G.    Fra  Bartolommeo  della  Porta  et  Mariotto  Albertinelli.    Paris, 

1886. 
Knapp,  F.   In  Thieme-Becker.   Kiinstler-Lexikon.   Leipsic,  1907.  i,  213-215. 
Fra  Bartolommeo  della  Porta  und  die  Schule  von  San  Marco.    Halle  a.  S., 

1903.  205-234. 

15     SACRIFICE  OF  CAIN  AND  ABEL 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  8§  in.    W.  13H  in.    (21.6  X  35.4  cm.) 

Abel  in  a  rich  blue  tunic  kneels  before  his  burnt  offering.  The  red 
flame  burns  brightly  and  the  smoke  ascends  straight  up  to  the  illu- 


MARIOTTO  ALBERTINELLI  87 

minated  yellowish  cloud  at  the  top  of  the  picture.  A  red  flame  is  seen 
in  the  clouds  on  the  left  and  a  bolt  of  fire  descends  to  help  his  sacrifice 
to  burn.  Cain,  a  bearded  man  clad  in  a  violet  tunic,  fiercely  blows 
his  fire,  but  the  smoke  comes  back  into  his  face.  An  orange  yellow 
mantle  lies  on  the  ground  in  front  of  the  gray  brown  altar.  The  field 
and  trees  are  of  a  greener  brown.  The  old  yellow  varnish  still  re- 
maining over  parts  of  the  picture  neutralizes  the  delicate  white 
clouds  in  the  background.  The  sky,  where  the  varnish  has  been 
removed,  is  of  a  wonderfully  luminous,  pale  turquoise  blue.  The 
Sacrifice  of  Cain  and  Abel,  like  most  Old  Testament  subjects,  is 
seldom  represented  except  in  a  series.  This  panel  is  the  size  of  a 
predella  panel  and  probably  was  once  part  of  an  altarpiece. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  in  their  Life  of  Raphael  list  the  painting 
as  in  the  possession  of  the  art  dealer  Signor  Enrico  Baseggio,  Rome. 
According  to  Passavant  the  picture  may  have  been  at  one  time  in 
the  Aldobrandini  collection,  Rome;  later  it  was  in  the  hands  of  Mr. 
Emerson,  a  London  dealer;  in  1844  Signor  Baseggio  owned  it.  It 
was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1906. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  attribute  the  picture  to  Raphael,  and 
associate  it  with  the  Knight's  Dream  in  the  National  Gallery  as  one 
of  his  earliest  existing  works;  they  describe  it  at  length  and  praise 
its  beauty.  Passavant  attributes  it  to  Raphael,  v.  i,  65-66;  v.  ii,  16, 
No.  13,  and  dates  it  between  1500  and  1504;  but  in  v.  iii  questions 
the  attribution.  Modern  critics  believe  that  the  picture  is  Floren- 
tine. Charles  Loeser  was  the  first  to  suggest  Albertinelli  as  the 
painter  of  the  panel,  though  others  believe  that  it  may  be  by  Fra 
Bartolommeo  or  Bacchiacca.  The  Albertinelli  attribution  on  the 
whole  seems  the  most  probable. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston.  Museum  of  Fine  Arts.  Bulletin.  June,  1909.  24,  No.  4,  Repro- 
duction. 

Breck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.   171,  Reproduction. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    Raphael.    London,  1882.  i,  202-204. 

Passavant,  J.  D.  Raphael  von  Urbino.  Leipsic,  1839-1858.  i,  65-66;  ii, 
16,  No.  13;  iii,  158. 


88  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1908.    vi,  143. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1910.  2d  ser.,  xiv  (1),  137. 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  17. 

Berenson.   Florentine  painters,  3d  ed.  in.  (Attributed  to  Fra  Bartolommeo.) 

Bernath.    New  York,  und  Boston.  82. 

Bibliograeia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1909.    xii  (6),  480,  No.  204. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    History  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Tancred 

Borenius.    1914.  vi,  98,  note  3. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  55. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    Boston,  Dec,  1906.    xv  (58),  286. 


SCIPIONE  PULZONE,  CALLED  GAETANO 

ISS0(?)-IS88(?) 

Scipione  Pulzone,  called  Gaetano,  was  born  in  Gaeta  probably  in 
1550.  He  was  trained  in  the  studio  of  Jacopo  del  Conte,  a  follower 
of  Andrea  del  Sarto,  and  represented  the  finer  Florentine  tradition. 
In  addition  to  historical  and  religious  subjects  he  painted  portraits, 
for  which,  he  was  especially  noted.  It  is  said  that  he  painted  por- 
traits of  all  the  principal  cardinals  of  the  Roman  court,  of  the 
secular  princes,  and  of  all  the  noble  ladies  of  Rome.  He  was  a  careful 
and  competent  draughtsman,  though  lacking  in  inspiration.  He 
died  in  Rome  probably  about  1588.    All  Rome  grieved  at  his  death. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Dominici,  B.  de.    Vite  dei  pittori,  scultori,  ed  architetti  napoletani.    Naples, 

1843.  ii,  273-278. 
Lanzi,  L.    History  of  painting  in  Italy;    tr.  by  Thomas  Roscoe.    New  ed. 

London,  1852.  i,  408-409. 

16    PORTRAIT  OF  A  CARDINAL 

Oil  on  canvas.  H.  53^  in.  W.  41  &  in.  (134.7  X  104.6  cm.) 
The  cardinal's  white  rochet  is  mellowed  with  age;  his  mozzetta  is 
very  dark  green,  almost  black.  His  biretta  is  red.  The  chair  is  dark 
violet  red;  the  braid  and  fringe- here,  as  generally  in  later  pictures,  is 
made  to  represent  gold  by  the  skilful  use  of  yellow  and  brown  paint 
instead  of  by  the  actual  use  of  gold  leaf.  The  background  is  very 
dark  brown  with  deep  violet  red  drapery  at  the  left.  The  painting 
is  signed  on  the  scroll  which  the  cardinal  holds  in  his  hand:  All' 
Ill.mo  et  N"0  Sig.or  II  S°  Card.  Alessandino  Scipio  Gaetano  facto  1586. 
The  portrait  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  the  Prince  Sciarra, 
Rome,  and  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  1905. 

As  already  stated,  the  cardinal  is  represented  in  a  rochet,  mozzetta, 
and  biretta.  The  rochet  is  a  close-fitting  vestment  of  linen  or  lawn, 
worn  by  bishops  and  some  others.  It  reaches  to  the  knees  or  lower, 
and  has  close  sleeves  extending  to  the  wrists,  or  is  sleeveless.  The 
mozzetta  is  a  short  ecclesiastical  vestment  or  cape  which  covers  the 
shoulders  and  can  be  buttoned  over  the  breast,  and  to  which  a  hood 


90  FLORENTINE  PAINTING 

is  attached.  It  is  worn  by  the  pope,  cardinals,  bishops,  abbots,  and 
some  other  prelates  who  are  especially  privileged  by  custom  or  papal 
authority.  A  biretta  is  a  square  cap  with  three  ridges  or  sometimes 
peaks  on  its  upper  surface,  now  commonly  worn  by  clerics  of  all 
grades  from  cardinals  downwards. 

MENTIONED 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    27,  No.  20. 
Breck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.  171. 


16     SCIPIONE   PULZONE,    CALLED    GAETANO 


SIENESE  PAINTING 


SIENESE  PAINTING 

THE  Sienese  was  probably  the  earliest  of  the  great  Italian  schools. 
Inspired  by  Byzantine  and  Siculo-Byzantine  art,  independent 
painting  began  in  Siena  in  the  early  xm  century,  first  in  the  decora- 
tion of  missals,  then  in  more  monumental  work  on  panels.  In  the 
Palazzo  Pubblico  there  is  a  Madonna  by  Guido  da  Siena,  dated 
1 22 1,  and  though  the  authenticity  of  the  date  has  been  questioned, 
the  probability  is  that  Guido  worked  and  surrounded  himself  with  a 
definable  school  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  century.  By  the  end  of  the 
Dugento  the  school  was  in  full  development,  headed  by  Duccio,  and 
it  flourished  most  brilliantly  in  the  first  half  of  the  xiv  century. 
Then  politically  and  commercially  the  city  fell  into  a  decline,  and 
though  significant  art  continued,  it  did  not  in  an  historical  sense 
progress.  Instead  of  unfolding  into  Renaissance  painting,  it  merely 
borrowed  Renaissance  phraseology  for  the  expression  of  mediaeval 
ideals.  Unlike  the  Umbrian  school,  the  Sienese  was  unable  or  un- 
willing to  assimilate  foreign  ideas,  and  although  the  xv  century 
school  shows  an  increasing  tendency  to  imitate  Florentine  and  espe- 
cially Umbrian  forms,  this  tendency  led  to  obliteration  of  the  native 
art  rather  than  to  its  healthy  development.  Even  in  the  late  xv  and 
early  xvi  century  the  greatest  artists  were  those  who  had  most  in 
common  with  the  earliest,  and  the  end  of  the  school  came  when  the 
Sienese  painters  became  wholly  susceptible  to  outside  influence. 
To  understand  and  appreciate  the  painting  of  Siena  one  should 
think  of  it  as  the  culmination  of  the  art  of  the  Middle  Ages  rather 
than  as  a  promise  of  anything  modern.  Therein  lies  the  difference 
which  caused  so  great  a  gulf  between  the  art  of  Siena  and  that  of 
contemporary  Florence,  only  forty  miles  away.  Sienese  art  may  be 
regarded  as  the  most  perfect  expression  of  the  Byzantine  ideal.  It 
was  hieratic  and  mystic.  While  Giotto  was  forecasting  the  develop- 
ment of  modern  art  by  studying  nature  and  making  his  figures  act 
like  the  real  people  whom  he  saw  about  him,  Duccio  and  Simone 
Martini  were  sounding  the  Byzantine  creed  that  the  Christian 


94  SIENESE  PAINTING 

saints  were  not  human  but  divine,  not  "  vulgar  "  but  regal,  not 
approachable  but  aloof.  To  the  early  Sienese  as  to  the  Byzantine, 
the  Raphaelesque  conception  of  the  Madonna  as  the  most  tender 
possible  human  mother  would  have  been  blasphemous  bad  taste. 
Siena,  the  Civitas  Virginis,  the  city  of  Saint  Catherine,  of  Fra 
Filippo  of  the  Assempri,  of  San  Bernardino,  was  dedicated  to  Chris- 
tian mysticism.  Artistically,  as  well  as  philosophically,  it  was  indif- 
ferent to  reality,  or  rather  it  was  interested  not  in  commonplace  but 
in  divine  reality.  What  frequently  appears  as  unnatural  in  Sienese 
art  is  but  an  attempt  to  symbolize  the  mysteries.  To  the  modern 
critic,  the  Sienese  would  have  made  the  Taoist  reply:  "  Can  there  be 
anything  that  is  not  natural  ?  " 

To  express  these  ideals  the  Sienese  found  the  predominantly  linear 
mode  of  Byzantium  perfectly  adapted.  Though  the  artists  modelled 
their  important  surfaces  in  very  low  relief,  they  seem  to  have  thought 
largely  in  terms  of  flat  tones  defined  by  line,  and  at  times  all  model- 
ling of  the  surface  was  eliminated.  With  this  linear  mode  went  a 
Byzantine  sumptuousness  of  decoration  and  material,  a  lavish  use  of 
gold,  ultramarine,  and  even  precious  stones.  A  picture  was  a  work 
of  devotion,  vowed  to  a  Divine  Being,  and  no  embellishment  within 
the  means  of  the  donor  was  too  costly  for  it.  Though  the  successors 
of  Duccio  painted  in  fresco  as  well  as  tempera,  one  cannot  but  feel 
that  the  latter  is  the  more  significant  Sienese  technique. 

Although  Sienese  art  was  founded  on  Byzantine,  and  was  in  a 
sense  the  culmination  of  Byzantine,  it  was  nevertheless  a  Gothic  art. 
In  other  words,  it  belonged  to  its  period,  but  it  selected  certain  ele- 
ments of  Gothic  style  for  emphasis.  In  Florence,  Giotto  was  inspired 
by  the  plasticity  of  Gothic  art  and  its  naturalism.  In  Siena,  Duccio 
and  his  followers  developed  the  Gothic  living  line  and  later,  the 
emotionalism  of  Gothic  spirit.  Thus  both  Florentines  and  Sienese 
were  Gothic,  but  in  a  different  way. 

It  was  inevitable  that  a  school  following  a  distinctly  linear  tradi- 
tion should  neglect  Gothic  monumentality  and  sense  of  form  to 
become  vibrant  with  Gothic  line.  Line  became  the  most  powerful 
vehicle  of  Sienese  expression.  Sienese  artists  played  symphonies  in 
line,  achieving  harmonies  in  it  by  the  repetition  of  the  same  linear 
forms  in  various  dimensions  throughout  a  painting.  Line  was  used 
to  express  emotion  and  mysticism,  and  the  painters  would  even 


SIENESE  PAINTING 


95 


arrange  strong  contrasts  of  types  of  line,  harmonious  and  graceful 
on  the  one  hand,  violent  and  angular  on  the  other,  to  convey  different 
spiritual  effects. 

This  linear  quality  and  indifference  to  plastic  reality,  as  well  as  the 
mystic  expression,  brought  Sienese  painting  more  nearly  than  that  of 
any  other  occidental  school  into  harmony  with  the  art  of  Asia. 
Technically  as  well  as  spiritually  the  Sienese  approached  the  artistic 
abstractions  of  China  and  Japan.  Like  the  Oriental,  the  Sienese 
painted  types  rather  than  individuals.  He  tended  to  eliminate 
rather  than  elaborate.  In  short  he  tried  to  "  express  the  organic 
continuity  of  consciousness  rather  than  the  functional  individuality 
of  matter;  to  realize  ideas  rather  than  to  idealize  or  sentimentalize 
realities." *  One  might  imagine  a  Chinese  of  the  xrv  century,  a  lover 
of  Sung  art,  miraculously  transported  to  western  Europe  and  wander- 
ing in  bewilderment  among  the  art  treasures  of  the  Occident,  seeking 
in  vain  for  understanding,  sympathy,  or  even  interest.  Were  he  to 
find  such  a  painting  as  the  Sant'  Ansano  Annunciation  of  Simone 
Martini,  however,  he  would  pause,  for  he  could  receive  its  message. 
Sienese  art  is  thus  in  a  sense  a  Chinvat  bridge  spanning  the  abyss  of 
miscomprehension  between  the  artistic  ideals  of  the  West  and  of  the 
East. 

The  analogies  between  Sienese  and  oriental  art  have  been  observed 
by  practically  every  writer  on  the  Sienese  school.  They  have  been 
tacitly  attributed,  however,  to  accidental  similarities  in  ideals  and 
modes  in  Siena  and  the  East.  As  yet  no  one  has  been  bold  enough  to 
suggest  an  influence  derived  from  actual  contact  with  eastern  art, 
but  such  contact  is  not  beyond  the  bounds  of  possibility.  In  the 
xm  and  xrv  centuries  overland  communication  with  the  Nearer  East 
and  with  China  was  common  and  secure.  Merchants  like  the  Polos, 
prelates  like  John  of  Monte  Corvino,  Andrew  of  Perugia,  and  Friar 
Odoric  of  Friuli,  readily  found  the  way  to  Cathay,  as  China  was  then 
called.  Pekin  was  made  a  Roman  Catholic  diocese,  and  Pegolotti  of 
the  Bardi  banking  house  in  Florence  was  moved  to  write  a  traveller's 
itinerary,  remarkably  like  a  modern  Baedeker,  giving  the  most 
minute  instructions  as  to  inns,  food,  servants,  and  so  forth,  on  the 
route  from  Constantinople  to  Pekin.  Moslems  like  Ibn  Batuta  tra- 
velled as  widely  as  Christians,  and  oriental  travellers  visited  the  Occi- 

1  ].  E.  L.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts  bulletin.    Boston,  Dec,  1917,  p.  72. 


Duccio  di 
Buoninsegna 
ab.  1255-1319 


Ugolino  da 

Siena 

V)-I339V) 

Segna  di 

Bonavenlwa 

active 

1305-^326 

Simone 
Martini 
ab.  1283-1344 


96  SIENESE  PAINTING 

dent.  Thus  Bar  Sauma,  a  Nestorian  of  Pekin,  visited  the  pope  in 
1287,  and  passed  through  Tuscany  on  his  way  to  Paris  and  Bordeaux 
two  years  after  Duccio  painted  the  Rucellai  Madonna.  Not  only 
the  Nearer  East  and  China  but  India  was  opened  to  the  European, 
and  we  hear  of  the  martyrdom  in  the  early  xiv  century  of  one  Bro- 
ther Peter  of  Siena  at  a  place  near  Bombay.  It  was  not  until  the  end 
of  the  xrv  and  the  beginning  of  the  xv  century  that  the  conversion  of 
the  western  Tartars  to  Islam,  the  advance  of  the  Seljuk  Turks,  and 
the  overthrow  of  the  broad-minded,  hospitable  Mongol  dynasty  in 
China  closed  the  overland  trade  routes.  During  the  next  hundred  and 
fifty  years,  while  the  sea  routes  were  being  discovered,  Europe  seems 
largely  to  have  forgotten  the  existence  of  the  Orient.  Wild  as  the 
theory  may  sound,  therefore,  it  is  possible  that  actual  contact  with 
oriental  art  may  account  not  only  for  the  occasional  Mongolian  types 
and  bits  of  oriental  armour  to  be  observed  in  Sienese  art,  but  even  for 
something  of  the  spirit  of  the  style.  It  would,  however,  be  hard  to 
explain  why  the  influence  should  be  confined  to  Siena,  and  though 
the  theory  is  not  impossible,  it  is  not  necessary. 

The  first  master  clearly  to  express  the  Sienese  ideals  was  Duccio  di 
Buoninsegna,  who  painted  the  Rucellai  Madonna  for  Santa  Maria 
Novella  in  Florence  in  1285,  and  in  13 11  finished  his  great  Majestas, 
which  was  carried  in  triumph  through  the  streets  of  Siena  to  the 
sound  of  pealing  trumpets  and  clashing  cymbals,  and  placed  over  the 
high  altar  in  the  Duomo.  Duccio  worked  always  in  tempera.  He 
was  a  master  of  all  that  makes  Sienese  art  great,  appearing  as  the 
finished  product  of  mediaeval  art,  rather  than  as  in  any  sense  archaic. 
He  had  a  strong  sense  of  dramatic  composition;  but,  unlike  Giotto  of 
Florence,  who  chose  to  depend  on  a  few  solidly  painted  figures,  he 
preferred  to  balance  mass  against  a  single  figure  in  a  way  that  again 
reminds  us  of  the  Orient.  He  established  a  flourishing  school,  and 
two  of  his  contemporaries,  Ugolino  da  Siena  and  Segna  di  Bona- 
ventura,  are  specially  worthy  of  mention. 

The  mantle  of  Duccio  descended  on  Simone  Martini,  a  master  who 
travelled  widely  in  Italy,  influencing  many  contemporaries.  Toward 
the  end  of  his  career,  he  joined  the  papal  court  at  Avignon,  where  he 
met  Petrarch,  painted  Laura,  and  taught  Sienese  ideals  and  conven- 
tions to  the  craftsmen  of  a  dozen  countries.  He  died  at  Avignon  in 
1344.    He  was  a  less  coherent  narrative  composer  than  Duccio,  but 


SIENESE  PAINTING 


97 


in  everything  else  he  equalled  or  surpassed  him.  Moreover,  he 
painted  monumental  works  in  fresco,  as  well  as  tempera  panels.  His 
most  famous  frescoes  are  the  Majestas  and  the  equestrian  portrait  of 
Guidoriccio  Fogliani  in  the  Palazzo  Pubblico  in  Siena,  and  the  cycle 
of  scenes  from  the  life  of  Saint  Martin  in  Saint  Francis  at  Assisi. 
Probably  the  greatest  of  his  many  tempera  works  is  the  Sant'  Ansano 
Annunciation,  perhaps  the  most  complete  single  expression  of  the 
Sienese  genius.  Simone  was  assisted  in  much  of  his  work  by  his 
somewhat  less  able,  but  nevertheless  gifted  brother-in-law,  Lippo 
Memmi.  Lippo  did  many  independent  works  as  well,  among  them 
the  stately  frescoed  Majestas  at  San  Gimignano. 

With  the  advent  of  the  next  two  important  Sienese  masters,  Pietro 
and  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  the  old  Sienese  spirit  was  tempered.  Al- 
though the  old  ideals  of  hierarchy  and  aristocracy  were  to  a  certain 
extent  retained,  the  Lorenzetti  brought  art  nearer  to  earth.  Pietro 
was  strongly  affected  by  flamboyant  Gothic  emotionalism,  and  at 
times  offends  by  an  over-dramatic,  one  might  almost  say  melo- 
dramatic effect.  His  spirit  was  anecdotic.  Ambrogio,  the  more 
powerful  artist,  was  didactic,  preaching  the  beliefs  of  the  Sienese 
ruling  class.  A  Madonna  by  him  remains  a  queen,  but  becomes  a 
terrestrial  one.  He  was  influenced  by  the  sculpture  of  Giovanni 
Pisano,  and  in  his  many  Madonna  compositions,  like  the  Madonna 
del  Latte  (Madonna  giving  the  Breast),  succeeds  in  combining  ten- 
derness and  grace  with  aristocracy.  He  profoundly  influenced  the 
Florentine  Bernardo  Daddi,  and  through  him  the  painting  of  Um- 
bria.  Indeed  the  influence  of  the  Lorenzetti  was  wide  spread,  show- 
ing clearly  in  such  famous  works  as  the  Triumph  of  Death  in  the 
Pisan  Campo  Santo,  an  anonymous  work  possibly  by  Francesco 
Traini. 

Throughout  the  xrv  century  Siena  was  teeming  with  artists,  and 
in  this  period  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  city  held  the  dom- 
inating position  in  the  art  of  the  peninsula.  Besides  the  great  names 
already  mentioned,  there  were  many  minor  painters  of  interest  and 
worth,  who  reflected  the  art  of  one  or  more  of  the  major  artists. 
Thus  Barna  Senese,  a  highly  original  artist  about  whom  little  is 
known,  decorated  the  Collegiata  at  San  Gimignano  with  frescoes 
which  recall  the  dramatic  mass  compositions  of  Duccio  and  the  inten- 
sity of  Simone.    Near  to  him  in  style  was  Luca  di  Tomme,  a  sub- 


Lippo  Memmi 
(f)-i357in 


Pietro 
Lorenzetti 
active 
1306-1348 


Ambrogio 
Lorenzetti 
active 


Francesco 
Traini 
middle  of 
xiv  c. 


Barna  Senese 
active  oh. 
1360-1380 

Luca  di 
Tomme,  active 
1355-1392 


98 


SIENESE  PAINTING 


Lippo  Vanni 
middle  of 
xiv  c. 

Giacomo  di 
Mino,  active 
1362-1380 

Bartolo  di 

Fredi 

ab.  1330-1410 

Andrea  Vanni 

ab.  1332-1414 

Paolo  di 
Giovanni  Fei 
active 
1372-1410 

Taddeo  di 

Bartolo, 

ab.  1363-1422 

Marlino  di 

Bartolommeo 

active 

1389-1433 

Sassetta 

1392-1450 


Domenico  di 
Bartolo 
1400-ab.  1450 


Lorenzo 
Vecchielta 
ab.  1412-1480 
Sano  di  Pietro 
1406-1481 


stantial  painter  in  a  Simonesque  vein,  and  Lippo  Vanni,  an  artist 
who  approached  the  art  of  Simone  still  more  closely.  A  pupil  who 
revived  the  glowing  colour  of  Simone  was  Giacomo  di  Mino. 

Two  painters  who  worked  together  and  influenced  later  art  were 
Bartolo  di  Fredi  and  Andrea  Vanni.  Bartolo,  a  chatty,  prolific 
artist,  was  very  unequal,  at  times  exquisite,  at  times  laughably 
awkward.  Andrea,  the  friend  and  portraitist  of  Saint  Catherine, 
was  a  politician  and  diplomat,  whose  works  are  rare.  Those  that 
remain  show  a  simplification  of  Simone's  line,  and  a  colour  scheme  of 
low  intensity  but  great  harmony.  A  third  painter,  who  should  be 
mentioned  for  his  influence  on  later  art,  was  Paolo  di  Giovanni  Fei, 
the  master  of  Giovanni  di  Paolo. 

At  the  turn  of  the  century  the  commanding  personalities  were 
Taddeo  di  Bartolo  and  Stefano  di  Giovanni,  called  Sassetta.  Taddeo 
was  a  widely  travelled  artist  and  a  great  disseminator  of  Sienese 
influence.  He  was  a  solid,  able  craftsman,  with  the  appeal  of  unmis- 
takable sincerity,  if  not  of  genius.  He  inspired  the  mediocre  Martino 
di  Bartolommeo.  Sassetta,  on  the  other  hand,  was  an  artist  of 
unquestionable  genius.  He  lived  in  the  period  of  the  early  Renais- 
sance, but  he  was  purely  mediaeval  in  feeling.  A  pupil  of  the 
uninspired  Fei,  he  none  the  less  inherited  the  best  traditions  of 
Duccio  and  Simone,  and  revived  the  living  line,  delicate  colour,  and 
significant  composition  of  the  earlier  school.  In  spirit  as  in  date  he 
had  much  in  common  with  Fra  Angelico  in  Florence,  though  he  was 
far  subtler.  He  left  it  to  his  less  gifted  contemporary,  Domenico  di 
Bartolo  Ghezzi,  to  inaugurate  the  Renaissance  in  Siena.  Domenico 
was  a  naive  realist,  with  no  sense  of  composition,  who  sought  to 
prove  himself  abreast  of  the  times  by  crowding  his  frescoes  with 
pseudo-classical  detail.  He  is  happiest  in  his  panels,  and  on  a  trip  to 
Umbria  deeply  influenced  the  Perugian  painters,  especially  Boccatis. 

One  of  the  most  influential  artists  of  the  early  Renaissance  was 
Lorenzo  Vecchietta,  a  pupil  of  Sassetta,  who  combined  the  fairy-like 
quality  of  his  master  with  Domenico  di  Bartolo's  classicism.  An- 
other of  Sassetta's  pupils,  Sano  di  Pietro,  became  the  most  devo- 
tional, in  an  obvious  way,  of  the  Renaissance  Sienese.  He  reverted 
entirely  to  the  Middle  Ages,  observing  even  a  hieratic  scale  in  the 
size  of  figures,  and  painted  cherry-eyed  saints  in  gorgeous  flat  robes 
to  be  adored  by  a  not  too  discriminating  bourgeoisie.    As  a  contrast 


SIENESE  PAINTING 


99 


to  him  one  might  select  the  pupil  of  Fei,  Giovanni  di  Paolo,  an 
unequal  artist  of  extreme  originality,  who  at  times  was  capable  of  the 
most  fairy-like  works  in  the  most  charming  colours,  and  at  times 
was  absurd,  tasteless,  and  even  brutal. 

By  far  the  most  progressive  Sienese  of  the  Renaissance  was  Matteo 
di  Giovanni,  a  pupil  of  Vecchietta.  Matteo  studied  under  the  great 
Umbrian,  Pier  dei  Franceschi,  and  succeeded  in  assimilating  Umbro- 
Florentine  influences  without  destroying  the  native  flavour  of  his 
art.  His  trade  was  the  painting  of  astoundingly  wistful  Madon- 
nas, who  show  an  almost  Neoplatonic  melancholy;  but  his  several 
compositions  of  the  Slaughter  of  the  Innocents  show  that  he  was 
capable  of  unrestrained  violence.  He  influenced  many  artists  and 
inspired  one  imitator,  Guidoccio  Cozzarelli,  who  at  times,  in  his  best 
works,  can  be  confused  with  the  master. 

Two  other  artists  of  the  second  half  of  the  century,  Francesco  di 
Giorgio  and  Neroccio  di  Landi,  were  less  progressive,  and  perhaps  for 
that  reason  more  typically  Sienese.  They  were  copartners,  and 
pupils  of  Vecchietta.  Francesco  was  an  architect  and  engineer,  and 
not  a  prolific  painter.  In  painting,  in  order  to  obtain  exotic  effects, 
he  distorted  the  classical  detail  which  he  proportioned  so  justly  in 
his  buildings.  His  colour  was  clear  and  fine,  his  types  melancholy 
and  appealing.  Neroccio  has  been  called  Simone  born  again.  No 
Sienese  used  line  more  vital  and  suggestive,  colour  clearer  and  fresher, 
types  more  appealing  in  their  languid,  wistful  grace.  Nevertheless, 
there  is  a  suggestion  of  ill  health  in  the  art,  not  a  repulsive  ill  health, 
but  a  gentle  neurasthenia  suggesting  artistic  inbreeding.  The  school 
had  passed  the  thoroughbred  stage  and  the  end  was  approaching. 
Little  presage  of  it  is  felt,  however,  in  the  art  of  Benvenuto  di  Gio- 
vanni, another  pupil  of  Vecchietta,  who  painted  with  a  fine  sense  of 
decoration,  and  in  his  earlier  period  in  a  clear,  rich  colour  scheme. 
His  types  have  the  appeal  of  pretty  children.  Toward  the  end  of  his 
career  he  attempted  the  pompous,  and  changed  his  palette  to  a  dark 
and  even  sooty  one.  It  is  unfortunate  that  it  is  in  this  stage  that  he 
had  the  greatest  influence  on  his  son  and  pupil,  Girolamo  di  Ben- 
venuto, who  only  occasionally  did  works  that  deserve  high  praise. 

The  end  came  rapidly  in  Siena.  Foreign  artists  invaded  the  city, 
chief  among  them  Pintoricchio,  who  was  employed  to  decorate  the 
Piccolomini  Library  in  the  Duomo.    Sienese  artists  went  over  to 


Giovanni  di 

Paolo 

ab.  1403-1482 


Matteo  di 
Giovanni 
ab.  1430-14.95 


Guidoccio 
Cozzarelli 
1450-1516 

Francesco  di 


1439-1502 


Neroccio  di 

Landi 

1447-1500 


Benvenuto  di 

Giovanni 

1436-1518V) 


Girolamo  di 

Benvenuto 

1470-1524(3) 


IOO 


SIENESE  PAINTING 


Bernardino 

Fungai 

1460-1516 

Pacchia 
1477-1535 
Pacchiarotto 
1474-1540 


Sodoma 

1477-1540 

Domenico 

Beccafumi 

14S5-1551 


foreign  imitation.  Bernardino  Fungai,  a  pupil  of  Giovanni  di  Paolo, 
was  an  Umbro-Sienese,  crossing  the  art  of  his  master  and  of  Fran- 
cesco di  Giorgio  with  that  of  Signorelli  and  Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo.  His 
pupil,  Pacchia,  was  an  eclectic  imitator  of  Andrea  del  Sarto,  Raphael, 
and  others.  Pacchiarotto,  a  pupil  of  Matteo,  aped  Perugino  as  well 
as  his  immediate  predecessors. 

The  chief  masters  of  the  first  half  of  the  xvi  century  in  Siena  were 
really  Giovanantonio  Bazzi,  called  Sodoma,  and  Domenico  Becca- 
fumi. Sodoma  was  a  Lombard,  influenced  by  Leonardo,  who  came 
to  Siena,  and,  finding  competition  slack,  remained  there.  He  was  a 
slipshod  painter,  lacking  in  artistic  moral  stamina,  but  able  to  show 
occasional  flashes  of  brilliance.  Beccafumi  was  an  orthodox  master, 
highly  respected  by  the  burghers,  who  painted  dull,  magniloquent 
canvases  in  a  reddish,  sooty  tonality.  He  learned  the  tricks  of  the 
High  Renaissance,  a  developed  chiaroscuro,  morbidezza,  sfumatura, 
and  the  like,  but  had  little  to  say. 

The  end  of  Sienese  art  was  thus  ignominious.  Much  of  the  stigma 
may  be  removed,  however,  if  we  disregard  the  aftermath,  as  indeed  we 
should,  and  consider  that  the  real  end  came  with  the  death  of  the  im- 
mediate pupils  of  Vecchietta — Francesco,  Neroccio,  and  Benvenuto. 
In  this  case  we  shall  see  the  movement  first  as  one  of  the  great  me- 
diaeval schools  in  the  xrv  century,  then  as  a  delicate,  self-absorbed 
school  in  the  xv,  the  loveliness  and  significance  of  which  is  none  the 
less  great  for  its  lack  of  general  recognition.  Poets,  biographers, 
critics,  have  united  to  praise  and  expound  the  art  of  Florence;  Siena 
has  had  no  Dante,  no  Vasari,  no  Ruskin.  The  Florentine  was  the 
naturalistic,  the  progressive  school,  and  deserves  its  reputation.  It 
sounded  a  note  that  appealed  to  all,  that  all  could  understand.  Its 
motto  would  have  been  the  Greek  one:  "  Man  is  the  measure  of  all 
things."  Its  light  should  not  dazzle  us,  however,  and  blind  us  to  the 
beauty  and  inner  significance  of  the  reactionary  sister  school,  whose 
creed  may  better  be  found  in  the  words  of  the  Psalmist:  "  What  is 
man,  that  Thou  art  mindful  of  him  ?  " 

George  Harold  Edgell. 


SIENESE  PAINTING  ioi 

The  Sienese  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum  will  be  found  under  Nos.  17-27 
in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch,  the  following  are  rep- 
resented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John 
L.  Gardner  at  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Ugolino  da  Siena,  Madonna  and  Child; 
Segna  di  Bonaventura,  Magdalene;  Lippo  Memmi,  Crucifixion.  (This  picture 
is  attributed  to  Lippo  Memmi  but  is  more  suggestive  of  Simone  Martini.) 
Lippo  Memmi,  Mystic  Marriage  of  Saint  Catherine.  (This  picture  is  attributed 
to  Lippo  Memmi  but  is  strongly  suggestive  of  Barna.)  Bartolo  di  Fredi, 
Burial  and  Assumption  of  the  Madonna;  Sano  di  Pietro,  Madonna  and  Child, 
Madonna  and  Child  and  Saints;  Guidoccio  Cozzarelli,  Madonna  and  Child. 

Fenway  Court:  Simone  Martini,  Madonna  and  Saints;  Attributed  to 
Pietro  Lorenzetti,  Madonna  and  Saints;  Andrea  Vanni,  Saint  Elizabeth. 
Giovanni  di  Paolo,  Christ  in  the  Temple. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Central  Italian  painters  of  the  Renaissance,  2d  ed.  N.  Y.,  1909. 

Essays  in  the  study  of  Sienese  painting.    N.  Y.,  1918. 
Douglas,  L.    History  of  Siena.    London,  1902. 

Heyward,  W.,  and  Olcott,  L.  Guide  to  Siena;  history  and  art.  Siena,  1904. 2  v. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Das  Quattrocento  in  Siena.    Strasburg,  1908.    (Zur  Kunstge- 
schichte  des  Auslandes,  59.) 
Sienesische  Meister  des  Trecento  in  der  Gemaldegalerie  zu  Siena.    Stras- 
burg, 1907.    (Zur  Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  51.) 
Sodoma  und  das  Cinquecento  in  Siena.    Strasburg,  1910.    (Zur  Kunstge- 
schichte des  Auslandes,  74.) 
Rothes,  W.   Die  Blutezeit  der  sienesischen  Malerei  und  ihre  Bedeutung  fur  die 
Entwickelung  der  italienischen  Kunst.    Strasburg,  1904.    (Zur  Kunst- 
geschichte des  Auslandes,  25.) 


AMBROGIO  LORENZETTI 

Active  from  1323  to  1348 

Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  the  stronger  of  the  two  famous  brothers,  was 
one  of  the  small  group  of  great  masters  in  the  first  and  most  remark- 
able period  of  the  art  and  life  of  Siena,  while  the  city  was  powerful 
and  important  in  Italy.  Of  the  life  of  this  artist  comparatively  little 
is  known.  The  first  notice  that  we  have  of  his  activity  is  a  document 
of  1324  concerning  the  sale  of  a  piece  of  land.  The  scant  notices  and 
inscriptions  after  this  date  prove  the  artist  to  have  been  employed  in 
and  about  Siena,  except  for  a  stay  of  two  years  in  Florence,  1332- 
1334,  where  he  matriculated  in  the  Arte  de'  Medici  e  Speziali,  and  a 
journey  which  he  made  in  1335  to  Cortona  to  paint  frescoes,  now 
lost,  for  the  church  of  Santa  Margarita.  The  most  important  date  in 
Ambrogio's  life  is  1337-1338,  when  he  began  his  famous  frescoes  of 
Good  and  Bad  Government,  finished  in  1340,  in  the  Sala  della  Pace 
of  the  Palazzo  Pubblico  in  Siena.  The  last  document  which  men- 
tions the  artist  is  one  of  1345,  noting  a  payment  for  some  figures 
painted  by  him  for  the  Camera  dei  Signori  Nove  in  Siena.  The 
strong  probability  is  that  Ambrogio  and  his  brother  Pietro  both 
died  of  the  plague  which  swept  Siena  in  1348. 

Ambrogio  Lorenzetti  is  represented  in  this  country  in  the  col- 
lections of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt,  Englewood,  N.  J.,  and  Philip  Lehman, 
New  York,  as  well  as  by  the  Fogg  Museum  pinnacle. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cagnola,  G.   Dipinti  ignorati.   Rassegnad'artesenese.    Siena,  1908.  iv(2-3), 

45-46. 
Giglioli,  O.  H.    L'allegoria  politica  negli  affreschi  di  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti. 

Emporium.    Bergamo,  April,  1904.  xix  (112),  265-282. 
Jacobsen,  E.   Sienesische  Meister  des  Trecento  in  der  Gemaldegalerie  zu  Siena. 

Strasburg,  1907.  33-41. 
Meyenburg,  E.  von.    Ambrogio  Lorenzetti.    Inaugural  dissertation.    Zurich, 

1903. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Di  alcune  opere  poco  note  di  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti.   Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  Dec,  1904.  iv  (12),  186-190. 
Dipinti  italiani  nella  raccolta  Piatt.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan,  Jan.,  191 1. 

xi  (1),  3~4- 
The  forgotten  masterpiece  of  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti.    Burlington  magazine. 
London,  April,  1904.  v  (13),  81-87. 
Schubring,  P.    Das  gute  Regiment,  Fresko  von  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti  in  Siena. 
Zeitschr.  f.  Mid.  Kunst.    Leipsic,  1902.    N.  F.,  xiii,  138-145. 


17     AMBROGIO   LORENZETTI 


AMBROGIO  LORENZETTI  103 

17     SAINT  AGNES 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  14&  in.  (to  apex).    W.  of  in.  (across  base). 
(37  X  25  cm.) 

The  saint  is  clad  in  a  red  mantle  edged  with  gold  ornamented  with 
black  and  red;  her  diadem  is  dark,  very  neutral  blue,  and  her  halo  is 
incised  in  the  gold  background.  She  carries  a  shield  with  the  Agnus 
Dei,  and  the  banner  of  Christ  Triumphant.  The  Lamb  has  a  gold 
halo.  As  in  many  pictures  in  the  Gallery  the  bole  under  the  gold 
appears  in  parts. 

The  painting  was  bought  in  Siena  by  C.  Fairfax  Murray  about 
1880.  In  iqio  it  was  purchased  in  Florence,  and  in  1911  was  placed 
in  the  Fogg  Museum  as  an  indefinite  loan. 

This  painting  is  a  pinnacle  torn  from  a  lost  altarpiece.  The  marks 
of  the  irons  by  which  it  was  attached  to  the  larger  panel  are  still 
visible  on  the  back.  Occasional  carelessness  in  execution  may  be 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  the  panel  was  to  occupy  a  subordinate 
position  far  from  the  eye  of  the  spectator.  The  attribution  to 
Ambrogio,  based  purely  on  internal  evidence,  has  been  generally 
accepted.  The  figure  bears  especially  close  resemblance  to  the  Con- 
cordia in  the  Allegory  of  Good  Government,  painted  about  1340. 
The  Fogg  Museum  work  appears  somewhat  more  gracious  and 
youthful,  and  probably  antedates  by  a  few  years  Ambrogio's  great 
masterpiece. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Edgell,  G.  H.    Un'  opera  inedita  di  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti.    L'Arte.    Rome, 
May-June,  1913.  xvi  (3),  206-207,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    July-Sept.,  1913.    2d  ser.,  xvii  (3),  467; 

Jan.-March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  13. 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.  ^  Aug.,  1913.    35. 
Burlington  magazine.    London,  Aug.,  1913.  xxiii  (125),  313. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  54. 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314- 


SCHOOL  OF  PIETRO  LORENZETTI  AND  BARNA  (?) 

SCHOOL  OF  PIETRO  LORENZETTI 
(Pietro  Lorenzetti,  active  from  1306  to  1348) 

Pietro  Lorenzetti  was  the  elder  and  the  less  important  of  the  two 
Lorenzetti  brothers,  active  in  Siena  in  the  first  half  of  the  Trecento. 
The  first  record  of  Pietro  shows  that  he  was  an  independent  master 
in  1306;  it  is  therefore  probable  that  he  was  born  about  1280.  It 
is  likely  that  he  was  a  pupil  of  Duccio;  he  shows  also  the  influence 
of  Simone  Martini,  of  Giotto,  and  especially  of  the  sculptor,  Giovanni 
Pisano.  He  was  a  very  prolific  painter,  both  of  fresco  and  panel 
paintings.  His  work  is  often  hasty,  and  at  times  he  is  over-emotional 
and  melodramatic,  as  in  his  Passion  frescoes  at  Assisi.  But  at  his 
best  he  ranks  with  the  three  greatest  Sienese;  his  Madonna  between 
Saint  Francis  and  Saint  John  the  Evangelist,  in  San  Francesco,  Assisi, 
is  one  of  the  the  finest  bits  of  Sienese  painting,  and  one  of  the  loveliest 
expressions  of  Siena's  deep  religious  fervour. 

The  last  mention  of  Pietro  is  in  the  records  of  1344;  as  has  already 
been  stated,  it  is  probable  that  he  died  in  the  great  plague  of  1348. 
Pietro  Lorenzetti  is  represented  in  this  country  in  the  Metropolitan 
Museum;  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia;  and  at 
Fenway  Court,  Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Douglas,  L.    History  of  Siena.    London,  1902.  363-369. 

Gnoli,  U.    Un  polittico  di  Pietro  Lorenzetti  scoperto  a  Gubbio.    Rassegna 

d'arte  umbra.    Perugia,  Jan.  1,  1909.  i  (1),  22-25. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Sienesische  Meister  des  Trecento  in  der  Gemaldegalerie  zu  Siena. 

Strasburg,  1907.  33-41- 
New  York.   Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.   Bulletm.   April,  1914.   ix  (4), 

99-100. 
Rothes,  W.    Die  Bltitezeit  der  Sienesischen  Malerei.    Strasburg,  1904. 
Vasari.   Vita  di  Pietro  Laurati  (Pietro  Lorenzetti)  con  una  introduzione,  note 

e  bibliografia  di  F.  Mason  Perkins.    Florence,  1910. 


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SCHOOL  OF  PIETRO  LORENZETTI  105 

18A    DEPOSITION   (Face  of  double  panel) 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  19&  in.    W.  13H  in.    (49.7  X  34.8  cm.)  includ- 
ing the  frame,  a  plain  moulding  which  is  part  of  the  panel. 

The  light  gay  colours  of  this  picture  are  a  little  suggestive  of  the 
colour  scheme  used  in  xrv  century  miniatures.  The  blues,  yellows, 
and  pinks  are  distributed  comparatively  evenly  through  the  pic- 
ture, whereas  the  strong  vermilion  is  placed  at  the  lower  right-hand 
corner. 

The  upright  of  the  cross  is  orange  yellow;  the  arm  is  of  a  greenish 
gray  with  drops  of  blood  at  either  end.  The  body  of  Christ  is  of 
green,  the  palhd  overtones  having  faded  for  the  most  part  and  the 
original  terra  verde  underpainting  only  remaining.  His  white, 
transparent  drapery  is  bordered  with  a  thin  line  of  gold.  The  women 
seated  in  the  foreground,  starting  at  the  left,  are  clad  in  cloaks  of 
blue,  rose,  green,  yellow,  and  vermilion.  The  woman  on  the  extreme 
right  wears  under  her  vermilion  cloak  a  gown  which  was  probably 
originally  blue,  though  a  brown  underpainting  shows  in  parts.  The 
woman  standing  at  the  head  of  the  body  of  Christ  wears  a  yellow 
gown  and  a  pale  blue  violet  mantle  lined  with  rose.  The  Madonna, 
who  supports  the  upper  part  of  Christ's  body,  wears  a  pale  red  violet 
gown  and  a  bright  blue  mantle  with  a  red  lining.  The  gold  halos 
have  incised  decoration.  Saint  John  wears  a  blue  gown  and  a  faded 
rose  coloured  mantle;  Saint  Nicodemus  a  brown  gown  and  a  slightly 
warmer  rose  mantle;  his  hair  and  beard  are  brown.  Saint  Joseph  of 
Arimathea  wears  a  blue  gown  and  holds  a  white  sheet  in  his  hands; 
his  hair  and  beard  are  greenish  white.  The  flesh  throughout  shows 
the  terra  verde  underpainting.  The  angels,  which  appear  to  be 
repainted,  are  clad  in  varying  shades  of  pale  violet,  pink,  blue,  and 
yellow.  Two  of  the  angels  have  wings  of  yellow  and  dark  brown, 
almost  black;  the  wings  of  the  other  two  are  of  dull  red  violet, 
yellow,  and  dark  brown.    The  background  is  gold  with  an  incised 

border. 

The  panel  was  bought  in  Rome  by  the  Misses  Williams  of  Salem 
some  time  between  i860  and  1872.  It  was  placed  on  exhibition  in  the 
Museum  in  1915,  at  the  time  of  the  Loan  Exhibition  of  Italian 
Paintings,  and  was  purchased  by  the  Museum  in  191 7. 

The  face  and  back  of  this  panel  appear  to  be  by  different  men.  The 
Deposition  is  probably  of  the  School  of  Pietro  Lorenzetti. 


106  SIENESE  PAINTING 

The  introduction  of  the  angels  flying  near  the  cross  dated  prob- 
ably from  about  the  xn  century.  Often  one  of  the  angels  holds  a 
chalice  in  which  to  receive  the  sacred  blood  from  the  wound  in  the 
Saviour's  side,  as  in  the  small  triptych  attributed  to  Daddi  (No.  i). 
On  the  tablet  at  the  head  of  the  main  shaft  of  the  cross  is  the  inscrip- 
tion: IHS  Nazaren'  Rex  Judeo[rum]  —  the  title  which  Pilate  wrote 
and  put  on  the  cross.  More  often  simply  the  initial  letters  of  this 
title  —  I N  R I  —  are  used.  Instances  of  this  are  seen  in  the  Cruci- 
fixion of  the  panel  of  scenes  from  the  life  of  Christ  (No.  2),  and  in 
the  Descent  from  the  Cross  (No.  55). 

BARNA  (?) 

Active  from  about  1369  to  1380 

Barna  was  a  follower  of  Lippo  Memmi;  he  also  shows  the  influence 
of  Duccio,  of  Simone,  and  of  the  Lorenzetti.  He  was  a  dramatic 
painter  of  individuality  and  power.  He  is  best  known  for  his  series 
of  frescoes  depicting  scenes  from  the  life  of  the  Virgin  and  from  the 
life  of  Christ,  in  the  Collegiata,  San  Gimignano. 

Attributed  to  Barna  in  this  country  are  the  panels  of  the  Cruci- 
fixion in  the  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia,  and  in  the  collection 
of  Henry  Walters  at  Baltimore,  and  a  small  Madonna  and  Saints 
belonging  to  Joseph  Lindon  Smith  of  Boston.  It  is  possible  also 
that  he  painted  a  fine  Marriage  of  Saint  Catherine  attributed  to 
Lippo  Memmi,  now  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beeenson,  B.    Catalogue  of  a  collection  of  paintings  and  some  art  objects 

(John  G.  Johnson  collection);  Italian  paintings.    Philadelphia,  1913.  i, 

53-54,  No.  93. 
Nicola,  G.  de.     In  Thieme-Becker.    Kunstler-Lexikon.     Leipsic,  1908.    ii, 

506-507.  _ 
Rothes,  W.    Die  Bliitezeit  der  sienesischen  Malerei.    Strasburg,  1904. 
Schlegel,  L.  de.    L'Annunciazione  del  Berna.    L'Arte.    Rome,  May-June, 

1909.  xii  (3),  204-207. 

18B     "  WOMAN,  BEHOLD  THY  SON."     (Back  of  double  panel) 
Tempera  on  panel.    H.  19&  in.    W.  13  H  in.    (49.7  X  34.8  cm.) 
On  a  grayish  brown  ground  stands  Christ  with  His  hands  resting 
on  the  shoulders  of  His  mother  and  Saint  John.    On  either  side  are 


BARNA  (?)  107 

Saint  Peter  in  an  orange  yellow  mantle  over  a  blue  green  tunic,  and 
an  apostle,  probably  Saint  James  the  Great,  from  his  resemblance  to 
the  Saviour,  clad  in  a  blue  mantle  over  an  orange  yellow  tunic,  thus 
making  an  interesting  balance  of  colour.  Saint  John's  robe  is  pale 
green  and  his  mantle  rose  colour  with  a  red  violet  lining.  The 
Madonna  wears  a  gown  of  pale  pink  and  a  blue  green  mantle  lined 
with  red  violet.  In  the  centre  the  figure  of  Christ  is  clad  in  a  blue 
green  tunic  and  a  rather  unusual  white  mantle  lined  with  yellow; 
white  being  the  colour  in  which  He  is  represented  after  His  resur- 
rection. Saint  Peter's  hair  is  gray  and  his  beard,  like  the  hair  of  the 
other  saints,  is  yellowish  brown.  The  palms  are  dark  green,  touched 
with  a  pale  green,  almost  white.  The  background  is  gold  and 
around  the  edge  of  the  panel  is  a  narrow  border  of  red. 

The  incident  represented  on  this  panel  is  related  only  in  the  Gospel 
of  Saint  John  (xix,  25-27).  "Now  there  stood  by  the  cross  of  Jesus 
his  mother,  and  his  mother's  sister,  Mary  the  wife  of  Cleophas, 
and  Mary  Magdalene.  When  Jesus  therefore  saw  his  mother,  and 
the  disciple  standing  by,  whom  he  loved,  he  saith  unto  his  mother, 
Woman,  behold  thy  son!  Then  saith  he  to  the  disciple,  Behold  thy 
mother!  And  from  that  hour  that  disciple  took  her  unto  his  own 
home."  The  painter  of  the  panel  has  not  given  a  literal  representa- 
tion of  the  scene.  A  similar  representation  of  the  subject  occurs  on 
the  outside  of  the  left  wing  of  a  triptych  by  Taddeo  Gaddi  in  the 
Berlin  Gallery.    The  incident  is  one  seldom  treated  by  artists. 

This  picture  seems  to  show  some  connection  with  the  work  of 
Barna,  yet  the  treatment  of  the  halos  indicates  that  it  was  perhaps 
painted  before  his  day.  It  has  been  suggested  that  both  the  face  and 
back  of  the  panel  were  executed  by  some  painter  of  San  Gimignano 
or  Pisa  who  showed  Florentine  influence  as  well  as  that  of  the  great 
Sienese  mentioned. 

The  history  of  the  panel  so  far  as  it  is  known  was  given  under  i8a. 

18  A-B  MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1917.    xiv,  135. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.  2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  13. 

Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314. 


SCHOOL  OF  THE  LORENZETTI 

The  painting  numbered  19  has  been  published  by  Mr.  Berenson,  in 
his  Essays  in  the  Study  of  Sienese  Painting,  and  by  Mr.  F.  Mason 
Perkins,  in  Rassegna  d'Arte,  March-April,  1917.  Mr.  Berenson 
attributes  the  picture  to  a  master  who  was  a  pupil  of  Ugolino  and 
later  a  follower  of  the  Lorenzetti.  The  two  Lorenzetti  brothers  have 
been  described  in  connection  with  Nos.  17  and  18.  Ugolino  was  a 
close  follower  of  Duccio,  though  lacking  Duccio's  genius,  and  some- 
what influenced  by  Simone  Martini.  To  represent  the  master  formed 
by  these  influences,  Mr.  Berenson  has  devised  the  name  Ugolino 
Lorenzetti,  active  from  1324  to  1335.  Around  him  he  has  grouped 
a  number  of  pictures,  among  them  an  Annunciation  and  Saints  in  the 
John  G.  Johnson  collection  and  a  small  Tabernacle  at  Fenway  Court, 
attributed  to  Pietro  Lorenzetti.  Mr.  Berenson  thinks  that  the  Fogg 
Museum  Nativity  was  painted  about  1335. 

Mr.  Perkins  points  out  the  eclectic  quality  of  the  picture,  a  char- 
acteristic of  almost  all  the  Sienese  painting  of  the  middle  and  late 
Trecento.  He  considers  that  the  painting  is  perhaps  most  closely 
related  to  the  first  manner  of  Bartolo  di  Fredi,  although  finer  than 
Bartolo's  work.  He  places  the  picture  in  the  middle  Trecento,  the 
work  of  an  artist  as  yet  unknown  to  critics. 

19    THE  NATEVITY 

Tempera  on  panel,  arched  top.    H.  67!  in.    W.  48!  in.    (172.4  X  122.3 
cm.) 

The  colour  scheme  of  this  picture  is  unusual.  The  Madonna  has  a 
mantle  of  clear  rich  ultramarine  blue  bordered  with  gold  over  her  red 
gown,  which  also  has  a  gold  border.  In  her  halo  is  the  inscription: 
Ave  Maria  Gratia  Plena.  Saint  Joseph  is  clad  in  a  striking  orange 
yellow  cloak  over  his  olive  green  robe.  A  lighter  blue  occurs  in  the 
border  of  the  window,  through  which  God  the  Father  is  seen  in  the 
sky  in  a  pale  blue  mantle  in  the  midst  of  seraphim  with  orange  wings. 
Just  above  the  heads  of  the  Holy  Family  are  two  groups  of  angels 
with  red  orange  and  gold  wings.  The  basin  and  ewer  also  are  of  red 
and  gold.  The  remainder  of  the  picture  is  filled  with  a  series  of 
harmonious  grays  and  browns.    The  shepherd  on  the  right  wears  a 


..  gppgFS** 


-  — . .,  |    :.t;*^_~ 

19     SCHOOL   OF   THE   LORENZETTI 


SCHOOL  OF  THE  LORENZETTI  109 

brownish  garment  and  a  gray  cloak.  His  hair  is  reddish  brown  and 
his  staff  and  his  stocking  brown.  Above  him  the  greenish  sleeve  of  a 
second  shepherd  and  a  bit  of  red  drapery  are  seen.  The  white  pillars 
support  a  frieze  of  neutral  green  with  mouldings  of  rose.  The  Dove  is 
white  against  a  black  background.  The  ox  is  reddish  brown  and  the 
ass  a  cold  bluish  gray.  The  Baby  is  wrapped  in  white  swaddling 
clothes. 

The  painting  was  at  one  time  in  the  collection  of  Dr.  Bonnal  of 
Nice;  later  it  was  in  Rome.  It  was  given  to  the  Fogg  Museum  by 
certain  Friends  of  the  Fogg  Museum  in  the  winter  of  1916-1917. 

This  fine  picture  is  a  somewhat  puzzling  example  of  the  work  of 
the  early  Sienese  school  in  its  great  period.  Duccio,  Simone  Martini, 
and  the  two  Lorenzetti  brothers  are  the  men  whose  types  dominated 
the  work  of  the  minor  masters.  This  picture  is  certainly  later  than 
Duccio,  and  only  bears  a  general  resemblance  to  his  work.  Simone 
Martini  influenced  all  the  Sienese  artists  who  came  after  him  and 
among  others  the  man  who  executed  this  picture,  but  it  is  more 
closely  akin  to  the  work  of  the  Lorenzetti  brothers. 

The  ox  and  the  ass  were  invariably  represented  in  scenes  of  the 
Nativity.  There  is  a  tradition  that  they  were  actually  present  at  the 
birth  of  Christ,  although  they  are  not  mentioned  by  any  of  the 
Evangelists.  They  are  sometimes  considered  to  signify  the  homage 
due  to  Christ  from  all  creatures.  Another  interpretation  is  that  the 
ox  is  a  symbol  of  the  Jews,  the  ass  of  the  Gentiles. 

The  Madonna  wears  the  prescribed  red  tunic,  which  was  originally 
richly  embroidered,  with  long  sleeves,  and  a  blue  mantle.  Red,  the 
colour  of  the  ruby,  signified  divine  love,  while  blue,  the  colour  of 
the  sapphire,  when  worn  by  Christ  and  the  Madonna,  was  the  symbol 
of  heavenly  love  and  truth  and  constancy.  The  Madonna's  hood 
and  mantle  are  continuous.  In  general,  particularly  in  the  early 
pictures,  her  head  was  covered  with  a  veil  or  with  her  mantle.  The 
colours  red  and  blue,  or  sometimes  green,  were  given  to  Saint  John 
the  Evangelist,  but  unlike  the  Madonna  he  wore  a  blue  or  green 
robe  and  a  red  or  rose  coloured  mantle. 

The  colours  appropriate  to  Saint  Joseph  were  a  yellow  mantle  over 
a  green  or  gray  tunic.  Here  he  wears  a  yellow  mantle  and  a  green 
tunic.    Yellow,  or  gold,  was  the  symbol  of  the  sun,  of  the  goodness  of 


HO  SIENESE  PAINTING 

God,  of  marriage  and  fruitfulness;  green,  the  colour  of  the  emerald, 
symbolized  victory  and  hope,  particularly  the  hope  of  immortality. 
In  the  Florentine  panel,  No.  2,  Saint  Joseph  wears  a  grayish  violet 
mantle  over  a  vermilion  tunic;  in  the  scene  of  the  Nativity  in  the 
panel  attributed  to  the  Master  of  the  Innocenti  Coronation  (No.  5), 
he  wears  a  yellow  mantle  over  a  dark  blue  green  tunic.  The  later 
masters  were  more  apt  to  disregard  the  significance  of  colour.  In  the 
Holy  Family  by  Pintoricchio  (No.  33)  Saint  Joseph  wears  a  deep  rose 
red  mantle  and  a  dark  blue  robe. 

The  apostle  Saint  Peter  is  usually  represented  in  a  yellow  mantle 
over  a  blue  tunic.  The  panel  "  Woman,  Behold  Thy  Son!  "  (No. 
1  8b)  and  the  triptych,  No.  1,  show  him  clad  in  these  colours.  Yel- 
low in  its  bad  sense  signified  jealousy  or  deceit.  Judas  is  generally 
represented  in  a  dingy  yellow  garment. 

Violet,  the  colour  of  the  amethyst,  signified  love  and  truth,  or 
passion  and  suffering.  Gray  signified  innocence  accused,  humility, 
or  mourning.  In  scenes  of  the  Passion  or  scenes  which  took  place 
after  the  Crucifixion,  the  Madonna  wears  a  gray  or  violet  gown.  In 
the  Deposition  (No.  i8a)  she  wears  violet.  Black  symbolized  the 
earth,  darkness,  mourning,  sin,  and  death,  while  white  was  the  sym- 
bol of  light,  purity,  joy,  and  life.  The  Madonna  wears  white  in 
pictures  of  her  Assumption,  and  Christ  wears  white  after  His  Resur- 
rection. In  the  picture  of  Christ  in  Limbo  by  Sassetta  (No.  22)  He 
wears  white  drapery,  shading  into  blue  violet.  White  and  black  to- 
gether signified  purity  of  life  and  mourning  or  humiliation.  Black 
over  white  was  worn  by  the  Dominicans  and  the  Carmelites.  The 
Dominican  habit  is  seen  in  Lotto's  picture  of  Saint  Peter  Martyr 
(No.  47)  and  on  the  figure  of  this  saint  in  the  Florentine  panel,  No.  5. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.  "  Ugolino  Lorenzetti."  In  Essays  in  the  study  of  Sienese 
painting.  New  York,  191 8.  1-36;  and  Art  in  America.  New  York, 
Oct.-Dec,  1917.  v  (6),  vi  (1),  259-275,  25-52,  Reproductions. 

Perkins,  F.  M.  Un  nuovo  acquisto  del  Museo  Fogg.  Rassegna  d'arte  antica 
e  moderna.   Milan,  March-April,  191 7.  iv  (3-4),  45-53,  Reproductions. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  191 7.  xiv,  135. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.  Jan.-March,  1918.  2d  ser.,  xxii  (i),  97; 
April-June,  1918.   2d  ser.,  xxii  (2),  222-223. 


ANDREA  VANNI 
About  1332  to  about  1414 

Andrea  Vanni,  painter,  politician,  and  diplomat,  was  born  in  Siena 
about  1332.  He  received  his  artistic  training  probably  from  Lippo 
Memmi,  though  he  was  influenced  by  the  Lorenzetti  and  more 
strongly  by  Simone  Martini.  He  is  even  more  interesting  from  the 
historical  than  from  the  artistic  point  of  view.  He  was  very  active  in 
Sienese  politics,  taking  part  in  the  rising  of  1368  against  the  Nobili 
and  subsequently  holding  many  important  positions  in  the  state. 
He  was  sent  on  diplomatic  missions  to  Rome,  Naples,  and  Avignon, 
though  the  semi-illiteracy  revealed  in  his  letters  raises  doubt  as  to  his 
ability  as  a  diplomat.  He  was  a  friend  and  ardent  admirer  of  Saint 
Catherine,  and  his  portrait  of  her  in  fresco  in  the  church  of  San 
Domenico  in  Siena  is  the  only  known  representation  of  the  saint  by 
the  hand  of  a  contemporary  artist.  Andrea  died  about  1414.  Since 
his  name  does  not  appear  in  the  records  of  the  church  of  San 
Domenico,  where  his  family  were  buried,  the  probability  is  that  the 
artist  died  abroad.  Paintings  by  him  are  rare,  this  probably  being 
caused  by  his  wide  activity  in  other  fields.  In  this  country,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  Fogg  Museum  picture,  there  is  a  small  pinnacle  of  an  altar- 
piece  representing  Saint  Elizabeth,  attributed  to  Vanni,  at  Fenway 
Court.  It  is  worth  noting  that  the  measurements  are  almost  iden- 
tical with  the  measurements  of  the  pinnacle  by  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti 
in  the  Fogg  Museum.  There  is  also  an  Annunciation  by  Vanni  in 
the  collection  of  Hon.  William  A.  Clark,  New  York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cagnola,  G.    Affreschi  in  S.  Giovenale  di  Orvieto.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan, 

Feb.-March,  1903.  iii  (2-3),  22-23. 
Chledowski,  C.    Siena.    Berlin,  1905.  ii,  195-197. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Andrea  Vanni.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  Aug.,  1903. 

ii  (6),  309-325. 
Rothes,  W.    Die  Bliitezeit  der  sienesischen  Malerei.    Strasburg,  1904. 


112  SIENESE  PAINTING 

20    THE  ANNUNCIATION 
Left:     Gabriel  Annunciate 

Tempera  on  panel.    Including  frame,  H.  283  in.  (to  apex).    W.  i6|  in. 
(across  base).    (72.4  X  41.3  cm.) 

Gabriel  is  clad  in  a  cream  white  tunic  embroidered  with  gold  and 
ornamented  with  gold  bands,  and  a  mantle  embroidered  in  gold  and 
lined  with  red  gold.  The  feathers  on  his  wings  are  white  yellow, 
vermilion,  and  violet  red,  all  rather  neutral.  His  hair  is  yellow  and 
he  wears  a  blue  ribbon,  with  fibula-like  ornament.  His  mantle  must 
have  darkened  and  gives  the  effect  of  yellowish  brown.  The  branch 
which  he  carries  is  brownish  green,  neutral,  as  are  all  the  other 
colours. 

Right:  Virgin  Annunciate 

Tempera  on  panel.    Including  frame,  H.  29  in.  (to  apex).    W.  15I  in. 
(across  base).     (73.7  X  38.7  cm.) 

The  Virgin  wears  a  gold  embroidered  tunic  with  vestiges  of  pink 
and  a  mantle  originally  blue,  but  now  a  very  dark  neutral  green.  Her 
hood  and  mantle  are  continuous,  and  bordered  with  gold  and  lined 
with  brown.  Her  hair  is  yellow;  her  flesh  tones,  like  Gabriel's,  show 
little  of  the  green  underpainting.  Behind  her  is  a  curtain  of  vermil- 
ion embroidered  with  gold  and  lined  with  brown.  Both  the  panels 
have  gold  backgrounds  with  the  bole  appearing,  and  pavements  of  a 
neutral  violet  red. 

The  panels  were  probably  originally  pinnacles  of  a  large  altarpiece. 
They  were  formerly  in  the  Saracini  collection,  Siena,  and  were  ac- 
quired for  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1914,  through  the  Society  of  Friends 
of  the  Fogg  Museum. 

The  painting  is  close  in  style  to  Vanni's  chief  work,  the  altarpiece 
of  San  Stefano  alia  Lizza  in  Siena.  It  is  a  work  of  the  artist's  mature 
style,  and  may  be  dated  about  1400.  It  may  be  regarded  as  a  later 
version  of  the  Annunciation  painted  by  Simone  Martini  in  1333, 
now  in  the  Uffizi  Gallery  in  Florence.  Simone's  complicated  line  is 
simplified,  as  always  in  Vanni's  works,  and  Simone's  low  relief  be- 
comes still  flatter.  The  Fogg  Museum  painting  shows  more  clearly 
than  any  other  work,  however,  the  ultimate  dependence  of  Vanni  on 
his  great  predecessor. 


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ANDREA  VANNI  113 

The  branch  which  the  angel  carries  has  been  the  subject  of  some 
discussion.  It  is  possible  that  it  is  a  palm.  The  palm  was  in  general 
used  only  in  the  Annunciation  to  the  Madonna  of  her  approaching 
Death.  The  plant  has  been  called  a  laurel.  The  laurel  seems  to  have 
had  no  special  significance  save  that  of  reward. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  while  in  the  majority  of  xrv  and  xv 
century  Annunciations  the  archangel  Gabriel  was  represented  bear- 
ing a  lily,  the  Sienese  painters  seldom  used  this  flower,  preferring 
the  olive  branch,  always  a  favourite  symbol  with  them.  In  the 
Annunciation  it  referred  to  the  Christ  Child  as  the  bringer  of  peace 
on  earth.  One  interpretation  of  the  avoidance  of  the  use  of  the  lily 
by  Sienese  artists  is  that  it  was  due  to  the  hatred  of  Siena  for  Flor- 
ence, the  lily  being  the  flower  of  Florence. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Edgell,  G.  H.    Andrea  Vanni  Annunciation  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  Harvard. 
Art  in  America.    New  York,  Aug.,  1915.  iii  (5),  226-231,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1916.  2d  ser.,  xx  (1),  121. 
Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.  261.    (Palazzo  Saracini,  1266.) 
Bibliografia.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan,  Oct.,  1903.    iii  (10),  159. 
Bibliografia  artistica.    L 'Arte.    Rome,  Aug.-Oct.,  1903.    vi  (8-10),  294. 
Brown  and  Rankin.    405.    (Saracini  collection.) 
Burckhardt.    Cicerone,  iote  Aufl.  670  A.    (Saracini  Palace.) 
Burlington  magazine.    London,  Dec,  1915.  xxviii  (153),  125. 
Chledowski.    ii,  196.     (Siena,  Count  Fabio  Chigi.) 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    History  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Langton 

Douglas.     1908.  iii,  130,  note.     (Saracini  collection.) 
Douglas,  L.    Note  on  recent  criticism  of  the  art  of  Sassetta.    Burlington 

magazine.     London,  Dec,  1903.    iii  (9),  275,  note  2.    (Chigi  —  late 

Saracini  collection.) 
Haig,  E.    Floral  symbolism  of  the  great  masters.    New  York,  1913.    177. 

(Collection  Saracini.) 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    March,  1916.  422. 
Heywood,  W.,  and  Olcott,  L.    Guide  to  Siena,  new  ed.  Siena,  1904.  Pt.  ii, 

224.     (Palazzo  Saracini,  No.  1266.) 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314. 
Olcott,  L.    In  Bryan's  Dictionary  of  painters  and  engravers,  new  ed.    New 

York,  1905.   v,  257.     (Saracini  collection.) 
Perkins.  Burlington  magazine.  Aug.,  1903.  316,  Reproduction  (323).  (Count 

Fabio  Chigi,  Siena.) 
Venturi.    v,  749,  Reproduction  (752-753). 


TADDEO  DI  BARTOLO 

About  1363  to  1422 

Taddeo  di  Bartolo  was  a  Sienese  artist  who  represented  the  transi- 
tion from  the  Middle  Ages  to  the  Renaissance.  The  date  of  his 
birth  is  unknown,  but  since  records  show  that  he  was  under  age 
when  working  for  the  Cathedral  of  Siena  in  1386,  he  was  probably 
born  between  the  years  1363  and  1365.  He  was  entered  in  the  Arte 
de'  Dipintori  in  Siena  about  1389,  and  the  same  year  marks  the 
beginning  of  the  extensive  travelling  of  the  artist  which  carried  his 
influence  far  and  wide  in  the  peninsula.  That  year  we  hear  of  Taddeo 
at  Collegarli,  in  the  hills  of  San  Miniato  al  Tedesco,  and  in  Pisa. 
Some  three  years  later  he  was  in  Genoa,  where  he  probably  married. 
Vasari  mentions  a  trip  to  Padua  about  this  time,  which,  however, 
cannot  be  proved.  In  1393  he  returned  to  Tuscany  and  painted  in 
San  Gimignano.  In  1401  he  executed  his  great  Assumption,  with 
scenes  from  the  Passion,  for  the  Cathedral  of  Montepulciano.  In 
1403  he  was  called  to  Perugia,  where  he  painted  a  number  of  pictures 
which  left  a  profound  impress  on  Umbrian  art.  Several  of  these 
are  now  in  the  Municipal  Gallery,  Perugia.  In  1404  he  returned  to 
Siena.  From  this  time  on  he  was  chiefly  occupied  in  painting 
frescoes  in  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  Siena,  though  in  1410  he  went  to 
Volterra.    Taddeo  died  in  Siena  in  1422. 

Paintings  by  Taddeo  in  this  country,  in  addition  to  the  Fogg 
Museum  panel,  are  in  the  collection  of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt,  Engle- 
wood,  N.  J. ;  in  the  George  and  Florence  Blumenthal  collection,  New 
York;  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia;  and  in  the 
collection  of  the  late  Theodore  M.  Davis  of  Newport,  which  is  now 
in  the  Metropolitan  Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  M.  L.    A  picture  by  Taddeo  di  Bartolo  in  the  Mus6e  Crozatier  at 

Le  Puy.    Revue  archeologique.    Paris,  March-April,  1906.  4e  ser.,  vii, 

236-238. 
Beknath,  M.  H.    Due  disegni  di  Taddeo  Bartoli  nella  Biblioteca  comunale 

d'Assisi.    Rassegna  d'arte  senese.    Siena,  1909.  v  (3),  78-79. 
Desteee,  J.    Sur  quelques  peintres  de  Sienne.    Florence,  1903.   27-33. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Sienesische  Meister  des  Trecento  in  der  Gemaldegalerie  zu  Siena. 

Strasburg,  1907.  49-53. 


21     TADDEO   DI   BARTOLO 


TADDEO  DI  BARTOLO  115 

Perkins,  F.  M.    Alcuni  dipinti  senesi  sconosciuti  o  inediti.    Rassegna  d'arte. 

Milan,  Aug.,  1913.  xiii  (8),  121. 
Rothes,  W.    Die  Blutezeit  der  sienesischen  Malerei.    Strasburg,  1904. 
Vavasour-Elder,  I.    La  pittura  senese  nella  galleria  di  Perugia.    Rassegna 

d'arte  senese.    Siena,  1909.  v  (3),  70-73. 

21     MADONNA  ENTHRONED  WITH  ANGELS 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  70I  in.    W.  34!  in.    (178.5  X  87.9  cm.) 

In  this  picture  the  contrast  of  the  dark  blue  mantle  of  the  Ma- 
donna, now  almost  black,  clearly  silhouetted  against  the  golden 
heavens  and  the  flaming  red  wings  of  the  seraphim,  makes  a  strong 
and  effective  decoration.  The  Madonna's  mantle  is  lined  with  a 
warm  gray  and  clasped  at  the  throat  with  a  gold  and  red  fibula.  On 
her  shoulder  is  a  gold  star.  Her  gown  is  red,  gold  embroidered.  Her 
hair  is  yellow  and  over  it  is  a  thin  veil;  she  wears  a  gold  jewelled 
crown,  and  against  her  throat  is  a  jewelled  cross.  On  her  fingers  are 
gold  rings  set  with  red  and  black  jewels.  In  her  halo  is  the  inscrip- 
tion: Mater  Pulcre  Dilectio.  The  Child  has  a  yellow  gray  tunic 
and  a  green  mantle,  embroidered  and  bordered  with  gold.  He  wears 
a  necklace  with  a  cross  and  a  red  ornament;  in  His  hand  is  a  gold- 
finch with  which  He  plays.  Behind  the  Madonna  and  Child  are 
four  seraphim,  gold  delineated  and  vermilion  coloured.  Below  are 
eight  angels  clad  in  varying  shades  of  pale  yellows  and  greens.  They 
kneel  on  a  pale  flowery  green  field.  The  background  is  gold.  In 
the  quatrefoils  below  is  the  inscription:  Tadeus  de  Senis  pinxit  hoc 
opus  1418. 

The  picture  was  at  one  time  in  the  Torlonia  collection,  Rome,  and 
was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1905. 

Executed  in  1418,  four  years  before  the  artist's  death,  the  painting 
represents  his  mature  style.  Taddeo's  characteristic  Madonna  type 
with  the  broad  forehead  and  the  eyes  well  apart,  giving  a  peculiarly 
honest  expression,  appears  clearly  in  this  work. 

The  representation  of  the  seraphim  as  heads  with  wings  was  of 
Greek  origin  and  signified  the  absence  of  anything  bodily;  the  head 
was  the  seat  of  the  soul  and  wings  were  the  emblem  of  spirit  and 
swiftness.  In  the  early  paintings  the  seraphim  were  always  red, 
"the  seraphim,  being  fiery  in  appearance,  inflame  mortals  towards 
divine  love."      The  cherubim,  on  the  other  hand,  symbolizing 


Il6  SIENESE  PAINTING 

knowledge,  were  in  general  painted  blue.  Towards  the  end  of  the 
xv  century  artists  lost  sight  of  the  distinction  between  the  symbol- 
ism of  red  and  blue. 

The  choral  angels  were  early  introduced  into  pictures  of  the 
Madonna  Enthroned  —  they  were  the  heavenly  choir  whose  office 
it  was  to  sing  hymns  of  praise,  and  not  only  was  the  Madonna  their 
queen,  but  she  was  also  the  patroness  of  all  music.  The  motive  of 
angels  singing  from  a  scroll  is  unusual.  The  Umbrian  painter  Gentile 
da  Fabriano  used  it  twice,  once  in  the  Coronation  of  the  Virgin,  in  the 
Heugel  collection,  Paris,  and  again  in  the  Madonna  and  Child,  in 
the  Perugia  Gallery.  In  the  painting  by  Taddeo  the  words  on  the 
scroll  are  those  of  the  Easter  hymn: 

Regina  Coeli  laetare,  Alleluia! 
Quia  quem  meruisti  portare,  Alleluia! 
Resurrexit  sicut  dixit,  Alleluia! 
Ora  pro  nobis  Deum,  Alleluia! 

Various  shades  of  red  and  blue  were  the  colours  most  frequently 
used  in  the  garments  of  angels,  although  green  is  often  seen,  and, 
particularly  among  the  Venetians,  yellow  or  saffron  coloured  robes 
are  found.  In  all  the  Italian  schools  delicate  and  rather  pale  shades 
were  used.  The  angels  in  this  panel  wear  robes  of  pale  green  and 
yellow;  in  the  Madonna  Enthroned  by  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni 
(No.  26)  the  angels  are  dressed  in  robes  of  rose  colour  and  of  yellow; 
in  the  Madonna  Enthroned  by  Spinello  Aretino  (No.  3)  the  prevail- 
ing shades  of  the  angels'  robes  are  green,  rose,  and  yellow,  while  in 
the  central  panel  of  the  Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece  by  Spinello  (No. 
4A)  the  prevailing  shades  are  blue  and  rose. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 
Beeck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.  169,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1910.  2d  ser.,  xiv  (1),  137; 

Jan-March,  1914.  2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  13. 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.  68. 
Bibliografia.    L 'Arte.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1909.  xii  (6),  480,  No.  204. 


TADDEO  DI  BARTOLO  117 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    26,  No.  10;  Aug., 

1913.    38. 
Brown  and  Rankin.    402. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward 

Hutton.     1909.  ii,  123,  note  6. 
Perkins.    Ancora  dei  dipinti  sconosciuti  della  scuola  senese.    Rassegna  d'arte 

senese.    Siena,  1908.  iv  (1),  8. 


SASSETTA  (STEFANO  DI  GIOVANNI) 

1392-1450 

Stefano  di  Giovanni,  known  as  Sassetta,  was  born  at  Siena  in  1392. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  Paolo  di  Giovanni  Fei  and  was  influenced  by  the 
earlier  Sienese,  Duccio,  Simone  Martini,  and  the  Lorenzetti,  as  well 
as  by  Bartolo  di  Fredi,  the  master  of  Fei.  In  1427  he  was  com- 
missioned to  furnish  a  design  for  the  font  of  the  Siena  Baptistery. 
His  first  dated  altarpiece,  1436,  is  the  Madonna  Enthroned  with 
Saints,  in  the  Osservanza,  Siena.  In  1437  he  entered  into  a  contract 
for  the  altarpiece  of  the  church  of  San  Francesco  at  Borgo  San 
Sepolcro.  This  was  completed  in  1444.  His  work  in  Borgo  San 
Sepolcro  is  noteworthy  in  that  it  helped  perpetuate  Sienese  influence 
in  Umbria.  He  executed  many  paintings  in  his  native  city  and  also 
painted  in  Cortona,  where  he  was  influenced  by  the  work  of  Fra 
Angelico.  In  1447  Sassetta  was  commissioned  to  complete  the 
frescoes  of  the  Roman  gate  which  had  been  begun  by  Taddeo  di 
Bartolo.  He  died  in  1450,  as  the  result  of  exposure  while  working 
on  the  gate,  leaving  the  frescoes  unfinished.  Sassetta's  name  was 
nearly  forgotten  for  a  long  time.  The  interest  in  him  has  revived  in 
recent  years  and  his  works  are  now  highly  valued. 

Among  his  important  paintings  may  be  mentioned  the  following: 
Birth  of  the  Virgin,  Collegiata,  Asciano;  Scene  from  the  Life  of 
Saint  Francis,  Berlin;  Mystic  Marriage  of  Saint  Francis,  Chantilly; 
Madonna  and  Saints,  San  Domenico,  Cortona;  Apotheosis  of  Saint 
Francis,  in  the  collection  of  Bernhard  Berenson,  Settignano;  Adora- 
tion of  the  Magi,  Saracini  collection. 

Several  interesting  examples  of  his  work  may  be  seen  in  American 
collections:  two  representing  the  Temptation  of  Saint  Anthony, 
in  the  Jarves  collection  at  New  Haven;  a  number  in  the  collection 
of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt  at  Englewood,  N.  J. ;  Christ's  Entrance  into 
Jerusalem,  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection.  A  triptych  attributed 
to  Sassetta  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  I.  Pratt  of 
New  York. 


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SASSETTA 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 


119 


Berenson,  B.    A  Sienese  painter  of  the  Franciscan  legend.    London,  1910. 
Berenson,  M.  L.    II  Sassetta  e  la  leggenda  di  S.  Antonio  Abate.    Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  Dec,  1911.  xi  (12),  202-203. 
Douglas,  L.   A  forgotten  painter.   Burlington  magazine.   London,  May,  1903. 

i  (3),  306-318. 
A  note  on  recent  criticism  of  the  art  of  Sassetta.    Burlington  magazine. 

London,  Dec,  1903.  iii  (9),  265-275. 
Fry,  R.     Journey  of  the  Three  Kings  by  Sassetta.     Burlington  magazine. 

London,  Dec,  1912.  xxii  (117),  131. 
Nicola,  G.  de.     Sassetta  between  1423  and  1433.     Burlington  magazine. 

London,  July-Sept.,  1913.  xxiii  (124-126),  207-215,  276-283,  332-336. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan,  1904-1913.  iv;  vi-vii;  xi-xiii. 
Siren,  O.    A  triptych  by  Sassetta.    Art  in  America.    New  York,  June,  1917. 

v  (4),  206-209. 

22     CHRIST  IN  LIMBO 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  13I  in.    W.  17  in.    (34.3  X  43.2  cm.) 

,  This  is  a  well  balanced  composition  with  fine  harmony  of  colour. 
The  mountainous  rocks  show  the  typical  Sienese  treatment.  The 
mountain  through  which  the  door  opens  to  Hell  is  neutral  red  violet; 
the  mountains  in  the  background  are  grayish  green.  The  sky  is 
neutral  blue.  These  large  masses  of  subdued  greens  and  violets 
balance  the  brilliant  vermilions,  greens,  reds,  pinks,  and  yellows  in 
the  robes  of  the  group  in  the  lower  right-hand  side  of  the  picture. 
The  staff  of  the  banner  triumphant  serves  as  a  dividing  axis  in  the 
composition  and  helps  to  put  the  proper  emphasis  on  the  Christ 
figure  in  its  white  Gothic  drapery  touched  with  blue  violet.  The 
vermilion  red  of  the  cross  in  the  banner  appears  again  in  the  mantle 
of  Isaiah,  the  shoe  of  Adam,  and  in  the  hose  of  the  figures  standing 
to  the  right.  In  the  lower  left  of  the  picture  the  protruding  claws  of 
the  devil  painted  in  ebony  black  help  also  to  emphasize  the  bril- 
liancy of  the  colour  in  the  group  on  the  right. 

In  the  forefront  of  the  group  are  the  kneeling  figures  of  Adam  and 
Abraham.  Adam,  whose  hand  Christ  grasps,  is  clad  in  a  light  blue 
tunic  and  pale  rose  coloured  mantle,  both  bordered  with  gold;  his 
hair  and  beard  are  gray.  Abraham  wears  a  rose  coloured  tunic  and 
a  yellow  mantle,  both  bordered  with  gold;  his  shoe  is  black.  His 
hair  and  beard  are  neutral  brown.  In  the  group  of  standing  figures 
behind  Adam  and  Abraham  one  may  identify,  from  left  to  right, 


120  STENESE  PAINTING 

Abel,  in  red  violet  mantle  over  a  brown  tunic;  Eve,  only  her  head 
and  shoulders  draped  in  gray  visible,  and  Isaiah.  Saint  John  the 
Baptist,  with  outstretched  arm,  stands  behind  Abraham.  He  wears 
a  red  violet  hairy  robe  and  a  green  mantle  bordered  with  gold;  his 
hair  is  greenish  brown.  On  his  scroll  are  the  letters :  Ecco  A.  On  the 
extreme  right  is  King  David,  in  a  rich  dark  red  mantle  with  a  solid 
gold  border  and  a  gold  lining  over  a  grayish  tunic;  his  crown  is  gold. 
His  hair  and  beard  are  white  and  his  book  is  grayish  green  with  red 
clasps.  Between  King  David  and  Saint  John  the  Baptist  are  visible 
the  head  and  shoulders  of  a  woman  with  yellow  hair,  in  which  is  a 
vermilion  diadem.  She  wears  a  vermilion  tunic  and  a  neutral  blue 
scarf.  The  figures  stand  on  a  gray  green  rocky  ground,  and  behind 
them  is  seen  the  blackness  of  Hell.  Christ  is  surrounded  by  a  radiant 
golden  light.  The  door  of  Hell,  on  which  He  stands,  is  an  ochreish 
yellow. 

The  picture  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  the  Earl  of  Northesk; 
it  was  bought  by  his  grandfather,  the  eighth  earl,  about  sixty  years 
ago  in  Rome.  In  191 5  it  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  as  an 
indefinite  loan. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan-March,  1918.  2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    March,  1916.  422,  Reproduction. 


GIOVANNI  DI  PAOLO  (?) 

About  1403  to  1482 

Giovanni  di  Paolo  (Giovanni  di  Paolo  di  Grazia,  called  del  Poggio) 
is  mentioned  as  active  in  Siena  as  early  as  1423.  He  was  probably- 
born  about  1403.  He  was  influenced  by  Gentile  da  Fabriano  and 
may  have  studied  under  him.  Early  in  his  career  he  was  a  close  fol- 
lower of  Sassetta,  and  was  a  pupil  of  Paolo  di  Giovanni  Fei.  He 
shows  also  a  spiritual  kinship  with  Fra  Angelico.  Although  some- 
times imitative,  Giovanni  di  Paolo's  pictures  have  a  striking  in- 
dividual note  and  vary  among  themselves;  at  times  they  are  fine  and 
delicate  in  conception  and  handling,  at  times  broad  and  sweeping 
and  often  lacking  in  beauty.  He  was  an  illuminator  as  well  as  a 
painter  in  tempera.    He  died  in  Siena  in  1482. 

A  number  of  Giovanni  di  Paolo's  interesting  pictures  have  come  to 
America  in  recent  years.  Among  them  are  the  Paradise,  and  the  two 
figures  of  saints  —  Saint  Matthew  and  Saint  Francis  —  in  the 
Metropolitan  Museum;  Saint  Catherine  of  Siena  pleading  before 
Pope  Gregory  xi,  in  the  Jarves  collection;  six  Scenes  from  the  Life  of 
Saint  John  the  Baptist,  formerly  in  the  Aynard  collection,  Lyons, 
and  now  in  the  collection  of  Martin  A.  Ryerson,  Chicago;  two 
panels  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia;  two  panels 
in  the  collection  of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt,  Englewood,  N.  J.;  and  the 
following  pictures  in  private  collections  in  New  York:  the  Presen- 
tation in  the  Temple,  in  the  George  and  Florence  Blumenthal  col- 
lection; the  Coronation  of  the  Virgin,  the  Annunciation  of  the  Angel 
to  Zacharias,  and  the  Expulsion  of  Adam  and  Eve  from  Paradise, 
belonging  to  Philip  Lehman;  the  Nativity,  belonging  to  Grenville 
L.  Winthrop. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bacci,  P.    Una  Madonna  col  Figlio  di  Giovanni  di  Paolo.    Rivista  d'arte. 

Florence,  Jan.-Feb.,  1909.  vi  (1),  39~43- 
Boeenius,  T.    SS.  Fabian  and  Sebastian  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo.    Burlington 

magazine.    London,  Oct.,  1915.  xxviii  (151),  3. 
Breck,  J.    Some  paintings  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo.   Art  in  America.   New  York, 

April-June,  1914.  ii  (3-4),  i77~l86>  280-287. 
Fry,  R.    A  note  on  Giovanni  di  Paolo.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  Jan., 

1905.  vi  (22),  312-313. 


122  SIENESE  PAINTING 

Nicola,  G.  de.    The  masterpiece  of  Giovanni  di  Paolo.    Burlington  magazine. 

London,  Aug.,  1918.  xxxiii  (185),  45-54. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Ancora  dei  dipinti  sconosciuti  della  scuola  senese.    Rassegna 

d'arte  senese.    Siena,  1907.  iii  (3-4),  82-83. 
Dipinti  senesi  sconosciuti  o  inediti.    Rassegna  d'arte  antica  e  moderna. 

Milan,  1914.  i  (7),  163-165. 
Schxtbring,  P.    Opere  sconosciute  di  Giovanni  di  Paolo  e  del  Vecchietta. 

Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1912.   xii  (10),  162-164. 
Toesca,  P.    Opere  di  Giovanni  di  Paolo  nelle  collezioni  romane.    L'Arte. 

Rome,  June-Aug.,  1904.   vii  (6-8),  303-308. 

23     SAINT  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST* 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  2if  in.    W.  15!  in.    (55.2  X  40  cm.) 

Behind  Saint  John's  head  is  a  halo  of  delicate  design,  which  spreads 
into  a  many  pointed  star  indicated  by  lines  incised  in  the  gold  back- 
ground. His  hairy  garment  of  gray  green  is  covered  by  a  mantle  in 
many  folds.  This  mantle  was  strongly  modelled  in  terra  verde.  A 
red  glaze  evidently  once  covered  the  underpainting.  The  red  re- 
mains in  parts,  and  elsewhere  has  faded  or  been  removed  by  some 
restorer,  so  that  the  present  effect  is  one  of  red  and  green.  The  hair 
also  was  probably  modelled  in  terra  verde  and  was  glazed  with  a 
reddish  brown  colour,  which  for  the  most  part  remains  intact.  A 
fine  design  is  visible  in  several  places  on  the  border  of  the  saint's  gar- 
ment. The  gold  is  obscured  by  a  varnish  which  has  darkened.  This 
heavy,  dark  varnish  injures  the  quality  of  the  shadows  in  parts  of  the 
drapery.  The  verde  underpainting  of  the  flesh  was  executed  in  the 
heavy  tones  so  often  used  by  the  Sienese.  The  wrinkles  of  the  face 
and  the  veins  on  the  hand  and  arm  are  strongly  marked.  The  over- 
painting  of  the  flesh  tones  has  faded  in  part.  The  cross  which  Saint 
John  holds  in  his  left  hand  is  red. 

The  picture  was  bought  in  Florence  in  1914.  It  is  said  that  it  came 
originally  from  Siena. 

The  painting  is  so  like  the  work  of  Giovanni  di  Paolo  in  his  austere 
manner  that  Mr.  F.  Mason  Perkins  attributes  it  to  him  in  Rassegna 
d'  Arte,  No.  7, 1914.  Mr.  Perkins  points  out  that  the  representation 
is  doubtless  based  upon  paintings  of  the  Baptist  by  Taddeo  Bartoli, 
such  as  the  one  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Piatt,  Englewood,  and  the 
Baptist  in  the  triptych  of  the  Compagnia  di  Santa  Caterina,  Siena. 


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GIOVANNI  DI  PAOLO  (?)  123 


EXHIBITED 

Loan  exhibition  of  Italian  primitives  in  aid  of  the  American  war  relief,  Klein- 
berger  Galleries,  Nov.,  1917.  Catalogue  by  O.  Siren  and  M.  W.  Brock- 
well.     157,  No.  60,  Reproduction. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins.  Rassegna  d'arte  antica  e  moderna.  Milan,  1914.  i  (7),  164-165, 
Reproduction  (166). 

MENTIONED 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.    13. 

Nicola,  G.  de.  Burlington  magazine.  London,  Aug.,  1918,  xxxiii  (185),  45, 
note  2. 


FRANCESCO  DI  GIORGIO  (?) 

1439-1502 

Francesco  di  Giorgio  (Francesco  Maurizio  di  Giorgio  Martino  Pol- 
laiolo)  was  born  in  Siena  in  1439.  He  was  perhaps  better  known  as  a 
great  military  and  civil  architect  than  as  a  painter  and  sculptor.  His 
writings,  Sopra  l'Architettura  Militare  e  Civile,  are,  after  Alberti's 
and  Filarete's,  the  earliest  collection  of  architectural  works  on  build- 
ing and  city  planning.  In  his  painting  and  sculpture  he  was  in- 
fluenced by  Pollaiuolo  —  as  seen  in  his  Coronation  of  the  Virgin, 
147 1  —  and  was  a  pupil  of  Vecchietta.  Like  his  master,  he  did  better 
work  as  a  painter  than  as  a  sculptor  in  bronze  and  marble.  As  a  re- 
sult of  his  training  as  an  architect,  the  architectural  backgrounds  in 
his  pictures  are  better  drawn  than  those  of  contemporary  and  earlier 
Sienese  masters.  For  many  years  he  was  a  partner  of  Neroccio  di 
Landi.  About  1475  the  partnership  was  dissolved  and  Francesco 
di  Giorgio  travelled  in  Italy.  It  seems  likely  that  in  Lombardy  he 
became  associated  for  a  time  with  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  with  whom 
he  was  called  to  Pavia  in  1490. 

While  something  is  known  of  his  activity  prior  to  1469,  it  is  only 
in  that  year  that  we  hear  of  him  as  a  painter.  He  is  referred  to  as  a 
painter  from  1469  to  1477,  and  after  that  year  until  his  death  his 
energy  appears  to  have  been  devoted  primarily  to  architectural  and 
engineering  problems.  In  1477  he  was  called  to  the  court  of  Urbino 
in  his  capacity  of  architect  and  engineer,  and  from  that  time  on 
painted  pictures  only  incidentally,  as  for  the  Duke  of  Calabria  in 
1479. 

Francesco  di  Giorgio's  best  pictures  are  still  to  be  found  in  Siena, 
and  reflect  his  refined  spirit  and  sensitiveness  to  feminine  grace. 
Among  his  works  are  the  Coronation  of  the  Virgin,  dating  probably 
from  1471,  and  the  Nativity,  dating  from  1475.  In  1472  he  made  the 
design  for  the  Relief  of  Bethulia  in  the  pavement  of  the  Duomo  at 
Siena.  He  also  painted  cassone  panels.  Comparatively  few  examples 
of  Francesco's  work  have  found  their  way  out  of  Italy;  of  these  the 
following  are  in  this  country:  a  Madonna  and  Child  in  the  collection 
of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt,  Englewood,  N.  J.,  belonging  to  the  same 
period  in  the  artist's  work  as  this  picture  (No.  24) ;  and  a  Nativity 
in  the  George  and  Florence  Blumenthal  collection,  New  York. 


FRANCESCO  DI  GIORGIO  (?)  125 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cust,  R.  H.  H.    The  pavement  masters  of  Siena.    London,  1901.    63-69. 
Destree,  J.    Sur  quelques  peintres  de  Sienne.    Florence,  1903.  87-96. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Das  Quattrocento  in  Siena.    Strasburg,  1908.  86-96. 
Schtjbring,   P.     Francesco   di  Giorgio.     Monatshefte  f.  Kunstw.     Leipsic, 

March,  1916.  ix  (3),  81-91. 
Ventuki,  L.     Studii  sul  Palazzo  ducale  di  Urbino;    Francesco  di  Giorgio 

Martini  e  le  tarsie  urbinati.    L'Arte.    Rome,  1914.  xvii,  450-456. 

24    MADONNA  AND  CHILD* 

Tempera  on  panel,  with  arched  top.    Transferred.    H.  18  in.    W.  n  in. 
(45.7  X  28  cm.) 

The  Madonna  wears  a  gown  of  rose  red  tending  towards  violet  red. 
At  the  neck  of  the  gown  is  a  golden  band  with  a  rich  design.  A  yellow 
girdle  encircles  her  waist.  The  mantle  which  goes  up  over  her  head 
is  bluish  black.  There  is  a  gold  star  on  her  left  shoulder.  The  Child's 
garment  is  of  a  heavier  red,  but  similar  in  quality  to  the  Madonna's 
gown.  The  halos  are  incised  with  an  elaborate  design.  The  gold 
background  is  in  good  condition.  The  carnations  have  to  some 
extent  faded  in  the  flesh  tints,  leaving  the  modelling  of  the  faces  a 
little  flat  in  parts. 

The  picture  was  bought  in  Florence  in  1914.  It  is  said  that  it 
came  originally  from  Siena. 

Mr.  Perkins  and  Dr.  Siren  have  each  independently  published 
this  as  a  painting  by  Francesco  di  Giorgio. 

EXHIBITED 

Loan  exhibition  of  Italian  primitives  in  aid  of  the  American  war  relief ,  Klein- 
berger  Galleries,  Nov.,  191 7.  Catalogue  by  0.  Siren  and  M.  W.  Brock- 
well.     162,  No.  63,  Reproduction. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins  F.  M.  Dipinti  senesi  sconosciuti  o  inediti.  Rassegna  d'arte  antica  e 
moderna.    Milan,  1914.    i  (5),  103-104,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.    13- 


MATTEO  DI  GIOVANNI 

About  1430  to  1495 

Matteo  di  Giovanni,  sometimes  called  Matteo  da  Siena,  was  born 
in  the  Umbrian  town  of  Borgo  San  Sepolcro  about  1430.  His  first 
master  was  probably  not  a  Sienese,  but  the  Umbrian,  Pier  dei  Fran- 
ceschi,  who  was  a  native  of  Borgo  San  Sepolcro,  and  who  was  working 
there  in  1445.  This  powerful  artist,  steeped  in  Florentine  tradition, 
gave  Matteo  a  technical  training  stronger  than  he  could  have  re- 
ceived from  any  Sienese.  Before  1450,  however,  Matteo  removed  to 
Siena,  where  he  soon  became  the  most  vigorous  painter  of  the 
Sienese  Renaissance.  In  Siena  he  studied  possibly  under  Domenico 
di  Bartolo,  and  was  influenced  by  the  sculptor-painter,  Vecchietta. 
The  rest  of  his  life,  spent  for  the  most  part  in  and  about  Siena,  was 
uneventful.  In  1463  he  married  a  Signora  Contessa,  who  died  about 
twelve  years  later.  The  change  in  the  type  of  Madonna  painted  by 
Matteo,  which  began  about  this  time,  may  have  been  caused  by  that 
event.  The  monumental,  if  somewhat  wan,  tranquillity  of  the  artist's 
ordinary  style  was  broken  in  later  life  by  a  number  of  representations 
of  the. Slaughter  of  the  Innocents.  These  are  marked  by  their  lack 
of  restraint.  The  vivid  accounts  of  the  sack  of  Otranto  by  the  Turks 
in  1480,  which  were  current  in  Italy  at  this  time,  are  said  to  have  had 
a  powerful  effect  on  Matteo.  He  died  in  1495,  the  most  highly  lauded 
Sienese  painter  of  his  time. 

Matteo  is  represented  in  this  country  by  paintings  in  the  col- 
lections of  Mrs.  Henry  L.  Higginson,  Boston;  Dan  Fellows  Piatt, 
Englewood,  N.  J.;  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia; 
and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  Collis  P.  Huntington,  New  York.  A 
cassone  panel  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum  has  been  attributed  to 
Matteo  and  also  to  his  close  follower,  Cozzarelli. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beeenson,  B.  A  Ferrarese  marriage-salver  in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts. 
In  Essays  in  the  study  of  Sienese  painting.  New  York,  1918.  62-70; 
and  in  Gazette  des  beaux-arts.  Paris,  Oct.-Dec,  1917.  4°  per.,  xiii  (693), 
450-458. 
Guidoccio  Cozzarelli  and  Matteo  di  Giovanni.  In  Essays  in  the  study  of 
Sienese  painting.    New  York,  1918.   81-94. 


25      MATTEO    DI    GIOVANNI 


MATTEO  DI  GIOVANNI  1 27 

Cust,  R.  H.  H.    The  pavement  masters  of  Siena.    London,  1901.   59-63. 
Destree,  J.    Sur  quelques  peintres  de  Sienne.    Florence,  1903.    61-76. 
Hartlaub,  G.  F.    Matteo  da  Siena  und  seine  Zeit.    Strasburg,  1910.    (Zur 

Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  78.) 
Jacobsen,  E.    Das  Quattrocento  in  Siena.    Strasburg,  1908.   56-65. 
Logan,  M.    Due  dipinti  inediti  di  Matteo  da  Siena.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan, 

April,  1905.  v  (4),  49-53. 
Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.   Three  cassone  panels  by  Matteo  da  Siena.   Art  in  America. 

New  York,  Jan.,  1913.  i  (1),  24-30. 
Olcott,  L.    Di  alcune  opere  poco  note  di  Matteo  di  Giovanni.    Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  May,  1904.  iv  (5),  65-68. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Due  quadri  inediti  di  Matteo  di  Giovanni.    Rassegna  d'arte 

senese.     Siena,  1907.  iii  (2),  36-38. 
Per  un  quadro  non  riconosciuto  di  Matteo  di  Giovanni.    Rassegna  d'arte. 

Milan,  Dec,  1908.  viii  (12),  199-203. 
Schubring,  P.    Das  Blutbad  von  Otranto  in  der  Malerei  des  Quattrocento. 

Monatskefte  f.  Kunstw.    Leipsic,  1908.  i  (7-8),  593-601. 

25     SAINT  JEROME  IN  HIS  CELL 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  67!  in.    W.  48I  in.    (172.2  X  122.9  cm-) 

The  colour  scheme  of  this  picture  was  worked  out  with  daring  skill. 
Saint  Jerome's  cappa  magna  presents  splendid  flat  masses  of  a  clear 
rose  red.  Small  brilliant  touches  of  vermilion  furnished  by  the  car- 
dinal's hat  and  the  edges  of  four  books  in  different  parts  of  the  pic- 
ture make  an  odd  and  skilful  contrast.  The  arrangement  of  the 
three  spots  of  blue  —  the  sky,  the  sleeves,  and  the  lower  part  of  the 
saint's  cassock  —  cutting  diagonally  across  the  picture,  is  masterly. 
The  silvery  white  of  the  saint's  beard  and  of  the  fur  of  his  hood  is 
echoed  in  the  marble  bookstand  behind  him,  the  pages  of  his  books, 
the  balustrade  just  behind  his  head,  the  hourglass,  the  candle,  and 
the  transparent  white  of  his  alb  over  his  blue  cassock.  The  other 
fields  are  principally  brownish  in  tone  —  the  lion,  the  saint's  desk, 
and  his  halo;  whereas  the  walls  of  the  study  are  of  a  greenish  gray 
making  a  transition  towards  the  blue  of  the  sky.  The  mouldings  of 
dull  pink  carry  the  main  rose  red  motive  of  Saint  Jerome's  cappa 
through  the  upper  part  of  the  picture.  A  string  of  shining  green 
and  brown  beads  hangs  on  the  wall  and  green  trees  are  seen  against 
the  blue  sky.  The  equipment  of  a  mediaeval  scholar,  such  as  his 
spectacles,  scissors,  ink-well,  and  hourglass,  surround  the  saint. 
There  are  also  a  polychrome  crock  and  some  scrolls  near  the  car- 
dinal's hat.    The  floor  is  gray.    Under  the  brown-clad  left  foot  of 


128  SIENESE  PAINTING 

the  saint  is  the  damaged  inscription:  Opus  M  .  .  .  ei  Ioannis  De 
Sen  .  .  .  mccccl  .  .  .  xxn. 

The  painting  formerly  belonged  to  Signor  Cecconi  of  Florence  and 
was  at  one  time  in  the  Panciatichi  collection.  Hartlaub  states  that 
it  was  seen  by  Romagnoli  in  the  Palazzo  Borghesi,  Siena.  He 
suggests  that  two  panels  of  scenes  from  the  life  of  Saint  Jerome, 
in  the  collection  of  Lord  Brownlow,  Ashridge  Park,  may  be  part  of 
the  predella.    The  painting  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  1905. 

It  is  interesting  to  compare  the  picture  with  the  similar  paintings 
of  Saint  Augustine  and  Saint  Jerome  by  Botticelli  and  Ghirlandaio  in 
the  church  of  Ognissanti,  Florence,  and  with  the  representations 
of  Saint  Mark  by  Melozzo  da  Forli  in  Rome. 

The  painting  is  on  the  whole  in  a  good  state  of  preservation  and  is 
one  of  Matteo's  most  important  works.  It  is  fine  in  sentiment,  digni- 
fied in  pose,  and  especially  interesting  in  colour.  The  patches  of 
vermilion  are  used  with  extraordinary  skill,  and  the  effect  of  the 
whole  is  very  decorative.  A  crack  running  the  length  of  the  panel 
has  damaged  the  signature,  but  there  is  little  doubt  that  the  date  is 
1482.  Hartlaub,  the  biographer  of  Matteo,  accepts  this  date  and 
considers  the  work  in  closest  stylistic  relation  to  Matteo's  composi- 
tion of  the  Slaughter  of  the  Innocents.  Dr.  Schubring,  on  the  other 
hand,  dates  it  1492. 

As  already  stated,  the  saint  is  represented  wearing  an  alb  over  his 
cassock  and  a  cappa  magna.  The  alb  is  a  white  linen  robe,  with 
tight  sleeves,  which  reaches  to  the  feet,  and  is  bound  around  the 
waist  by  a  girdle.  Usually  it  is  ornamented  at  the  edges  and  wrists 
with  embroidery  or  lace-work.  The  cappa  magna  is  a  long  vestment 
with  a  hood,  worn  by  cardinals,  bishops,  by  many  canons,  and  by 
some  abbots  and  some  parish  priests.  Formerly  the  pope  wore  it  at 
matins  on  certain  days  in  the  year.  The  cappa  may  have  a  single 
opening  in  front  above  the  waist  for  the  wearer's  arms  to  pass 
through,  as  in  this  picture,  or  it  may  have  side  openings  for  the 
arms  as  in  the  picture  by  Polidoro  (No.  49). 

There  were  three  traditional  representations  of  Saint  Jerome  —  as 
patron  saint  and  doctor  of  the  church,  as  translator  and  commen- 
tator of  the  Scriptures,  and  as  penitent.  In  this  Gallery  he  is  repre- 
sented in  two  of  these  characters.    Saint  Jerome  in  the  Desert  (No.  6) 


MATTEO  DI  GIOVANNI  129 

shows  him  as  penitent.  This  picture  (No.  25)  shows  him  as  trans- 
lator of  the  Scriptures.  In  this  character  he  is  usually  represented 
seated  in  a  cell  as  here,  or  in  a  cave,  and  often  the  lion  is  present.  The 
Venetian  painting  by  Polidoro  (No.  49)  also  represents  the  saint  as 
commentator  or  translator  of  the  Scriptures.  He  is  accompanied  by 
his  lion,  and  his  cardinal's  hat  hangs  near  by. 

Although  there  is  no  authority  for  making  Saint  Jerome  a  cardi- 
nal, since  cardinal  priests  were  not  ordained  until  three  centuries 
after  his  death,  the  cardinal's  hat  was  one  of  his  attributes,  perhaps 
to  give  him  greater  dignity,  perhaps  because  he  performed  in  the 
court  of  Pope  Damasus  the  offices  later  discharged  by  the  cardinal 
deacon.  The  hat  is  seen  here  under  the  saint's  desk.  The  legend 
which  relates  that  Saint  Jerome  was  a  cardinal  and  the  story  of  the 
wounded  lion  are  found  for  the  first  time  in  a  life  of  the  saint  dating 
probably  from  the  vi  century.  In  the  xrv  century  a  work,  the 
Hieronymianus,  was  written  by  one  Giovanni  d'Andrea,  a  Bolognese 
lawyer  (d.  1348),  to  further  the  cult  of  Saint  Jerome  in  Italy.  This 
work  throws  an  interesting  light  upon  the  influence  of  writers  on 
contemporary  painters.  A  passage  quoted  by  Louise  Pillion  in  an 
article,  La  Legende  de  Saint  J6r6me,  d'aprds  quelques  Peintures 
Italiennes  du  xve  Siecle  au  Musee  du  Louvre,  in  the  Gazette  des 
Beaux-Arts  for  April,  1908  (pp.  SOS"^), is  as  follows:  "  C'est  moi 
qui  ai  dicte  aux  peintres  la  formule  selon  laquelle  on  represente 
maintenant  saint  Jer6me  assis  sur  un  tr6ne,  avec  un  chapeau  tel 
que  les  cardinaux  ont  coutume  aujourd'  hui  d'  en  porter,  pose  aupres 
de  lui  et  avec  un  lion  pacifique  a  ses  pieds."  When  artists  ceased 
to  represent  the  saint  enthroned,  but  pictured  him  in  the  desert  or 
in  his  cell,  they  retained  the  lion  and  the  cardinal's  hat.  The  red 
hat  was  granted  to  cardinals  by  Innocent  iv  in  1245  at  the  Council 
of  Lyons,  and  was  conferred  for  the  first  time  at  Cluny  in  1246. 
The  use  of  the  red  cappa  —  although  asserted  by  some  writers  to 
have  been  granted  by  Boniface  vin  (1 294-1303)  —probably  dates 
from  1464,  the  pontificate  of  Paul  n.  Cennino  Cennini,  in  speaking 
of  the  "  red  colour  called  amatito,"  says  that  "  it  makes  a  colour 
such  as  cardinals  wear,  or  a  violet  or  lake  colour."  The  red  had  not 
been  adopted  at  the  period  when  Cennino  was  writing.  The  Vatican 
manuscript  of  his  book  is  dated  i437>  but  this  is  probably  the  date 
affixed  by  the  copyist,  and  the  book  itself  was  doubtless  completed 


130  SIENESE  PAINTING 

earlier.  Early  xv  century  illuminated  manuscripts  and  pictures 
show  cardinals  in  blue,  violet,  gray,  and  other  colours.  It  is  only 
in  the  second  half  of  the  century  that  cardinals  are  represented  in 
red,  but  even  then  the  cassock  was  sometimes  of  a  different  colour. 
A  tapestry  dating  from  the  early  xvi  century,  formerly  in  the  J. 
Pierpont  Morgan  collection,  shows  a  cardinal  in  a  blue  cassock  and 
a  red  cappa  and  hat.  In  this  picture  by  Matteo  the  saint  wears  a 
blue  cassock,  and  although  the  picture  was  executed  in  1482  or  1492, 
after  the  red  had  been  adopted,  Matteo  painted  the  saint's  cappa 
a  deep  rose  colour  —  neither  the  "  amatito  "  referred  to  by  Cen- 
nino  nor  the  vermilion  of  the  hat.  In  the  Venetian  painting  by 
Polidoro  (No.  49)  the  saint  wears  a  black  cappa,  with  only  the  hat 
to  indicate  that  he  was  a  cardinal. 

EXHIBITED 

Mostra  dell'  antica  arte  senese.  Siena,  Aprile-Agosto,  1904.  Catalogo  gene- 
rale.     287,  No.  6  (107). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson.  Essays  in  the  study  of  Sienese  painting.  66-67,  Reproduction; 
and  same  in  Gazette  des  beaux^arts.  Oct.-Dec,  1917.  454-455,  Re- 
production (452). 

Hartiaub.     115-118,  140. 

Jacobsen.    59,  Reproduction  (PI.  xxvi). 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1910.    2d  ser.,  xiv  (1),  137; 

Jan.-March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  13. 
Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.  195. 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    72-73. 

Bibliografia.    L 'Arte.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1909.    xii  (6),  480,  No.  204. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.   Bulletin.    June,  1909.    26,  No.  11;  Aug., 

1913-    35- 
Breck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.   169,  Reproduction  (170). 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward 

Hutton.     1909.  iii,  132,  note  3. 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.    1914.   v,  184, 

note  2. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  55. 
Kunstgeschichtliche  Geseixschaft.   Sitzungsbericht.   Dec.  11, 1908.   viii, 

39,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551. 


MATTEO  DI  GIOVANNI  131 

Perkins,  F.  M.    La  pittura  alia  Mostra  d'arte  antica  in  Siena.    Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  Oct.,  1904.  iv  (10),  150,  Reproduction  (151). 
The  Sienese  exhibition  of  ancient  art.    Burlington  magazine.    London, 

Sept.,  1904.  v  (18),  583. 
Rescensioni.  Rassegna  d' arte.  Milan,  Jan.-Feb.,  1912.  xii(i-2),  vi.  (Hartlaub. 

Matteo  da  Siena.) 
Ricci,  C.    II  Palazzo  pubblico  di  Siena  e  la  Mostra  d'  antica  arte  senese. 

Bergamo,  1904.  66. 
Schubring,  P.     Das  Blutbad  von  Otranto  in  der  Malerei  des  Quattrocento. 

Monatshefte  f.  Kunstw.    1908.   600-601,  Reproduction. 
Mostra  dell'  antica  arte  senese.  Repert.f.  Kunstw.  Berlin,  1904.  xxvii  (5), 

478. 

References  to  a  Saint  Jerome  by  Matteo 

Borghesi,  S.,  e  Banchi,  L.    Nuovi  documenti  per  la  storia  dell'  arte  senese. 

Appendice  alia  raccolta  dei  documenti  pubblicata  dal  Comm.  Gaetano 

Milanesi.    Siena,  1898.  p.  255. 
MiLANESi,  G.    Documenti  per  la  storia  dell'  arte  senese.    Raccolti  ed  illustrati 

dal  Dott.  Gaetano  Milanesi.    Siena,  1854.    ii,  p.  373. 


BENVENUTO  DI  GIOVANNI 

1436-1518  (?) 

Benvenuto  di  Giovanni  di  Meo  del  Guasta  was  born  on  Septem- 
ber 13,  1436,  eighty-eight  years  after  the  great  plague  devastated 
Siena  and  closed  the  careers  of  the  two  Lorenzetti  brothers,  with 
whom  the  first  great  period  of  Sienese  art  came  to  an  end. 

Benvenuto  was  not  a  great  innovator.  He  was  content  to  paint  in 
the  traditional  Sienese  manner.  While  the  progressive  Florentines 
were  advancing  with  rapid  strides  in  scientific  studies  in  the  field  of 
art,  the  Sienese  clung  with  singular  tenacity  to  their  flat  and  decora- 
tive designs  enriched  by  exquisitely  wrought  detail  in  fine  gold  and 
brilliant  colour.  Benvenuto  was  no  exception.  His  early  work 
shows  some  relation  to  that  of  Matteo  da  Siena.  The  influence  of 
Benozzo  Gozzoli  and  of  the  Umbrian  master,  Bonfigli,  has  also  been 
noticed  in  his  paintings.  After  the  year  1500,  when  he  was  an  elderly 
man,  he  appears  to  have  been  influenced  by  Pintoricchio  and  Sig- 
norelli,  unless  the  works  of  that  date  were  executed  principally  by  his 
son  and  assistant,  Girolamo,  who  was  born  in  1470,  and  would  have 
been  more  open  to  new  influences  from  other  cities  than  his  father. 
Benvenuto  died  some  time  after  1517,  perhaps  in  1518.  Little  is 
known  of  his  life.  He  was  reasonably  prolific  as  a  panel  painter  and 
also  executed  some  frescoes  in  various  towns  in  Tuscany  and  Umbria.1 

Among  the  paintings  by  Benvenuto  in  this  country  are  the  As- 
sumption of  the  Virgin  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum,  in  which  some 
critics  see  the  hand  of  Benvenuto's  son  Girolamo;  the  Madonna  and 
Saints,  and  the  Adoration  of  the  Child,  belonging  to  Dan  Fellows 
Piatt,  of  Englewood;  the  Madonna  and  two  Saints  in  the  P.  A.  B. 
Widener  collection,  Philadelphia;  the  Madonna  and  Angels  in  the 
Jarves  collection  of  Yale  University;  a  Madonna  in  the  collection 
of  Philip  Lehman,  New  York;  and  the  painting  in  the  Fogg  Museum. 
A  desco  del  parto  in  the  Jarves  collection  has  been  attributed  to  both 
Benvenuto  and  his  son  Girolamo. 

1  See  also  E.  W.  Forbes.    Art  in  America.    July,  1913. 


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BENVENUTO  DI  GIOVANNI  133 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Achiardi,  P.  d'.    Per  la  formazione  di  una  pinacoteca  e  per  la  conservazione 

di  alcune  opere  in  Volterra.    L'Arle.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1904.  vii  (n- 

12),  501-502. 
Cust,  R.  H.  H.    The  pavement  masters  of  Siena.    London,  1901.    53-58. 
Destree,  J.    Sur  quelques  peintres  de  Sienne.    Florence,  1903.  77-86. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Das  Quattrocento  in  Siena.    Strasburg,  1908.   68-75. 
New  York.   Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.   Bulletin.   Nov.,  1910.   v(n), 

249-250.     (A  Sienese  painting.) 
Olcott,  L.     Una  "  Annunciazione  "  di  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni.    Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  May,  1906.  vi  (5),  73-74. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Due  dipinti  senesi  della  Pieta.   Rassegna  d'arte  senese.   Siena, 

July-Sept.,  1911.  vii  (3),  67-68. 
Thieme-Becker.    Kunstler-Lexikon.    Leipsic,  1909.  iii,  359-360. 

26    MADONNA  ENTHRONED  WITH  SAINTS  AND  ANGELS 

Tempera  on  panel,  transferred.   H.  72  in.   W.  90  in.    (182.8  X  228.5  cm-) 

This  painting,  imposing  in  size,  is  also  gorgeous  in  colour.  The 
spotting  of  the  reds  and  greens  through  the  picture,  emphasized  by 
the  strong  black  notes  as  well  as  by  the  gold,  the  blue,  the  yellow,  and 
the  white,  is  masterly.  Broadly  speaking,  there  are  three  qualities  of 
red;  the  first  is  the  rose  red  which  occurs  in  the  gown  of  the  Madonna, 
in  the  mantle  of  Saint  John,  and  in  the  robes  of  the  two  angels  in  the 
background  holding  roses  and  lilies;  the  second  is  the  red  more  resem- 
bling vermilion,  which  appears  in  the  lining  of  Saint  Augustine's  cope 
and  mitre,  and  in  the  book  held  by  Saint  Monica;  the  third  is  a  more 
neutral  earthy  red  which  appears  in  the  red  slabs  of  the  pavement, 
the  balustrade,  and  the  Madonna's  throne,  representing  porphyry, 
and  in  the  book  which  Saint  Nicolas  holds.  Touches  of  paler  pinks 
occur  in  the  wings  of  the  angels  and  seraphim  and  in  the  roses  held  by 
the  angel  on  the  left;  whereas  a  deeper,  duskier  red  appears  in  the 
flames  of  the  two  candlesticks.  The  greens  are  not  brilliant  but  are 
admirably  distributed  through  the  wings  and  sleeves  of  the  angels, 
the  foliage  of  the  flowers,  the  textile  over  the  back  of  the  Madonna's 
throne,  and  the  lining  of  her  robe.  A  still  paler  green  is  seen  in  the 
lining  of  Saint  John's  mantle;  a  darker  quality  appears  in  the  parts 
of  the  pavement  and  throne  made  to  represent  verde  antico.  A  cool 
white  appears  in  the  veil  of  the  Madonna,  the  hood  of  Saint  Monica, 
the  mitre,  crosier,  and  gloves  of  Saint  Augustine,  the  beards  of  Saint 


134  SIENESE  PAINTING 

Augustine  and  Saint  John  the  Evangelist,  the  lilies  held  by  Saint 
Nicolas  and  one  of  the  angels,  the  candlesticks,  and  the  white  marble 
in  the  pavement.  Saint  John  wears  a  pale  bluish  green  robe  and  in 
his  parchment-like  hand  is  a  yellow  vellum  volume.  This  colour  is 
repeated  in  the  gowns  of  the  two  angels  just  behind  the  Madonna's 
head  and  is  approximated  in  the  hair  of  the  angels,  the  Christ  Child, 
and  the  seraphim.  Saint  Augustine  is  clad  in  a  jewelled  cope  of  a 
neutral  orange  yellow.  The  same  colour  occurs  in  the  band  on  his 
mitre  and  in  the  supports  of  the  arms  of  the  Madonna's  throne, 
which  are  of  elaborate  design  with  scrolls  and  cherubs'  heads.  The 
mantle  of  the  Madonna  is  a  deep  blue  green  which  counts  as  a  black. 
Finally,  strong  punctuations  of  black  that  appear  almost  like  columns 
on  each  side  of  the  picture  are  furnished  on  the  right  by  Saint 
Monica  and  the  eagle,  and  on  the  left  by  the  habits  of  Saint  Nicolas 
and  Saint  Augustine.  The  background  is  gold  with  a  narrow  in- 
cised border. 

This  painting  was  bought  in  Italy  in  1899,  in  a  bad  condition,  and 
was  put  into  the  hands  of  a  London  restorer  in  hopes  that  it  could  be 
preserved  by  setting  down  the  fragments  of  paint  that  were  blistered. 
After  the  painting  arrived  at  the  Fogg  Museum  it  became  evident 
that  more  radical  treatment  was  necessary.  William  Allerton 
successfully  transferred  it  and  returned  it  to  the  Museum  in  sound 
condition.  Fortunately  the  upper  part  of  the  painting  has  suffered 
little.  The  bottom  part  is  restored  so  frankly  that  it  is  easy  to  see 
what  is  new  and  what  old.  All  the  essential  parts  of  the  picture 
are  in  reasonably  good  condition.  The  principal  parts  to  suffer 
have  been  the  draperies  of  Saint  Augustine  and  Saint  John,  and  the 
pavement. 

The  picture  was  probably  painted  between  1485  and  1490.  The 
altarpiece  in  the  Academy  of  Siena  dated  1475  and  the  Madonna  in 
the  National  Gallery  dated  1479  are  less  mature;  and  the  pictures 
that  Benvenuto  painted  after  1491  are  more  harsh  and  muddy  in 
their  colour  and  more  sombre  in  their  effect.  This  appears  to  he 
between  his  early  and  later  styles. 

The  altarpiece  was  probably  originally  painted  for  an  Augustinian 
church  in  or  near  Siena,  as  three  of  the  saints  represented  are  of  that 
order.    Saint  Augustine,  the  great  doctor  and  father  of  the  church 


BENVENUTO  DI  GIOVANNI  135 

and  the  founder  of  the  order,  is  on  the  Madonna's  right.  The  right 
was  the  place  of  honour  —  Christ "  sitteth  on  the  right  hand  of  God 
the  Father  Almighty  ";  in  representations  of  the  Last  Judgment 
where  Christ  is  between  the  Madonna  and  Saint  John,  the  Madonna 
is  on  His  right.  Saint  Monica,  the  mother  of  Saint  Augustine, 
was  also  a  favourite  saint  in  pictures  painted  for  this  order;  she  is 
generally  considered  to  be  the  first  Augustinian  nun.  The  great  saint 
of  the  order,  after  its  founder,  was  Saint  Nicolas  of  Tolentino.  He 
assumed  the  Augustinian  habit  in  his  early  youth,  and  was  distin- 
guished by  his  deep  piety  and  his  extremely  austere  life.  He  is 
usually  represented  as  a  very  ascetic  young  man.  The  stalk  of  lilies 
which  he  bears  symbolizes  his  purity  of  life.  According  to  the 
legend,  at  the  time  of  his  birth  a  star  shot  through  the  heavens  from 
Sant'Angelo,  where  he  was  born,  and  stood  over  the  city  of  Tolentino, 
where  he  afterwards  lived.  He  is  therefore  usually  represented  with 
a  star  on  his  breast.  As  preacher  of  the  Holy  Word  he  carries  the 
Gospel.  It  is  possible  that  the  fourth  saint,  Saint  John  the  Evangelist, 
was  chosen  because  the  church  or  the  chapel  for  which  the  altarpiece 
was  designed  was  dedicated  to  him. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Forbes,  E.  W.    An  altarpiece  by  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni.    Art  in  America. 

New  York,  July,  1913.  i  (3),  170-179,  Reproduction. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 

Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  66-67,  Reproduction.  (Taken  in  1899  before 

restoration.) 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    April-June,  1900.  2d  ser.,  iv  (2),  285;  Oct- 
Dec,  1905.  2d  ser.,  ix  (4),  498;  Jan.-March,  1914.  2dser.,xviii(i),  124. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  13. 
Berenson.     Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.   147. 

BnsLiOGRAFiA.    V Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1905.    viii  (4),  315,  No.  283. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    26,  No.  12;  Aug., 

i9x3-    35- 
Brown  and  Rankin.    346. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaseixe.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward 

Hutton.     1909.  iii,  118,  note. 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.    1914.    v,  164, 

note  1. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    Boston,  Sept.,  1913.    xxii  (85),  214. 
Jacobsen.    75,  Reproduction  (PL  xlii,  2).  (Taken  in  1899  before  restoration.) 


136  SIENESE  PAINTING 

Kunstgeschichtliche  Geseixschaft.   Sitzungsbericht.   Dec.  11, 1908.   viii, 

38,  No.  7,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551, 

No.  7. 
New  England  magazine.    Aug.,  1905.  702. 

New  York.    Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.    Bulletin.    Nov.,  1910.    250. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Pitture  senesi  negli  Stati  Uniti.    Rassegna  d'arte  senese. 

Siena,   1905.    i   (2),   75-76,  Reproduction.    (Taken  in  1899  before 

restoration.) 
Rankin,  W.    Cassone  fronts  and  salvers  in  American  collections.    Burlington 

magazine.    London,  Sept.,  1908.  xiii  (66),  381. 
Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.    5-6;  17,  No.  12. 
Reinach.    Repertoire  de  peintures.    1905.  i,  268,  Reproduction. 


GIROLAMO  DI  BENVENUTO 

1470-1524  (?) 

Girolamo  di  Benvenuto,  son  of  the  painter  Benvenuto  di 
Giovanni,  was  born  in  1470.  He  was  a  pupil  of  his  father,  but 
developed  the  faults  of  Benvenuto's  later  manner,  using  his  heavy 
figures  and  somewhat  blackish  tonality.  As  an  artist,  Girolamo 
was  inferior  to  his  father,  though  the  fact  that  he  was  called 
upon  in  1510,  with  Pacchiarotto,  Genga,  and  Girolamo  del  Pacchia, 
to  judge  Perugino's  altarpiece  in  the  church  of  San  Francesco  at 
Siena,  proves  that  he  had  the  regard  of  his  fellow  citizens.  He  spent 
an  uneventful  life  in  and  about  Siena,  and  died  not  later  than  1524. 

In  addition  to  the  picture  in  the  Fogg  Museum  attributed  to 
Girolamo  there  are  by  him  in  this  country:  a  Madonna  and  Child 
belonging  to  J.  Templeman  Coolidge,  Boston;  a  Pieta  in  the  col- 
lection of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt,  Englewood,  N.  J. ;  and  a  desco  del  parto 
in  the  Jarves  collection  of  Yale  University,  representing  Love  bound 
by  Maidens,  although  this  has  been  attributed  to  Girolamo's  father, 
Benvenuto.  As  has  already  been  stated,  the  Assumption  of  the 
Virgin  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum  has  been  attributed  by  some 
critics  to  Girolamo,  although  it  is  generally  conceded  to  be  the  work 
of  his  father. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Douglas,  L.    History  of  Siena.    London,  1902.  385-386. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Das  Quattrocento  in  Siena.    Strasburg,  1908.  75. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Dipinti  senesi  sconosciuti  o  inediti.    Rassegna  d'arte  antica  e 
modema.    Milan,  1914.  i  (7),  163,  168. 
Due  dipinti  senesi  della  Pieta.    Rassegna  d'arte  senese.    Siena,  July-Sept., 

191 1.  vii  (3),  68-69. 
Un  dipinto  di  Girolamo  di  Benvenuto.  L'Arle.  Rome,  1911.   xiv,  120-12 1. 

27    MIRACLE  OF  SAINT  CATHERINE 
Lent  by  Mrs.  Theodore  C.  Beebe. 
Tempera  on  panel.    H.  12!  in.    W.  2if  in.    (32.4  X  55  cm.) 

A  sick  woman  lies  in  bed.  On  the  nearer  side  of  the  bed,  a  Domini- 
can friar  reads  the  service.  On  the  farther  side,  a  nun  of  the  same 
order  holds  a  lighted  candle,  and  a  female  attendant  listens  to  the 
service.    Saint  Catherine  stands  at  the  left,  outside  the  house,  and 


138  SIENESE  PAINTING 

prays  to  Christ,  Who  appears,  attended  by  seraphim.  A  demon  flies 
out  of  the  house  door.  There  is  no  well-known  story  of  Saint  Cath- 
erine to  explain  this  scene.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  picture 
represents  the  expulsion  of  a  devil  from  a  sick  woman  by  the  saint's 
intercession.  It  has  also  been  suggested  that  the  scene  represents 
Christ  and  the  devil  contending  for  the  departing  soul  of  the  dying 
woman. 

The  red  coverlet  of  the  bed  and  garment  of  the  attendant  at  the 
bedside  are  balanced  by  the  red  mantle  of  Christ  and  the  wings  of  the 
seraphim.  The  black  and  white  garments  of  Saint  Catherine  are 
balanced  by  those  of  the  friar  and  nun  at  the  bedside.  The  bluish 
green  of  Christ's  robe  is  not  very  different  from  the  blue  of  the  upper 
sky  and  of  the  hills  in  the  background.  The  pavement  is  a  curious 
neutral  pink  mottled  with  green.  The  ledge  of  the  bed  on  which  the 
friar  sits  is  a  pale  yellow.  The  architecture  is  of  various  shades  of 
cool  gray.  The  devil  is  reddish  brown  and  his  hair  is  black;  and  the 
scroll  which  he  holds  in  his  hand  carries  the  motive  of  whiteness  from 
the  habit  of  Saint  Catherine  to  the  habits  of  the  friar  and  nun,  and 
finally  to  the  sheet  and  pillows  and  headgear  of  the  dying  woman, 
and  the  door  behind  her  head. 

The  picture  was  at  one  time  in  the  collection  of  Charles  C. 
Perkins,  who  bought  it  in  Italy  sometime  between  the  years  1850  and 
i860.  It  was  bought  by  Dr.  F.  L.  D.  Rust  in  1910,  and  lent  to  the 
Fogg  Museum,  where  it  was  left  as  an  indefinite  loan  from  his  widow, 
now  Mrs.  Theodore  C.  Beebe. 

The  painting  is  difficult  to  date  more  closely  than  sometime  in  the 
first  quarter  of  the  Cinquecento.  The  Umbrian  landscape  attests  the 
influence  of  Pintoricchio,  who  painted  in  the  library  of  the  Siena 
Cathedral  from  1503  to  1508.  The  work  shows  a  kinship  to  the  work 
of  the  artist's  father,  although  the  hard  outlines,  harsh  types,  and 
inferior  colour  scheme  are  characteristic  of  the  son. 

The  oriental  devil  is  in  general  a  monstrous  and  gigantic  animal; 
the  Christian  devil  from  primitive  times  down  to  the  xn  and  xm 
centuries  was  constantly  given  human  form  —  often  he  was  repre- 
sented as  a  very  ugly  man,  sometimes  he  assumed  the  form  of  a 
woman  or  of  an  angel.  The  early  representations  are  found  chiefly 
in  the  illuminated  manuscripts.    From  the  xm  to  the  xv  century 


o 

H 
W 

W 
n 

3 

o 


o 


GIROLAMO  DI  BENVENUTO  1 39 

belief  in  the  devil  was  at  its  height.  About  the  end  of  the  xm 
century  the  custom  arose  of  representing  the  Prince  of  Darkness  in 
the  composite  and  hideous  form  seen  in  this  picture,  with  the  body 
and  head  of  a  man  and  parts  of  different  animals  attached,  a  tail, 
the  horns  of  a  goat,  cloven  feet  with  claws,  the  wings  of  a  bat  — 
the  bat  being  the  bird  of  darkness.  The  devil  was  sometimes  painted 
black,  signifying  wickedness  and  death,  as  in  the  painting  by  Sas- 
setta  in  this  Gallery  (No.  22),  and  sometimes  red  as  here,  red  in  its 
bad  sense  denoting  blood,  war,  hatred,  and  punishment.  Often  the 
devil  was  represented  more  nearly  like  an  ancient  satyr. 

MENTIONED 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  191 5.  13. 

Art  in  America.    July,  1913.    i  (3),  178. 

Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.  181.  (Boston.    Museum  of  Fine 

Arts.) 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    38. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward 

Hutton.    1909.   iii,  119,  note  4.    (Boston.) 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Alcuni  dipinti  senesi  sconosciuti  o  inediti.    Rassegna  d'arte. 

Dec,  1913.    xiii  (12),  199,  Reproduction.    (Boston.    Museum  of  Fine 

Arts.) 
Pitture  senesi  negli  Stati  Uniti.     Rassegna  d'arte  senese.    Siena,  1905. 

i  (2)>  75-    (Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.) 
Rankin,  W.    Cassone  fronts  and  salvers  in  American  collections.    Burlington 

magazine.    London,  Sept.,  1908.  xiii  (66),  381.    (Boston.) 


UMBRIAN  PAINTING 


UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

FOR  purposes  of  classification  the  painting  of  central  Italy  is 
divided  into  two  schools,  the  Sienese  and  the  Umbrian.  The 
former  includes  the  artists  of  Siena  and  her  contado;  with  the  latter 
are  grouped  all  central  Italian  painters  not  clearly  Sienese.  Thus  the 
term  Umbrian  is  loosely  applied  to  many  painters  born  far  outside 
the  modern  Umbrian  province,  and  Melozzo  of  the  Romagna,  Gen- 
tile of  the  Marches,  and  Piero  of  southern  Tuscany  are  none  the  less 
classified  as  Umbrians.  Though  the  classification  lacks  geographical 
accuracy,  the  painters  included  nevertheless  have  enough  in  common 
stylistically  to  justify  their  being  grouped  in  a  single  school. 

In  date  the  Umbrian  school  was  much  later  than  the  Sienese.  Me- 
diaeval painting  in  Umbria  was  dominated  by  the  art  of  Siena,  and 
important  individual  work  did  not  begin  until  the  very  end  of  the 
xrv  and  the  beginning  of  the  xv  century.  Then  the  school  developed 
rapidly,  however,  showing  great  originality  in  the  early  Renaissance, 
and  culminating  in  the  xvi  century  in  the  art  of  Raphael.  The 
Sienese  was  thus  the  important  central  Italian  school  in  the  Middle 
Ages;  the  Umbrian  foremost  in  the  Renaissance. 

Despite  its  never  failing  charm  and  frequent  originality,  the  Um- 
brian school  owed  much  throughout  its  development  to  a  stimulating 
contact  with  neighbouring  artistic  centres,  especially  Florence. 
When  Florentine  artists  worked  in  Umbria,  as  Benozzo  Gozzoli 
worked  at  Montefalco,  Filippo  Lippi  at  Spoleto,  or  Domenico 
Veneziano  at  Perugia,  the  influence  of  their  art  on  the  Umbrians  was 
immediate  and  happy.  Moreover,  the  Umbrians  frequently  went  to 
Florence  to  learn  their  craft,  and  it  is  significant  that  the  greatest 
Umbrian  masters,  Gentile  da  Fabriano,  Pier  dei  Franceschi,  Peru- 
gino,  and  Raphael,  all  worked  and  studied  in  the  Tuscan  city.  In  the 
Middle  Ages  the  Sienese  artists  influenced  the  school  as  well,  espe- 
cially the  brothers  Lorenzetti  and  Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  and  in  the  early 
Renaissance  Umbria  learned  much  from  the  art  of  the  Sienese 
Domenico  di  Bartolo. 


144 


UMBRIAN  PAINTING 


Allegretto 
Nuzi,  active 
1346-1373 
Gentile  da 
Fabriano 
1360^-142"! 

The  Salimbeni 
of  San 

Severino,  active 
1400-1416 
Cola  da 
Camerino 
active  1421 
Oltaviano 
Nelli,  active 
ah.  1400-1444 
Pier  dei 
Franceschi 
I4i6(?)-I4Q2 


Luca 

Signoretti 

1441-1523 

Melozzo  da 

Forli 

1438-1494 


The  most  marked  characteristic  of  central  Italian  art  is  its  devo- 
tional quality,  remarkable  even  in  the  essentially  devotional  painting 
of  Italy.  Whereas  the  devotion  of  Sienese  art  had  been  hieratic, 
aristocratic,  and  akin  to  the  ideals  of  mediaeval  Byzantium,  that  of 
Umbria  became  ecstatically  human.  The  Renaissance  trend  towards 
bringing  to  earth  the  regal  Christian  gods  of  the  Middle  Ages  was 
nowhere  so  strong  as  in  Umbria,  and  it  is  not  an  exaggeration  to  say 
that  we  owe  to  the  Umbrians  our  modern  visual  images  of  the  Eter- 
nal, the  Madonna,  and  the  other  important  members  of  the  Christian 
Pantheon.  The  piety  and  humility  of  the  figures  was  deepened  and 
dignified  by  a  specially  emphasized  space  composition,  both  archi1- 
tectural  and  landscape.  Landscape  backgrounds  were  given  unusual 
importance  and  delicate  beauty.  The  school  thus  became  the  most 
charming,  the  tenderest,  and  the  most  intimately  human  of  Renais- 
sance Italy. 

Allegretto  Nuzi,  the  first  Umbrian  painter  of  note,  was  born  in  the 
Marches  and  studied  under  the  Florentine,  Bernardo  Daddi.  He  was 
the  master  of  Gentile  da  Fabriano,  the  one  great  Umbrian  of  the 
Middle  Ages.  Gentile  really  belonged  to  the  International  school. 
The  delicacy  and  sprightliness  of  his  art  charms,  but  tends  to  obscure 
his  historical  importance.  He  worked  in  Venice,  Florence,  and  else- 
where, and  was  technically  well  in  advance  of  his  contemporaries, 
not  merely  in  the  Marches,  but  in  Florence.  He  had  many  followers, 
and  we  owe  to  him  the  art  of  the  brothers  Salimbeni  of  San  Severino, 
of  Cola  da  Camerino,  and  others.  His  influence  was  strong,  too,  in 
the  school  of  Gubbio,  whose  chief  master  was  the  rather  insipid 
Ottaviano  Nelli,  an  artist  who  tried  to  expand  into  fresco  the  minia- 
ture technique  of  Oderisio  and  the  other  early  Gubbian  masters. 

The  first  great  Umbrian  of  the  Renaissance  was  Pier  dei  Fran- 
ceschi, pupil  of  Domenico  Veneziano  of  Florence.  This  master 
conquered  the  scientific  difficulties  of  his  craft,  mastered  anatomy, 
perspective,  and  foreshortening,  and  became  one  of  the  most  signifi- 
cant and  monumental  of  Italy's  painters.  He  dominated  the  early 
Renaissance  as  Gentile  had  dominated  the  late  Middle  Ages.  His 
two  important  pupils,  Luca  Signorelli  and  Melozzo  da  Forli,  modi- 
fied his  somewhat  impersonal  style.  The  former  developed  his 
anatomical  studies  and  gave  to  Michelangelo  the  conception  of  the 
human  nude  as  the  best  possible  vehicle  for  the  expression  of  emo- 


UMBRIAN  PAINTING 


145 


tion;  the  latter  emphasized  perspective  and  foreshortening,  and  in 
his  decoration  of  dome  interiors  might  almost  be  regarded  as  a 
vigorous  and  rugged  proto-Correggio.  Melozzo,  having  learned 
something  of  the  Flemish  technique  from  Justus  of  Ghent,  in  turn 
influenced  Antoniazzo  Romano,  the  one  significant  xv  century  master 
of  Rome. 

Meanwhile  the  most  important  Umbrian  local  school  had  begun  to 
develop  at  Perugia.  Giovanni  Boccatis,  a  pleasant  trifler  but  a 
charming  colourist,  emigrated  from  Camerino  to  Perugia,  carrying 
with  him  the  traditions  of  the  art  of  the  Marches.  He  in  turn  in- 
fluenced Benedetto  Bonfigli,  a  chatterbox  with  no  sense  of  composi- 
tion, but  an  attractive,  nai've  painter  with  a  delicate  sense  of  beauty 
and  the  first  important  native  Perugian.  He  was  followed  by 
Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo,  reputed  master  of  Perugino  and  Pintoricchio. 
Fiorenzo's  importance  hinges  about  a  series  of  small  paintings  in  the 
Perugia  Gallery,  somewhat  questionably  ascribed  to  him,  which 
would  prove  him  to  have  been  the  first  great  Umbrian  space  com- 
poser. In  his  absolutely  authentic  works  he  is  dull  and  dry.  If  he 
was  the  master  of  his  contemporary,  Pietro  Vannucci,  called  Peru- 
gino, six  years  his  junior,  he  should  receive  credit  for  that.  Perugino 
held  the  commanding  position  in  the  later  xv  century  that  Pier  dei 
Franceschi  had  had  in  the  earlier.  He  was  the  most  devotional  of  the 
devout,  the  ablest  space  composer,  and  the  most  inspiring  designer 
of  bare,  sweeping  landscapes.  He  had  many  satellites,  among 
whom  we  may  mention  Lo  Spagna,  Giannicola  Manni,  Tiberio 
d'Assisi,  Francesco  Melanzio,  and  Eusebio  di  San  Giorgio.  The  only 
xv  century  Perugian  to  approach  him  in  importance  was  Bernardino 
Pintoricchio,  an  attractive  painter  of  tender  Madonnas,  idyllic  land- 
scapes, elaborate  architectural  settings,  and  gay  cavaliers.  Al- 
though marred  by  a  tendency  to  garrulity,  Pintoricchio  was  never- 
theless a  great  decorator.  He  and  Perugino  more  than  any  others 
combined  to  inspire  the  art  of  Raphael. 

Besides  the  school  of  Perugia,  there  were  numerous  subordinate 
schools  associated  with  provincial  towns  in  central  Italy  of  the  xv 
century.  Thus  Girolamo  da  Camerino  headed  a  school  in  his  na- 
tive town,  and  Lorenzo  Salimbeni  the  Younger  continued  the  school 
of  San  Severino.  Later,  another  artist  connected  with  that  town  was 
the  interesting  if  somewhat  laboured  and  metallic  Bernardino  di 


Antoniazzo 
Romano 
active  ah. 
1460-1508 

Giovanni 

Boccatis 

active  1435(9)- 

1480(f) 

Benedetto 

Bonfigli 

ab.  1420-1496 

Fiorenzo  di 

Lorenzo 

1440-1521 


Perugino 

1446-1524 

Lo  Spagna 

active 

1500-1528 

Giannicola 

Manni,  active 

I493~i544 
Tiberio 

d'Assisi, active 
1500-1524 
Melanzio 
active  1488- 

1515 

Eusebio  di 

San  Giorgio 

active 

1492-1527 

Pintoricchio 

I454-I5I3 

Girolamo  da 
Camerino 
active  middle 
of  xv  c. 
Lorenzo 
Salimbeni 
the  Younger 
d.  1503 


146 


UMBRIAN  PAINTING 


Bernardino 
di  Mariotlo 
ab.  1478-1566 
Matleo  da 
Gualdo,  active 
1460-1503 
Andrea  da 
Licio,  active 
late  xv  c. 


Niccold  da 

Foligno 

ab.  1430-1502 

Pier  Antonio 
Mezzastris 
active 
1456-1506 

Giovanni 
Santi 

1430/40-1494 
Evangelista  di 
Piandimeleto 
active 

1483-1549 

Timoteo  delta 

Vite 

1467-1524 

Raphael 

1483-1520 


Mariotto,  a  Crivelliesque  master  who  reversed  the  procedure  of  Boc- 
catis  and  emigrated  from  Perugia  to  the  Marches.  In  Gualdo  Tadino, 
an  awkward  but  highly  original  provincial  artist  appeared  in  Matteo 
da  Gualdo,  and  in  the  Abruzzi,  Umbrian  art  was  represented  by  the 
amusing  but  honest  Andrea  da  Licio.  The  most  important  of  the 
local  schools  outside  Perugia,  however,  was  that  of  Foligno,  where  na- 
tive Umbrian  tendencies  were  tempered  by  the  influence  of  Benozzo 
Gozzoli's  frescoes  at  Montefalco  and  by  Venetian  influences,  espe- 
cially of  Crivelli,  which  crept  down  from  the  Marches  along  the  old 
Via  Flaminia.  The  most  important  master  of  Foligno  was  Niccolo 
Liberatore,  wrongly  called  Alunno,  a  solid,  serious  artist  and  a  sound 
technician,  but  given  to  the  painting  of  extraordinary  physical  con- 
tortions in  an  attempt  to  express  psychical  emotion.  His  contem- 
porary, Pier  Antonio  Mezzastris,  was  a  painter  of  some  merit  but  of 
less  power. 

The  culmination  of  the  Umbrian  line  came  with  Raphael,  the  son 
of  Giovanni  Santi,  a  painter  of  Urbino,  whose  solid,  uninspired  imi- 
tations of  the  types  of  Justus  of  Ghent  in  no  way  forecast  the  produc- 
tions of  his  gifted  son.  Raphael  studied  in  turn  under  Evangelista  di 
Piandimeleto,  Timoteo  della  Vite  of  Ferrara,  and  Perugino.  The 
last  gave  the  peculiar  impress  to  the  master's  style  which  it  retained 
to  the  end.  For  a  time  he  assisted  Pintoricchio,  acquiring  something 
of  his  gaiety  and  interest  in  elaborate  architectural  backgrounds  and 
idyllic  landscapes.  In  1504  he  went  to  Florence,  and,  like  his  great 
predecessors,  vitalized  his  art  by  Florentine  contact.  In  1508  he  was 
called  to  Rome,  and  there  spent  the  rest  of  his  life,  working  succes- 
sively under  Popes  Julius  n  and  Leo  x.  Like  Leonardo  in  Florence, 
Raphael  threw  off  all  the  restraint  of  the  developing  Quattrocento 
and  appeared  as  a  true  painter  of  the  High  Renaissance.  He  modified 
slightly  and  fixed  the  types  of  the  earlier  school,  the  tender  Madon- 
nas, bearded  Jehovahs,  and  graceful  Sebastians  of  Perugino.  He  was 
a  skilful  portraitist,  a  sparkling  draughtsman,  and  at  times  even  a 
great  colourist.  He  is  best  known  to  the  public  as  the  painter  of 
lovely  Madonnas,  but  probably  his  most  enduring  claim  to  fame 
rests  on  his  ability  as  a  composer,  both  on  the  plane  surface  and  in 
space.  His  frescoes  in  the  Stanze  of  the  Vatican  are  unsurpassed  in 
this  respect,  and,  like  the  cartoons  of  Leonardo  and  Michelangelo, 
have  been  in  a  sense  "  the  school  of  all  the  world." 


UMBRIAN  PAINTING 


147 


Raphael  conducted  an  immense  bottega  in  Rome,  and  attracted  to 

himself  many  disciples  and  imitators,  but  none  approached  his  genius. 

The  followers,  including  such  men  as  Giulio  Romano,  Pierin  del 

Vaga,  Giovanni  da  Udine,  Francesco  Penni,  and  Francesco  Pri- 

maticcio,  have  been  classified  together  as  the  xvr  century  school  of 

Rome.    As  a  matter  of  fact  they  were  a  cosmopolitan,  eclectic  group, 

attracted  from  all  over  Italy  by  the  fame  of  Raphael  and  the  papal 

court,  and  it  is  misleading  to  think  of  them  as  Umbrians.    Strictly 

speaking,  the  Umbrian  school  came  to  an  end  with  the  death  of 

Raphael. 

George  Harold  Edgell. 


Giulio 
Romano 
I4Q2(?)-I546 
Pierin  del 
Vaga 

1 501-1547 

Giovanni  da 

Udine 

1487-1564 

Penni 

ah.  1488-1528 

Primaticcio 

1504-157° 


The  Umbrian  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum  will  be  found  under  Nos.  28- 
36  in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch,  the  following  are  re- 
presented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs. 
John  L.  Gardner  at  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Attributed  to  Boccatis,  Meeting  of  Salo- 
mon and  the  Queen  of  Sheba;  School  of  Perugino,  Saint  Sebastian;  Timoteo 
della  Vite,  Madonna  and  Saints. 

Fenway  Court:  Pier  dei  Franceschi,  Hercule  (fresco);  Fiorenzo  di 
Lorenzo,  Annunciation;  Pintoricchio,  Madonna  and  Child;  Raphael,  Pieta, 
Portrait  of  Inghirami. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.     Central  Italian  painters  of  the  Renaissance,  2d  ed.     New 

York,  1909. 
Bombe,  W.   Geschichte  der  Peruginer  Malerei  bis  zu  Perugino  und  Pinturicchio. 

Berlin,  191 2.     (Italienische  Forschungen,  v.) 
Broussolle,  J.  C.    La  jeunesse  du  Perugin  et  les  origines  de  l'ecole  ombrienne. 

Paris,  1901. 
Grtjver,  F.  A.    Les  Vierges  de  Raphael  et  l'iconographie  de  la  Vierge.   Paris, 

1869.  3  v. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Umbrische  Malerei  des  xiv.,  xv.,  und  xvi.  Jahrhunderts.  Stras- 

burg,  1914.    (Zur  Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  107.) 
Rothes,  W.    Anfange  und  Entwickelungsgange  der  alt-umbrischen  Maler- 

schulen.    Strasburg,  1908.  (Zur  Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  61.) 


UMBRIAN  SCHOOL 

Early  xv  century 

28     THREE  SAINTS 

Tempera  on  panel.    Left  and  central  panels,  each,  H.  2i|  in.    W.  6fJ  in. 
(54  X  17  cm.)    Right  panel,  H.  2i|  in.    W.  7!  in.    (54  X  18.5  cm.) 

The  bishop  saint  on  the  left,  perhaps  the  Franciscan,  Louis  of 
Toulouse,  wears  a  neutral  orange  habit  with  a  red  cope  lined  with 
dark  blue  green.  The  knotted  cord  about  his  waist  is  of  dull  yellow 
and  his  crosier  is  a  creamy  white  with  bands  of  black.  His  mitre  is 
white  with  green  bands,  and  his  book  is  dark  green  with  pale  yellow 
edges.  The  martyr  saint  of  the  central  panel  wears  a  red  gown  over 
which  is  a  robe  of  greenish  blue.  Her  crown  is  gold  and  she  carries 
a  dark  green  palm.  Her  scarf  is  of  gold  with  narrow  stripes  of  red 
and  black.  Her  hair  is  dark  yellow.  The  saint  on  the  right,  Saint 
Anthony  the  Abbot,  wears  a  dark  red  tunic  with  a  yellow  cloak  and 
a  dark  neutral  green  mantle.  His  bell  is  white,  hanging  from  a  red 
and  yellow  cord. 

The  three  panels  have  been  sawed  out  of  some  larger  composition 
and  set  into  a  modern  frame. 

The  picture  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  191 5.  It  is  an  unimpor- 
tant painting  not  on  exhibition. 


NICCOLO  DA  FOLIGNO 

About  1430  to  1502 

Niccol6  di  Liberatore  da  Foligno,  to  whose  genius  is  largely  due 
the  origin  of  the  school  of  Foligno,  was  born  in  the  town  whence  he 
derives  his  name  some  time  between  the  years  1430  and  1435.  Ac- 
cording to  tradition  he  was  a  pupil  of  the  local  painters  Bartolommeo 
di  Tommaso  and  Pier  Antonio  Mezzastris,  but  the  chief  stimulus 
to  the  development  of  his  art  came  from  the  Florentine,  Benozzo 
Gozzoli,  who  worked  in  Montefalco  and  other  towns  near  Foligno 
from  1450  until  about  1458,  and  gave  a  new  impetus  to  the  art  of  all 
Umbria.  At  different  times  Niccold  painted  in  the  Marches,  and 
there  he  came  into  contact  with  the  influences  of  that  school  as  well 
as  with  Venetian  influence,  especially  that  of  the  Vivarini  and 
Crivelli.  Among  his  earliest  works  were  his  paintings  in  Santa  Maria 
in  Campis,  near  Foligno ;  the  Crucifixion  by  him  on  the  altar  wall  was 
signed  and  dated  1456.  The  Madonna  with  Saint  Bernardino  and 
Saint  Francis,  painted  for  Deruta  near  Perugia,  was  dated  1457  or 
1458.  From  this  time  until  1499  he  produced  a  number  of  works, 
chiefly  large  altarpieces  of  single  figures  and  scenes  in  rich  Gothic 
frames.    He  died  in  1502. 

As  opposed  to  the  calmness  of  Perugino  and  Pintoricchio,  Niccold 
represents  the  more  violent  phase  of  the  religious  emotionalism  of 
central  Italy,  especially  in  his  later  work,  in  which  his  attempt  to 
represent  excessive  grief  leads  him  into  frequent  exaggerations. 

In  this  country  Niccold  is  represented  by  a  Crucifixion  in  the  col- 
lection of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt,  Englewood,  N.  J.,  and  by  the  Fogg 
Museum  triptych. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cristofari,  G.  Appunti  critici  sulla  scuola  folignate.   Bollettino  d'arte.  Rome, 

March-April,  1911.  v  (3-4),  93_IOS- 
Ergas,  R.    Niccolo  da  Liberatore  genannt  Alunno.    Inaugural  dissertation. 

Munich,  191 2. 
Gnoli,  U.    Note  varie  su  Niccolo  da  Foligno.    Emporium.    Bergamo,  Feb., 

1909.  xxix(i7o),  136-144. 
Opere  inedite  e  opere  smarrite  di  Niccolo  da  Foligno.    Bollettino  d'arte. 

Rome,  July,  1912.  vi  (7),  249-262. 
La  "  Pieta, "  di  Niccolo  Alunno.     Emporium.     Bergamo,  April,  1908. 

xxvii  (160),  255-260. 


150  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

Perkins,  F.  M.   La  pittura  all'  esposizione  d'  arte  antica  di  Perugia.   Rassegna 

d'arte.     Milan,  June,  1907.  vii  (6),  93-95. 
Rossi,  A.    I  pittori  di  Foligno  nel  secolo  d'  oro  delle  arti  italiane.    Perugia, 

1872.     18-40. 
Rothes,  W.    Anfange  und  Entwickelungsgange  der  alt-umbrischen  Maler- 

schulen.    Strasburg,  1908.    Schule  von  Foligno,  37-48. 
Ventuei,  A.    Studii  sull'  arte  umbra  del'  400.    L'Arte.    Rome,  May-June, 

1909.  xii  (3),  192-194. 

29     MADONNA    ENTHRONED     WITH    ANGELS     BETWEEN 
SAINT  SEBASTIAN  AND  SAINT  FRANCIS  (TRIPTYCH) 

Tempera  on  panel. 
Central  panel,  H.  58!  in.    W.  33  in.     (148.4  X  83.8  cm.) 
Left  wing,  H.  58J  in.    W.  17!  in.     (147.6  X  45.1  cm.) 
Right  wing,  H.  58^  in.    W.  i6|  in.     (148.2  X  41.3  cm.) 

The  dominant  colour  note  is  the  pale  blue  of  the  mantle  of  the 
Madonna,  seen  against  her  dark  violet  red  gown  on  the  one  hand  and 
the  grayish  green  throne  on  the  other.  This  throne  is  decorated  with 
a  floral  design  carved  in  low  relief.  Behind  the  lower  part  of  the 
drapery  may  be  seen  the  figures  of  two  putti  carved  on  a  panel  of  the 
throne.  A  golden  crown  in  addition  to  the  halo  adorns  the  Madon- 
na's head.  The  Infant  Jesus  holds  some  cherries  naively  in  His  left 
hand,  and  is  putting  the  stems  in  His  mouth.  His  right  hand  forcibly 
plunged  into  a  bowl  of  cherries  held  by  an  angel  has  caused  some  of 
them  to  fall.  A  choir  of  angels  dressed  principally  in  neutral  blues, 
reds,  and  browns,  and  playing  on  musical  instruments,  is  seen  be- 
hind and  above  the  throne.  The  donor,  an  elderly  man  partially 
bald  and  with  white  hair,  is  kneeling  in  the  foreground.  His  hands  in 
the  attitude  of  prayer  are  concealed  by  his  black  cap.  His  gown  is 
of  a  luminous  light  rose  red.  His  figure  is  balanced  by  a  green  brown 
glass  vase  with  red  and  white  roses.  The  foot  of  the  angel  just  behind 
the  donor's  head  has  a  stocking  of  vermilion.  This  angel's  garment 
was  painted  over  a  gold  foundation  and  modelled  in  brown,  with  the 
paint  scraped  off  in  the  high  lights  to  show  the  gold  ground.  The 
Christ  Child  and  three  of  the  angels  have  eyes  which  are  definitely 
blue,  which  is  rather  unusual.  The  verde  underpainting  is  clearly 
visible  in  the  flesh  tones  of  many  of  the  faces.  This  may  perhaps  be 
owing  to  the  fact  that  the  picture  was  at  one  time  over-cleaned.  The 
hair  of  the  Madonna  and  Child  and  of  some  of  the  angels  is  a  singular 
yellowish  green.    Probably  it  was  modelled  in  the  first  place  in  terre 


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NICCOLO  DA  FOLIGNO  151 

yerde  and  a  yellow  glaze  put  over  this.  Where  the  glaze  remains,  as 
in  the  shadows  of  the  Madonna's  hair  and  in  the  hair  of  certain  of  the 
angels,  the  resulting  colour  is  a  rich  neutral  yellow  brown;  but  where 
the  glaze  has  been  removed,  there  is  a  too  evident  suggestion  of  green. 
In  the  left  wing  is  Saint  Sebastian  with  a  white  waist  band.  Blood 
is  streaming  from  his  wounds.  He  stands  in  a  grassy  field  in  front  of 
a  tree  with  a  substantial  trunk;  there  is  a  rich  clump  of  dark  greenish 
brown  leaves  behind  his  head.  In  the  right  wing  is  Saint  Francis  in  a 
greenish  brown  habit,  also  standing  in  a  grassy  meadow.  The 
background  is  gold. 

In  an  article  in  the  Bollettino  d'  Arte  for  July,  191 2,  Count  Um- 
berto  Gnoli  calls  attention  to  a  fragment  of  a  predella  in  the  bishop's 
palace  at  Camerino,  by  Niccolo — representing  the  Pentecost — and 
suggests  that  it  is  perhaps  a  part  of  the  predella  of  this  triptych,  and 
that  the  triptych  may  be  identical  with  one  seen  at  Camerino  by 
Durante  Dorio,  a  xvii  century  writer  who  made  a  catalogue  of  the 
works  of  Niccolo.  This  catalogue  is  now  preserved  in  manuscript  in 
the  library  of  the  Seminario  at  Foligno.  The  entry  which  Count 
Gnoli  quotes  is  as  follows:  "  A  Camerino  un'  opera  del  medesimo  e 
nella  predella  dell'  altare  da  una  banda  vi  e  un  canestro  di  cerase 
naturalissime,  e  dell'  altra  banda  una  caraffa  di  acqua  con  fiori  dentro 
e  mostra  riverberarsi  il  sole."  Though  this  hardly  seems  to  describe 
the  Fogg  Museum  picture,  yet  the  central  panel  of  this  triptych  is  the 
only  known  painting  by  Niccolo  in  which  both  a  basket  of  cherries 
and  a  vase  of  flowers  are  represented.  Count  Gnoli  suggests  that 
Durante  may  have  referred  to  the  predella  or  step  of  the  Madonna's 
throne,  instead  of  the  predella  of  the  altarpiece,  when  he  speaks  of  the 
vase  of  flowers.  Moreover,  Rossi  speaks  of  an  ancona  from  the  con- 
vent of  Sperimento  near  Camerino.  There  are  no  other  records  of  a 
work  by  Niccolo  there.  It  is  possible,  therefore,  that  the  Fogg 
Museum  triptych  came  originally  from  Camerino  and  that  the  little 
panel  in  the  bishop's  palace  was  part  of  the  predella.  The  altarpiece  is 
said  to  have  been  at  one  time  in  Ancona;  later  it  appeared  in  Rome. 
It  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  1901. 

F.  Mason  Perkins,  in  an  article  in  Rassegna  d'  Arte  for  May, 
1905,  pointed  out  that  the  altarpiece  was  painted  probably  about 
1468,  as  it  is  closely  related  to  the  San  Severino  triptych  signed  and 
dated  1468.   Parts  of  the  painting  are  close  to  parts  of  the  altarpieces 


152  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

at  Gualdo  Tadino,  Nocera  Umbra,  and  in  the  Villa  Albani,  Rome. 
One  of  the  master's  earlier  paintings,  it  is  less  exaggerated  than  his 
later  work. 

In  this  picture,  as  in  the  Sienese  panel,  No.  21,  the  Madonna  en- 
throned as  the  Queen  of  Heaven  wears  a  crown.  At  the  foot  of  the 
throne  is  a  vase  of  roses.  Double  roses,  pink  or  red,  were  the  symbol 
of  divine  love  and  were  consecrated  to  the  Madonna.  One  of  her 
titles  was  the  Madonna  della  Rosa,  doubtless  based  on  the  verse  in 
the  Song  of  Solomon  (ii,  1)  —  "I  am  the  rose  of  Sharon,  and  the  lily 
of  the  valleys  "  —  for  as  early  as  the  first  centuries  the  fathers  of  the 
church  applied  to  the  Madonna  the  imagery  of  the  Canticles.  The 
tradition  is  that  when  the  roses  were  massed  together  in  garlands  or 
baskets,  they  symbolized  heavenly  joys.  The  painters  of  central 
Italy  during  the  xiv  and  xv  centuries  represented  clusters  of  lilies 
and  roses  in  the  foreground  of  their  Madonna  pictures  as  votive 
offerings  to  her  of  her  sacred  flowers.  Often  angels  present  bowls  of 
flowers  to  her.  In  the  north  of  Italy  garlands  of  fruit  took  the  place 
of  votive  flowers.  In  pictures  of  Florentine  origin,  when  the  Madonna 
holds  a  single  rose,  she  is  represented  as  the  Madonna  del  Fiore  — 
Our  Lady  of  the  Flower  —  to  whom  the  Cathedral  at  Florence  was 
dedicated. 

Fruits  in  general  symbolized  the  fruits  of  the  spirit  or  a  votive 
offering,  or  were  often  used  purely  for  decorative  purposes.  The 
cherries  which  the  angels  offer  to  the  Child  are  the  fruit  of  Heaven, 
typifying  the  delights  of  the  blessed.  In  a  picture  by  Memlinc  in 
the  Uffizi,  the  Child  holds  in  one  hand  a  cluster  of  cherries  —  the 
fruit  of  Paradise  —  while  with  the  other  He  reaches  out  for  the 
apple  offered  Him  by  an  angel.  This  typifies  His  relinquishment  of 
heavenly  joys  and  His  taking  upon  Himself  the  sin  of  the  world. 

Saint  Sebastian  was  a  favourite  saint  throughout  Italy,  and  as  the 
patron  against  plague  was  very  popular  in  those  districts  which  were 
particularly  subject  to  the  dread  disease.  He  appears  often  in  Um- 
brian  paintings,  and  is  usually  represented  as  a  devotional  figure  as 
in  this  picture.  In  Florence,  on  the  other  hand,  the  actual  scene  of 
his  martyrdom  was  more  often  represented.  Saint  Francis  of  Assisi 
was  a  favourite  Umbrian  saint.  It  is  possible  that  this  is  a  votive 
picture  to  commemorate  the  escape  of  the  donor  from  the  plague. 


NICCOLO  DA  FOLIGNO  153 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Gnoli.    Bollettino  d'arte.    July,  191 2.  254-255. 

Kunstgeschichtliche   Gesellschaft.     Sitzungsbericht.     Dec.    11,   1908. 

viii,  38,  and  same  in  Deutsche  IAteraturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 
Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  67,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1903.    iv,  174. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Oct.-Dec,  1905.   2d  ser.,  ix  (4),  498. 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  20. 

Berenson.     Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.  208. 

Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    73,  Reproduction  (77). 

Bibliografia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1905.    viii  (4),  315,  No.  283. 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,   1909.     25-26,  No.  8, 
Reproduction. 

Burlington  magazine.    London,  Jan.,  1913.   xxii  (118),  245. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Ed- 
ward Hutton.     1909.  iii,  167,  note  5. 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.    1914.    v,  242, 
note  2. 

Ergas.    Niccolo  da  Liberatore.    96. 

Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  55. 

New  England  magazine.    Aug.,  1905.  702. 

Perkins.    Rassegna  d'arte  umbra.    Perugia,  Dec.  15, 1910.    i  (4),  no,  note. 

Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.    6;  17,  No.  6. 


SCHOOL  OF  GIOVANNI  BOCCATIS  (?) 
(Boccatis,  active  from  about  1435  to  about  1480) 

Giovanni  Boccatis,  born  in  Camerino  and  active  from  about  1435  to 
about  1480,  represents  the  transfer  of  Umbrian  art  from  the  Marches 
to  Perugia.  He  was  a  pupil  probably  of  Lorenzo  Salimbeni,  and  was 
influenced  by  the  Florentines  —  Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  Benozzo  Gozzoli, 
and  Fra  Angelico  —  and  by  Pier  dei  Franceschi.  His  painting,  with 
its  pleasing  fresh  colour  and  its  delightful  naivetS,  has  the  charm  of 
all  early  Umbrian  art.  He  was  influenced  by  the  Renaissance, 
frequently  introducing  Renaissance  architecture  into  his  pictures, 
and  at  times  he  shows  something  of  North  Italian  feeling.  His 
influence  was  felt  by  nearly  all  the  early  Umbrian  painters. 

In  this  country  there  is  a  Madonna  and  Angels  by  Boccatis  in  the 
collection  of  Dan  Fellows  Piatt,  Englewood,  N.  J. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bombe,  W.    In  Thieme-Becker.    Kunstler-Lexikon.    Leipsic,  1910.    iv,  153. 
Douglas,  L.    Esposizioni  londinesi.    L'Arte.    Rome,  Jan.-April,  1903.    vi 

(1-4),  108. 
Venture,  A.    Studii  sulT  arte  umbra  del'  400.    L'Arte.    Rome,  May- June, 

1909.  xii  (3),  188-191. 
Weber,  S.    Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo.    Strasburg,  1904.    11-14.    (Zur  Kunstge- 

schichte  des  Auslandes,  27.) 

30    MADONNA   AND    CHILD   WITH  ANGELS    PLAYING 

MUSICAL  INSTRUMENTS 

Tempera  on  panel.  H.  32  in.  W.  2of  in.  (81.3  X  53  cm.) 
The  Madonna  wears  a  very  much  darkened  blue  green  mantle  and 
a  red  violet  gown  with  a  narrow  golden  band  around  her  waist.  The 
mantle  has  a  lining  now  black,  with  a  rich  gold  design.  The  parapet 
in  front  of  the  central  figures  is  of  a  warm  gray  in  the  high  light  and 
violet  gray  in  the  shadow.  A  colour  approximating  the  former  gray 
is  repeated  in  the  festoons  with  the  cherubs'  heads  and  the  support- 
ing columns  and  in  the  subdued  white  veiling  that  the  Madonna 
holds  around  the  Child.  The  robes  of  the  two  upper  angels  are 
pink,  that  of  the  left-hand  angel  is  of  a  slightly  violet  cast;  the  robe 
of  the  right-hand  angel  tends  towards  red  orange.  The  left-hand 
lower  angel  is  in  a  neutral  gray  green  robe  with  a  black  collar  and 


30     SCHOOL  OF   GIOVANNI   BOCCATIS   (?) 


SCHOOL  OF  BOCCATIS  (?)  155 

band  over  his  shoulder.  The  right-hand  angel  has  a  black  and  gold 
garment  with  a  mantle  of  pale  red  of  a  violet  tinge.  Both  have 
golden  wings  with  a  peacock  feather  design.  The  musical  instru- 
ments are  of  an  ochreish  yellow,  and  the  hair  of  the  Child  and  the 
angels  of  a  peculiarly  light  greenish  yellow,  caused  doubtless  by 
the  fading  of  the  yellow  glaze  and  the  consequent  appearance  of  the 
verde  underpainting.     The  background  is  gold. 

The  picture  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  Arthur  Kay  of  Glas- 
gow.   It  was  bought  in  1909  and  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum. 

The  panel  is  a  puzzling  one.  It  has  been  variously  attributed  to 
the  Florentine  school,  perhaps  to  a  follower  of  Pesellino,  to  the  Um- 
brian,  Giovanni  Francesco  da  Rimini,  with  whose  work  it  has  a  cer- 
tain kinship,  and  to  other  Umbrians  perhaps  of  the  school  of 
Boccatis  or  Bonfigli.  Some  critics  have  thought  it  to  be  North 
Italian;  in  fact  it  was  attributed  to  Marco  Zoppo  at  the  time  when  it 
came  to  the  Museum.  In  Mr.  Berenson's  collection  at  Settignano, 
and  in  the  Dreyfus  collection  are  paintings  by  the  same  master.  It 
seems  to  us  that  the  panel  is  the  work  of  a  master  of  the  Umbrian 
school,  near  Boccatis,  and  that  quite  probably  he  had  felt  the 
influence  of  Pesellino  in  some  form. 

The  introduction  of  little  angels  singing  vigorously  and  playing  on 
musical  instruments  about  the  Madonna's  throne  was  a  favourite 
motive  of  the  Umbrian  Boccatis.  Indeed,  angel  musicians  were 
represented  by  artists  of  all  schools  from  the  xh  to  the  xvii  century. 
They  stand  or  kneel  before  the  Madonna  and  Child,  or  —  partic- 
ularly in  Venetian  and  North  Italian  paintings — sit  on  the  steps  of 
the  throne,  playing  on  lutes,  harps,  viols,  miniature  organs,  blowing 
horns  and  trumpets,  striking  cymbals  and  triangles,  or  beating  drums 
and  timbrels,  and  singing  their  songs  of  praise  and  adoration.  They 
make  a  delightful  note  of  joyousness  in  representations  of  the 
Madonna  and  Child,  and  are  among  the  happiest  creations  of 
painters  and  sculptors. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    38.    (Umbrian 

school.) 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.     June,  1910.     703.    (Marco  Zoppo.) 


ANTONIAZZO  ROMANO  (?) 

Active  from  1460  to  1508 

Until  within  the  past  fifteen  years  little  or  nothing  has  been  known 
in  regard  to  the  work  of  the  painter  Antoniazzo  di  Benedetto  Aquilio, 
called  Antoniazzo  Romano.  Vasari,  in  his  life  of  Filippino  Lippi, 
mentions  "the  Roman,  Antonio  called  Antoniasso",  as  being  one  of 
the  two  best  painters  in  Rome  in  the  year  1493,  and  says  that  these 
two  painters  were  called  upon  to  value  some  frescoes  which  had 
been  executed  by  Filippino  Lippi.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  refer  to 
Antoniazzo  and  distinguish  three  members  of  the  family,  one  the 
original  Antoniazzo;  the  second  of  the  same  name,  perhaps  the  son 
of  the  first  one,  whose  work  bore  relation  to  Pintoricchio;  and  the 
third  named  Marcus.  Since  then  many  documents  concerning  the 
painter's  life  have  been  brought  to  light,  and  in  more  recent  years 
critics  have  made  an  effort  to  reconstruct  his  somewhat  baffling 
artistic  personality.  He  is  conceived  by  some  as  a  facile  craftsman 
who  imitated  in  turn  the  styles  of  the  various  masters  under  whom 
he  worked,  notably  Melozzo  da  Forli,  Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo,  and 
Pintoricchio.  In  his  earlier  work  a  slight  influence  of  Benozzo 
Gozzoli  has  been  discerned.  Seven  signed  works  by  Antoniazzo 
have  come  down  to  us.  Many  other  paintings  have  been  attributed 
to  him,  but  it  is  quite  possible  that  it  will  appear  later  that  the 
works  now  included  under  his  name  were  from  the  hands  of  a  num- 
ber of  different  pupils  of  the  great  Umbrian  and  Florentine  masters. 

The  date  of  Antoniazzo's  birth  is  not  known,  but  as  his  name  ap- 
pears for  the  first  time  in  the  city  records  of  1452,  when  he  was  sen- 
tenced to  pay  a  fine,  it  is  probable  that  he  was  born  before  1437.  His 
first  master  was  doubtless  some  painter  of  the  local  Roman  school. 
It  appears  that  most  of  his  life  was  spent  in  Rome,  where  he  was 
largely  employed  in  work  for  the  papal  court,  both  for  decorative 
painting  and  for  unimportant  commissions,  such  as  flags,  banners, 
and  coats  of  arms.  Antoniazzo's  first  dated  work  is  a  signed  triptych 
at  Rieti,  the  Madonna  and  Child  between  Saint  Francis  and  Saint 
Anthony,  painted  in  1464.  In  1475  he  was  employed  with  Domenico 
Ghirlandaio  in  the  decoration  of  the  Vatican  Library  for  Sixtus  rv. 
In  1478  he  was  one  of  three  artists  appointed  by  the  pope  to  draw 
up  the  statutes  of  the  newly  formed  Guild  of  Painters  in  Rome,  the 


3:     (CENTRAL  PANEL)    ANTONIAZZO   ROMANO  (?) 


ANTONIAZZO  ROMANO  (?)  157 

Compagnia  di  San  Luca.  In  the  years  1480-1481  he  was  associated 
with  Melozzo  da  Forli  in  the  Vatican  Library;  nothing  remains  of 
Antoniazzo's  work  there.  In  1484,  at  the  time  of  the  coronation  of 
Innocent  vni,  he  was  working  with  one  Pietro  di  Perusi:  this  Pietro 
may  well  have  been  Perugino,  who  in  about  1480  was  painting  for 
Sixtus  iv  in  the  Sistine  Chapel.  In  1492  he  received  five  hundred 
florins  for  work  in  connection  with  the  coronation  of  Alexander  vi. 

It  is  difficult  to  describe  Antoniazzo's  style,  because  so  many  dif- 
ferent works  of  varying  quality  have  been  attributed  to  him.  If  we 
are  to  believe  that  he  did  them  all,  he  must  have  had  great  delicacy 
and  an  exquisite  sense  of  the  beauty  of  line,  as  is  shown  in  the 
Madonna  in  the  Fogg  Museum  (No.  31) ;  and  he  must  have  possessed 
also  a  certain  rugged  and  virile  force,  to  approach  Melozzo  so  closely 
that  their  work  is  sometimes  hard  to  tell  apart. 

In  Rassegna  d'  Arte  Umbra  for  December,  191 1,  Mr.  Perkins 
attributes  the  following  paintings  in  this  country  to  Antoniazzo :  a 
Madonna  in  the  George  and  Florence  Blumenthal  collection,  New 
York;  a  Madonna  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia; 
a  Madonna  in  the  P.  A.  B.  Widener  collection,  Philadelphia;  a 
Madonna  and  Child,  formerly  in  the  Fischof  collection,  New  York; 
a  Saint  Francis  of  Assisi,  two  half-length  figures  of  Saint  Peter  and 
Saint  Paul,  and  a  Madonna  and  Child  in  the  Piatt  collection,  Engle- 
wood,  N.  J. ;  an  Adoration  of  the  Child  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum, 
there  attributed  to  Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo;  a  Madonna  attributed  to 
Pintoricchio  in  the  Davis  collection,  Newport;  and  the  two  pictures 
in  the  Fogg  Museum  (Nos.  31  and  32  in  this  Catalogue).  A  Madonna 
and  Child  by  Antoniazzo  (No.  82  in  the  catalogue  of  the  Loan  Exhi- 
bition of  Italian  Primitives,  New  York,  November,  191 7)  was  sold  in 
the  Kleinberger  sale  of  January  23,  1918.  A  replica  of  the  Fogg 
Museum  tabernacle  (No.  31)  is  said  to  be  in  the  collection  of  Henry 
Walters,  Baltimore.  A  panel  very  similar  to  the  central  panel  is  in 
the  Worcester  Art  Museum. 


158  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bernardini,  G.   Alcune  opere  di  Antonazo  Romano.   Rassegna  d'arte.   Milan, 

March,  1909.  ix  (3),  43~47- 
Ancora  1' "  Annunciazione "    del   Pantheon.     Rassegna   d'arte.     Milan, 

Oct.,  1909.  ix  (10),  iii-iv. 
Un  dipinto  attribuito  a  Melozzo  da  Forli  nella  Galleria  nazionale  di  Roma. 

Bollettino  d'arte.     Rome,  Sept.,  1907.  i  (9),  17-21. 
Cantalamessa,  G.    L'  affresco  dell'  "  Annunciazione  "  nel  Pantheon.    Bol- 
lettino d'arte.    Rome,  Aug.,  1909.  iii  (8),  281-287. 
Ciartoso,  M.    Note  su  Antoniazzo  Romano,  degli  affreschi  in  Santa  Croce  in 

Gerusalemme  e  di  due  imagini  votive.    L'Arte.    Rome,  191 1.    xiv, 

42-52. 
Everett,  H.  E.     Antoniazzo  Romano.     American  journal  of  archaeology. 

July-Sept.,  1907.   2d  ser.,  xi  (3),  279-306. 
G.,  U.     Un  dipinto  di  Antoniazzo  al  Louvre.  Rassegna  d'arte  umbra.  Perugia, 

May  15,  1910.  i  (2),  63-64. 
Gottschewski,  A.    In  Thieme-Becker.    Kiinstler-Lexikon.    Leipsic,  1907.    i, 

575-576. 
Un  dipinto  di  Antoniazzo  Romano.    Bollettino  d'arte.    Rome,  April,  1908. 

ii  (4),  I5I-I55- 
Die  Fresken  des  Antoniazzo  Romano  im  Sterbezimmer  der  Heil.  Catarina 
von  Siena  zu  S.  Maria  sopra  Minerva  in  Rom.     Strasburg,  1904. 
(Zur  Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  22.) 

Jacobsen,  E.   Neue  Werke  von  Antoniazzo  Romano.   Repert.  f.  Kunstw.   Ber- 
lin, 1906.  xxix  (2),  104-107. 

Munoz,  A.    Studii  su  Melozzo  da  Forli.    Bollettino  d'arte.    Rome,  May,  1908. 
ii  (5),  180,  note  1. 

Okkonen,  O.    Melozzo  da  Forli  und  seine  Schule.    Helsingfors,  1910.    19-21, 

I3I-I39- 
Note  su  Antoniazzo  Romano  e  sulla  scuola  pittorica  romana  nel'  400. 

L'Arte.    Rome,  1910.  xiii  (i),  51-53. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Tre  dipinti  di  Antoniazzo  Romano.    Rassegna  d'arte  umbra. 

Perugia,  Dec.  31,  1911.  ii  (2-3),  36-38. 
Pernot,  M.    Un  nouveau  Melozzo  da  Forli  (?).    Chronique  des  arts  et  de  la 

curiosity.    Paris,  Sept.  25,  1909.    No.  31,  248-249. 
Rossi,  A.    Opere  d'  arte  a  Tivoli.    L'Arte.    Rome,  March-May,  1904.    vii 

(3-S),  146-157- 
Schlegel,  L.  de.    Dell'  Annunciazione  di  Melozzo  da  Forli  nel  Pantheon. 
L'Arte.    Rome,  1910.    xiii,  139-143. 
Per  un  quadro  di  Melozzo  da  Forli.    L'Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1909. 

xii  (4),  307-3I3- 
Schmarsow,  A.     Melozzo-Entdeckungen  in  Rom.     Monatskefte  f.  Kunstw. 

Leipsic,  Nov.,  1909.   ii  (n),  497-503. 
Venture,  A.   Un  quadro  di  Melozzo  da  Forli  nella  Galleria  nazionale  a  Palazzo 

Corsini.    L'Arte.    Rome,  June-Aug.,  1904.  vii  (6-8),  310-312. 


ANTONIAZZO  ROMANO  (?)  159 

31     MADONNA  AND  CHILD  AND  SAINT  JOHN  WITH  ANGELS 

—  GOD  THE  FATHER  IN  LUNETTE  (TABERNACLE) 

Tempera  on  panel. 

Central  panel,  H.  2off  in.    W.  14!  in.     (53.1  X  37.5  cm.) 

Whole  tabernacle,  H.  ab.  54!  in.  W.  ab.  42!  in.   (ab.  139  X  108.5  cm-) 

This  picture  is  neutral  in  tone.  The  Madonna's  robe  is  red;  her 
mantle  is  a  subdued  green  blue.  The  sky  is  of  a  grayish  green. 
The  hair  of  the  Madonna  and  of  the  Child  is  light  yellow  and  that 
of  Saint  John  the  Baptist  deep  orange  yellow.  Saint  John  the  Baptist 
has  a  hairy  robe  of  gray  green.  The  Child  rests  on  a  red  cushion 
with  a  neutral  yellow  tassel.  He  is  supported  by  a  parapet  of  sub- 
dued yellow.  In  the  frame  on  either  side  of  the  central  panel  in  the 
recess  is  painted  an  angel,  standing  in  the  arched  doorway.  The 
left-hand  angel  has  a  robe  of  subdued  orange  with  black  sleeves,  and 
the  angel  on  the  right  has  a  very  dark  yellow  robe  with  red  orange 
sleeves.  Both  the  angels  and  Saint  John  have  yellow  brown  hair. 
The  arches  are  similar  in  colour  to  the  parapet.  Above  is  the  white 
Dove  in  a  golden  aureole  and  gold  stars  against  a  blackish  blue 
background.  In  the  lunette  is  represented  God  the  Father  in  an 
attitude  of  benediction  against  a  mandorla  of  gold.  He  wears  a  red 
orange  mantle  with  a  black  lining;  His  sleeves  are  of  a  violet  gray. 
The  sky  is  grayish  green  similar  to  the  sky  in  the  main  panel. 

It  is  said  that  a  member  of  the  Torlonia  family  gave  the  picture  to 
the  nunnery  of  the  Tor  de'  Specchi  in  Rome,  about  forty  years  ago. 
The  picture  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1899. 

The  painting  has  been  published  as  an  Antoniazzo  Romano  by  Mr. 
Berenson,  Mr.  Perkins,  Mr.  Everett,  Mr.  Edward  Hutton  in  his 
edition  of  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  Dr.  Borenius  in  his  edition  of 
volume  v  of  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  and  by  Miss  Brown  and  Mr. 
Rankin.  However,  the  attribution  has  been  doubted  in  spite  of  so 
much  authority  for  its  acceptance.  Many  have  felt  a  difference 
between  the  master  who  painted  the  central  panel  and  the  one  who 
painted  the  angels  on  the  sides  and  God  the  Father  in  the  lunette. 
These  latter  are  clearly  in  the  style  of  Antoniazzo  and  suggest 
Melozzo  da  Forli.  The  central  panel,  on  the  other  hand,  seems  to 
many  to  be  Florentine  in  feeling  and  to  be  slightly  reminiscent  of 
Domenico  Veneziano,  Baldovinetti,  and  perhaps  Verrocchio.  The 
picture  is  remarkable  for  its  deep  religious  feeling  and  for  the 


160  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

beauty  of  its  line.  Antoniazzo  rarely  reached  such  subtlety,  so  the 
suggestion  has  been  made  that  he  designed  and  painted  the  frame, 
and  that  the  Madonna  was  by  some  other  hand. 

Up  to  the  xn  century  portraits  of  God  the  Father  are  almost  never 
found,  although  He  is  represented  on  a  v  century  sarcophagus  in  the 
Lateran  Museum.  His  presence  is  in  general  indicated  by  a  hand 
issuing  from  the  clouds  or  from  Heaven.  Even  after  it  became  cus- 
tomary to  represent  the  Father  in  human  form  —  during  the  Gothic 
period  and  the  Renaissance — the  hand  was  still  used  to  indicate  His 
presence,  sometimes  entirely  open  with  rays  darting  from  each 
finger,  sometimes  in  the  act  of  blessing  with  two  or  three  fingers  only 
extended.  During  the  xni  and  xrv  centuries  artists  represented  first 
the  face  of  the  Father,  then  His  head  and  shoulders,  and  finally  His 
full-length  figure.  When  represented  in  human  form  He  wears  a  long 
tunic  and  a  mantle.  His  feet  are  often  hidden  by  His  robes.  The 
early  representations  make  little  difference  between  the  Father  and 
the  Son,  but  about  the  year  1360  artists  began  to  portray  the  Father 
as  older,  and  to  give  Him  definite  characteristics  of  His  own  —  long 
flowing  hair  and  beard  and  the  face  of  a  man  sixty  or  even  eighty 
years  old.  From  the  xiv  to  the  xvi  century  He  was  frequently  repre- 
sented either  as  pope  or  emperor,  to  express  His  power  and  impor- 
tance, the  pope  and  the  emperor  being  the  greatest  earthly  dignitaries. 
The  later  artists  created  an  ideal  type  more  like  the  classic  Zeus,  with 
flowing  white  hair  and  beard  —  a  powerful  and  magnificent  old  man. 
This  type  also  was  frequently  found  in  the  xv  century. 

There  are  three  representations  of  God  the  Father  in  this  Gallery 
and  one  of  His  hand.  In  the  Annunciation  of  the  Florentine  panel, 
No.  2,  He  appears  in  the  sky  above  the  Virgin  and  is  pictured  as  a 
young  man  with  yellow  hair  and  beard.  His  figure  is  full-length  sur- 
rounded with  golden  rays.  He  wears  a  rose-coloured  tunic  and  a  blue 
mantle  which  envelops  His  feet,  and  He  has  the  cruciform  nimbus. 
His  right  hand  is  extended  in  blessing.  In  the  Sienese  Nativity 
(No.  19),  the  upper  part  of  His  body  only  is  visible,  surrounded  by 
seraphim.  Here  too  He  is  a  young  man,  with  reddish  hair  and 
beard.  His  garment  is  blue  with  thin  lines  of  gold  running  through 
it.  He  has  the  cruciform  nimbus,  and  His  hand  is  in  the  act  of 
blessing.   In  the  Annunciation  of  the  Florentine  panel,  No.  5,  the 


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ANTONIAZZO  ROMANO  (?)  161 

hand  of  God  the  Father  blessing  appears  out  of  a  cloud.  The 
tabernacle  attributed  to  Antoniazzo  Romano  has  a  representation 
of  the  head  and  shoulders  of  the  Father  in  the  lunette.  Here  He  is 
portrayed  as  an  old  man  with  flowing  white  hair  and  beard.  He 
is  represented  in  a  mandorla  of  gold  against  the  sky.  His  halo  is 
plain  and  both  hands  are  raised.  This  representation  of  the  Father 
was  frequent  in  the  xv  century. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 

Rassegna  d'arte.     May,  1905.     67,  Reproduction  (68). 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    April-June,  1900.  2d  ser.,  iv  (2),  285;  Oct.- 

Dec,  1905.  2d  ser.,  ix  (4),  498. 
Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.  134. 

Bibliografia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1905.    viii  (4),  315,  No.  283. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    24-25,  No.  7, 

Reproduction. 
Brown  and  Rankin.    340. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward 
Hutton.     1909.  iii,  199. 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.    1914.   v,  280, 
note  1. 
Everett.    American  journal  of  archaeology.    July-Sept.,  1907.   291,294,304, 

Reproduction  (PL  xxiv). 
G.,  U.    Rassegna  d'arte  umbra.    May  15,  1910.    53. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  56. 

Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Dec.  11, 1908.   viii, 
37,  No.  3,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551, 
N0.3. 
Neiv  England  magazine.    Aug.,  1905.  Reproduction,  707. 
Perkins.    Rassegna  d'arte  umbra.    Dec.  15,  1910.    no,  note;  Dec.31,   1911. 

36,  note. 
Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.     17,  No.  5. 
Venture,    vii,  pt.  2,  286,  note  1. 
Worcester  Art  Museum.    Bulletin.    July,  1917.    28. 

32    SAINT  FABIAN,  POPE 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  62!  in.    W.  22J  in.    (157.6  X  57.2  cm.) 
The  background  of  the  panel  is  greenish  black.    The  pope  wears  a 
cope  of  rich  yellowish  brown  (much  damaged  in  the  lower  part), 
under  which  is  a  vestment  of  grayish  green;  his  gloves  are  gray  white. 


1 62  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

His  halo  and  tiara  are  gold,  his  cap  red,  and  his  flesh  dark  brown. 
The  book  which  he  holds  in  his  hand  is  dark  red,  with  the  edges  of  the 
binding  and  the  clasp  bright  red.  The  floor  is  yellow  brown.  In  the 
extreme  margin  of  the  panel  at  the  top  are  the  remains  of  some 
letters  which  have  been  cut  in  half  but  which  may  be  reconstructed 
to  read  S.  Fabianus. 

The  panel  was  probably  originally  part  of  an  altarpiece  in  Santa 
Maria  della  Pace,  Rome.  Later  it  was  in  the  collection  of  Signor  Pio 
Fabri,  Rome.    It  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  191 1. 

There  is  a  difference  of  opinion  about  the  attribution  of  the  picture. 
Professor  Adolfo  Venturi,  in  his  monumental  Storia  dell'  Arte  Ita- 
liana,  has  published  it  as  a  Melozzo  da  Forli.  Signor  Pietro  d'  Achiardi 
has  also  published  it  as  by  Melozzo.  On  the  other  hand,  Messrs. 
Berenson  and  Perkins,  Dr.  Onni  Okkonen,  and  Dr.  Borenius  have 
taken  the  view  that  the  panel  is  by  Antoniazzo.  There  is  documentary 
evidence  to  the  effect  that  Antoniazzo  contracted  to  paint  in  Santa 
Maria  della  Pace,  Rome,  a  representation  of  the  Virgin  with  Saint 
Sebastian  and  Saint  Fabian  on  either  side.  The  contract,  dated  1491, 
is  between  Guillaume  de  Perier,  auditor  of  the  papal  court,  and  "  An- 
tonazo  di  Benedetto,  Pentore",  for  the  decoration  of  the  chapel  of 
the  Altissena  in  Santa  Maria  della  Pace,  and  contains  the  following 
clause:  "  .  .  .  to  paint  the  Virgin  Mary  seated  with  her  Son  in 
her  arms  .  .  .  and  on  one  side  of  the  Virgin  Mary  to  represent 
Saint  Sebastian,  on  the  other  side  to  represent  Saint  Fabian."  Dr. 
Okkonen,  in  his  book  on  Melozzo  da  Forli,  suggests  that  the  Saint 
Fabian  now  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  which,  according  to  Professor 
Venturi,  was  originally  in  Santa  Maria  della  Pace,  may  be  the  one 
referred  to  in  the  document.  He  admits,  however,  that  the  Saint 
Sebastian  in  the  Corsini  Gallery,  which  is  on  canvas,  probably  did 
not  belong  to  the  same  altarpiece  with  the  Saint  Fabian,  which  is 
on  panel. 

As  the  picture  has  been  attributed  to  Melozzo  by  distinguished 
critics,  it  may  be  worth  while  to  discuss  this  question  briefly.  There 
has  been  a  spirited  controversy  over  the  artistic  personality  of 
Melozzo  da  Forli;  some  draw  a  very  small  circle  and  admit  but  few 
pictures  to  be  by  the  master  himself;  others  are  less  exclusive  and 
include  paintings  such  as  the  Annunciation  in  the  Pantheon,  the 
Corsini  Saint  Sebastian,  and  the  Fogg  Saint  Fabian.   Yet  those  who 


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32     ANTONIAZZO   ROMANO   (?) 


ANTONIAZZO  ROMANO  (?)  1 63 

hold  the  view  that  Melozzo  executed  only  a  few  very  choice  works  are 
not  wholly  consistent;  they  include  the  Saint  Mark,  Pope,  formerly 
in  the  church  of  San  Marco  in  Rome,  which  is,  to  be  sure,  rather 
imposing  when  seen  at  a  distance,  but  which  when  examined  at  close 
range,  appears  somewhat  feeble  in  handling  and  brush  work  and  far 
below  Melozzo's  standard  —  it  is  possible  that  this  is  accounted  for 
by  the  fact  that  the  picture  may  have  been  repainted  in  the  xvi  or 
xvn  century.  On  the  other  hand  they  exclude  the  Annunciation  in 
the  Pantheon,  which  seems  to  some  critics  to  have  a  trace  of  the 
splendid  exuberant  force  and  spring  of  Melozzo. 

There  are  a  number  of  Umbrian  Annunciations  which  seem  to  have 
some  relation  to  one  another.  Pier  dei  Franceschi  painted  this  sub- 
ject three  times :  in  the  Misericordia  polyptych,  in  the  lunette  over 
the  altarpiece  now  in  the  Perugia  Gallery,  and  in  the  frescoes  at 
Arezzo.  In  Fenway  Court  is  a  picture  attributed  to  Fiorenzo  di 
Lorenzo  which  has  some  points  of  similarity  to  the  Perugia  Annun- 
ciation, and  which  also  resembles  in  certain  ways  the  Pantheon 
Annunciation  before  referred  to,  and  the  fresco  of  the  Annunciation 
by  Antoniazzo  in  the  Camera  di  Santa  Caterina  in  the  church  of 
Santa  Maria  sopra  Minerva,  Rome.  This  last  again  bears  a  certain 
resemblance  to  the  Annunciation  with  Donors  and  God  the  Father, 
in  the  same  church.  This  points  to  the  fact  that  certain  character- 
istics were  shared  in  common  by  these  men. 

The  art  of  Giovanni  Santi,  Raphael's  father,  and  that  of  Justus  of 
Ghent,  a  Flemish  painter  who  was  at  the  court  of  Urbino  from  about 
1474  to  1476,  also  appears  to  be  related  to  the  work  of  Antoniazzo. 
It  has  been  more  than  once  remarked  that  the  Saint  Fabian,  Pope, 
bears  a  striking  resemblance  to  the  series  of  philosophers,  poets,  and 
doctors  of  the  church  painted  by  Justus  for  the  library  of  Federigo 
of  Urbino  and  now  in  the  Barberini  Palace,  Rome,  and  in  the 
Louvre. 

In  the  case  of  the  Saint  Fabian,  perhaps  it  is  more  conservative  to 
take  the  view  that  Melozzo  was  a  very  great  painter  and  that  none 
but  the  most  distinguished  pictures  should  be  attributed  to  him. 
The  Saint  Fabian  is  distinctly  inferior  to  the  great  paintings  in  the 
Vatican  and  is  very  much  in  the  style  of  Antoniazzo.  There  is 
evidence  that  Antoniazzo  made  a  contract  to  paint  a  picture  of 
Saint  Fabian.    It  therefore  seems  safer  to  accept  this  attribution. 


1 64  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

Saint  Fabian  succeeded  to  the  papacy  in  the  year  236.  It  is  said 
that  his  choice  as  pope  was  determined  by  the  appearance  of  a  snow- 
white  dove  which  hovered  for  a  while  over  his  head  while  the  election 
was  being  held.  Saint  Fabian  was  martyred  in  the  persecution  under 
the  Emperor  Decius.  In  paintings  he  is  often  associated  with  Saint 
Sebastian,  as  their  f£te-day  is  the  same  —  January  20. 

There  are  various  interpretations  of  the  triple  crown  or  tiara  worn 
by  the  pope.  One  explanation  is  that  the  three  crowns  refer  to  the 
Trinity;  but  this  is  not  probable,  as  they  were  adopted  by  different 
popes  at  different  times.  It  is  not  known  just  when  the  first  crown 
was  assumed;  it  first  appears  about  the  xi  century,  the  time  of  the 
growth  of  the  temporal  power  of  the  papacy.  The  second  crown  was 
adopted  by  Boniface  vm  in  1295,  and  the  third  by  Benedict  xn  in 
1334,  or,  according  to  another  tradition,  by  Urban  v  (1362-1370). 
The  tiara  has  been  interpreted  to  signify  the  three-fold  power  of  the 
pope  —  his  temporal  power  over  the  Roman  states,  his  spiritual 
power  over  the  souls  of  men,  and  his  power  over  the  kings  and  po- 
tentates of  Christendom.  Other  explanations  are  that  the  triple 
crown  signified  the  lordship  of  the  papacy  over  Heaven,  Earth,  and 
Purgatory,  or  the  triple  dignity  of  the  pope  as  teacher,  law-giver,  and 
judge.  The  tiara  was  worn  only  on  certain  occasions  of  great 
solemnity. 

Gloves  were  first  recognized  as  a  vestment  by  Pope  Honorius  11  of 
Autun  (11 24-1 130),  although  they  had  been  worn  previous  to  this 
time.  It  is  said  that  they  owed  their  invention  to  the  coldness  of 
early  churches,  being  adopted  originally  simply  to  keep  the  hands 
warm.  In  the  ix  century  they  were  given  a  more  sacred  character, 
and  a  prayer  was  prescribed  to  be  used  when  putting  them  on.  They 
were  worn  in  general  by  popes,  bishops,  abbots,  and  at  times  by 
priors,  although  they  might  be  worn  with  propriety  by  all  who  in  ec- 
clesiastical functions  carried  staves,  canopies,  reliquaries,  or  candle- 
sticks. When  first  used  the  gloves  were  probably  white  and  of  linen 
or  silk.  Later  they  were  of  silk  and  coloured  to  accord  with  the 
other  vestments.  At  times  they  were  richly  embroidered  and 
jewelled.  Coloured  gloves,  embroidered  and  jewelled,  are  seen  in  the 
Flemish  diptych,  No.  60. 


ANTONIAZZO  ROMANO  (?)  165 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Achiardi,  P.  d'.    Un  quadro  sconosciuto  di  Melozzo  da  Forli.   L'Arte.    Rome, 

March-April,  1905.  viii  (2),  120-122,  Reproduction. 
Bernardini.    Bollettino  d'arte.    Sept.,  1907.  20-21. 

Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.  iii-iv. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    38,  Reproduction. 
Okkonen.    135-137. 

Perkins.    Rassegna  d'arte  umbra.    Dec.  31,  1911.  37.     (San  Gregorio.) 
Venturi.    vii,  pt.  2,  16-18,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED * 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    July-Sept.,  1905.   2d  ser.,  ix  (3),  380;  Jan- 

March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.   20. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    History  of  painting  in  Italy;    ed.  by  Tancred 

Borenius.     1914.  v,  280,  note  1. 
Gottschewski.    Die  Fresken  des  Antoniazzo  Romano.    14-15. 
Muntz,  E.    Les  arts  a  la  cour  des  papes  Innocent  vm,  Alexandre  vi,  Pie  m, 

(1484-1503).   Paris,  1898.    34.    (LaVierge  .  .  .  entre  Saint  Sebastien, 

Saint  Julien.) 
Schlegel.    L'Arte.    July-Aug.,  1909.  312-313. 
Schmarsow,  A.    Melozzo  da  Forli.    Berlin,  1886.  371. 

1  Includes  references  to  the  Virgin  between  St.  Sebastian  and  St.  Fabian  in  the 
Altissena  Chapel,  Santa  Maria  della  Pace. 


PINTORICCHIO 

1454-1513 

Bernardino  di  Betto  di  Biagio,  called  II  Pintoricchio,  was  born  in 
Perugia  in  1454.  Little  is  known  of  the  first  thirty  years  of  his  life. 
It  is  probable,  however,  that  he  received  his  early  training  in  the 
miniaturist  school  of  Gubbio.  Later,  it  is  likely  that  he  was  a  pupil 
of  Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo.  He  was  influenced  also  by  Perugino  and 
Signorelli. 

In  1482  he  was  in  Rome,  working  under  Perugino  on  the  decoration 
of  the  Sistine  Chapel.  His  contact  with  the  Florentine  artists,  no- 
tably Ghirlandaio  and  Botticelli,  brought  an  important  element  into 
his  style,  although  his  later  work  shows  little  of  Florentine  influence. 
From  1483-1484  dates  his  first  noteworthy  independent  commission 
—  the  decoration  of  the  Bufalini  Chapel  in  the  church  of  Aracoeli, 
Rome.  In  1492  he  was  commissioned  by  Pope  Alexander  VI  to 
decorate  the  pope's  private  apartments  in  the  Vatican.  This  was 
Pintoricchio's  most  splendid  achievement.  His  own  hand  appears 
largely  in  the  first  two  apartments,  and  the  whole  work  was  under  his 
personal  supervision.  Pintoricchio  executed  many  other  series  of 
frescoes,  of  which  the  most  important  were  those  in  the  Baglioni 
Chapel  of  the  Collegiata,  Spello,  1 500-1 501,  the  series  of  scenes  from 
the  life  of  Aeneas  Sylvius  Piccolomini  in  the  Cathedral  Library,  Siena, 
1 503-1 508,  and  the  decorations  of  Santa  Maria  del  Popolo,  Rome, 
1505.  In  addition  to  his  frescoes  Pintoricchio  painted  a  number  of 
altarpieces  and  panels,  of  which  the  Santa  Maria  dei  Fossi  altarpiece, 
now  in  the  Perugia  Gallery,  and  the  Madonna  of  San  Severino,  are  the 
most  important.  His  last  known  work,  painted  in  the  year  of  his 
death,  is  the  Christ  bearing  the  Cross,  now  in  the  Palazzo  Borromeo, 
Milan.  He  died  in  Siena  in  1513.  According  to  Tizio,  the  Sienese 
historian,  his  death  was  due  to  the  neglect  of  his  wife,  who  deserted 
him  when  he  was  very  ill,  with  the  result  that  he  died  of  starvation. 

Among  the  paintings  by  Pintoricchio  in  this  country  are  the  small 
Madonna  and  Child  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John  L.  Gardner,  Bos- 
ton; an  unfinished  Madonna  and  Child,  owned  by  Mrs.  Frederick 
Allen  of  Cleveland;  and  the  Fogg  Museum  picture. 


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PINTORICCHIO  167 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Goffin,  A.    Pinturicchio.    Paris,  1908.    (Les  grands  artistes.) 

Phillipps,  E.  M.    Pintoricchio.    London,  1901.    (Great  masters  in  painting 

and  sculpture.) 
Ricci,  C.    Pintoricchio.    Tr.  by  Florence  Simmonds.    London,  1902. 
Schmarsow,  A.    Pinturicchio  in  Rom.    Stuttgart,  1882. 
Raphael  und  Pinturicchio  in  Siena.    Stuttgart,  1880. 
Steinmann,  E.   Pinturicchio.    Bielefeld  and  Leipsic,  1898.     (Kiinstler-Mono- 

graphien,  37.) 
Urbini,  G.    II  Pintoricchio.    Rassegna  d'arte  senese.    Siena,  July-Dec,  1913. 

ix  (3-4),  S!-64- 
Venture,  A.    Disegni  del  Pinturicchio  per  l'appartamento  Borgia  in  Vaticano. 
L'Arte.    Rome,  1898.  i,  32-43. 

HOLY  FAMILY  AND  SAINT  JOHN 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  2of  in.    W.  15I  in.     (53  X  38.7  cm.) 

The  colour  arrangement  in  this  picture  is  strikingly  happy,  rich, 
and  harmonious.  The  rose  red  of  the  Madonna's  gown  and  of  Saint 
John's  mantle  and  the  even  warmer  orange  red  of  Saint  Joseph's 
cloak  form  a  mass  of  rich,  warm  tones  brought  out  by  opposition  to 
the  deep  blues  and  greens  which  predominate  in  the  rest  of  the 
picture.  The  Madonna's  mantle  is  of  a  splendid  deep  blue,  the  dis- 
tant mountains  and  sky  appear  in  a  paler  blue,  and  the  other  tones 
are  for  the  most  part  varying  shades  of  greenish  brown. 

The  picture  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  Ulrich  Jaeger  of 
Genoa,  who  bought  it  in  Valencia,  Spain.  Signor  Jaeger  suggested 
that  the  panel  might  possibly  have  belonged  at  one  time  to  the  Borgia 
family,  who  came  from  Spain.  It  was  bought  by  the  Fogg  Museum 
in  iqio. 

Mr.  Perkins  places  the  date  of  the  picture  at  about  1492-1494,  the 
years  in  which  the  frescoes  of  the  Borgia  apartments  were  painted. 
The  little  Saint  John  is  almost  identical  with  the  Saint  John  of  the 
Santa  Maria  dei  Fossi  altarpiece  painted  in  1498. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.    702-703. 

Perkins,  F.  M.    Dipinti  inediti  del  Pintoricchio  e  di  Bernardino  di  Mariotto. 

Rassegna   d'arte   umbra.     Perugia,   Dec.   15,   1910.    i   (4),    109-110, 

Reproduction. 


1 68  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 


MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1911.    viii,  125;  ix,  121. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1912.    2d  ser.,  xvi  (1),  157; 

Jan-March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  20. 
Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.    228.     (Genoa.    Signor  Ulrich 

Jaeger.) 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.     74,  Reproduction  (79). 
BiBLiOGRAFiA.    V Arte.    Rome,  1911.    xiv,  159-160,  No.  87. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.   Bulletin.   Aug.,  1913.    38,  Reproduction. 
Brown  and  Rankin.    392. 

Burlington  magazine.    London,  April,  1911.  xix  (97),  61. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaseixe.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward 

Hutton.    1909.  iii,  295.    (Genoa.    Signor  Ulrich  Jaeger.) 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;   ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.    1914.    v,  416, 

note  4. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  55. 


UMBRIAN  SCHOOL 

xv  century 

34    MADONNA  DI  SANTA  CHIARA 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  17!  in.    W.  13H  in.    (43.8  X  35.4  cm.) 

The  Madonna  wears  a  dark  blue  mantle  with  a  solid  gold  border 
beautifully  incised,  and  a  dark  green  lining.  Her  gown  is  deep  rose 
red,  and  her  head-dress  a  pale  neutral  violet,  receding  into  a  red 
violet  shadow  on  the  left.  In  her  halo  is  the  inscription :  Ave  Regina 
Celorum.  Both  Madonna  and  Child  have  yellow  hair.  The  Child 
has  a  white  cloth  held  around  Him;  the  part  of  this  drapery  over  His 
right  knee  has  a  reddish  tinge.  A  silvery  gray  green  landscape  re- 
cedes behind  the  Madonna  into  the  distance.  The  gold  background, 
incised  so  that  the  rays  radiate  from  the  Madonna  and  Child,  is  made 
to  appear  to  be  a  golden  sky,  which  in  its  turn  recedes  behind  the 
hills. 

The  picture  was  bought  in  Rome  and  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum 
in  1900. 

This  painting  presents  a  curious  and  interesting  problem.  There 
are  numerous  similar  pictures  in  different  galleries  and  private  col- 
lections in  Europe  and  America.  It  is  supposed  that  some  one  of  the 
well-known  painters,  probably  Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo,  Pintoricchio,  or 
Perugino,  created  the  type  and  that  the  design  was  then  repeated  by 
a  number  of  his  pupils  and  followers.  There  are  at  least  fifteen  of 
these  pictures,  besides  several  others  which  are  closely  akin  either  in 
the  design  of  the  Madonna  or  of  the  Child.  Three  pictures  by 
Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo — the  Salting  Madonna,  now  in  the  National 
Gallery,  the  Madonna  and  Child  in  an  early  triptych  in  the  Perugia 
Gallery,  and  the  Madonna  and  Child  formerly  in  Santa  Maria  Nuova 
in  Perugia — all  in  one  way  or  another  bear  resemblance  to  this  type. 
Roger  Fry  suggests  that  the  Salting  Madonna  by  Fiorenzo  is  the 
archetype  of  the  group,  but  he  agrees  with  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  in 
thinking  that  Pintoricchio,  under  the  influence  of  Fiorenzo,  actually 
created  the  design  we  are  discussing.  The  view  that  these  critics 
advocate  is  that  the  Madonna  now  belonging  to  John  Pierpont 
Morgan,  which  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  Major-General  John 
Stirling,  is  by  far  the  best,  and  was  painted  by  Pintoricchio,  and  that 


170  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

all  the  others  follow  this  model.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  give 
second  place  to  the  Madonna  di  Santa  Chiara  of  Urbino,  now  in 
the  Fogg  Museum.  Next  they  place  the  picture  by  Pintoricchio  in 
the  National  Gallery  (No.  703),  in  which  the  Child  stands  upon  a 
parapet  in  front  of  the  Madonna,  and  they  mention  five  more,  one 
in  Naples,  one  in  the  Brera,  and  three  in  the  Louvre.  Other  repli- 
cas with  minor  modifications  are  in  the  National  Gallery  (No.  702), 
in  the  Cook  collection  at  Richmond,  in  the  Benson  collection, 
London,  in  Budapest,  in  Darmstadt,  in  the  Palazzo  Bufalini  at 
Citta  di  Castello,  in  the  Palazzo  Municipale,  Toscanella,  and  one 
belonging  to  M.  Ernest  Rouart,  Paris  (No.  49  in  the  catalogue  of 
the  Henri  Rouart  sale,  191 2).  No  two  of  these  pictures  are  exactly 
alike.  Also  from  the  same  design  is  a  fresco  in  the  Sala  del  Gran 
Consiglio,  Perugia.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  in  the  Morgan  and 
Rouart  panels  and  in  the  Perugia  fresco  the  Madonna  faces  to  the 
left,  while  in  all  the  others  of  which  photographs  are  available  she 
faces  to  the  right.  The  Fogg  Museum,  the  Palazzo  Bufalini,  and  the 
Benson  collection  panels  have  a  landscape  background  instead  of  a 
mandorla  of  cherubs'  heads.  The  Toscanella  picture  has  both  the 
mandorla  and  a  landscape  background.  Of  the  others,  at  least  nine 
have  gold  immediately  surrounding  the  Madonna  within  the  man- 
dorla, and  either  gold  or  uniform  paint  outside  the  mandorla.  The 
Madonna  di  Santa  Chiara,  now  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  is  the  only  one 
we  have  found  in  which  the  Madonna  and  Child  have  solid  halos, 
with  inscriptions;  at  least  seven  have  no  halos. 

The  Madonna  di  Santa  Chiara  has  received  many  attributions. 
It  has  been  placed  upon  the  already  over-burdened  shoulders  of 
Antoniazzo  Romano;  Antonio  da  Viterbo  has  been  suggested. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  and  others  think  it  shows  the  influence  of 
Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo  and  mention  Ingegno's  name  in  connection  with 
it.  Ingegno  is  mentioned  by  Vasari  as  in  his  first  youth  vying  with 
Raphael,  and  among  all  the  disciples  of  Perugino  the  one  who  would 
without  doubt  have  surpassed  his  master  by  very  much,  "  but  that 
fortune,  who  is  almost  always  pleased  to  oppose  herself  to  high  begin- 
nings, would  not  suffer  l'Ingegno  to  attain  to  the  perfection  he  was 
approaching;  a  cold  and  affection  of  the  head  fell  with  such  fatal 
effect  upon  his  eyes  that  the  hapless  Andrea  became  totally  blind,  to 
the  bitter  and  lasting  sorrow  of  all  who  knew  him." 


34     UMBRIAN   SCHOOL 


MADONNA  DI  SANTA  CHIARA  171 

Finally,  an  attempt  has  been  made  to  prove  that  the  picture  is  by 
Raphael  himself.  It  will  perhaps  be  of  interest  to  mention  the  partic- 
ular evidence  brought  forth  in  favour  of  this  last  named  ascription. 
Professor  David  Farabulini  in  1875  published  a  book  entitled  Sopra 
una  Madonna  di  Raffaello  d'  Urbino,  in  which  he  devotes  235  pages 
to  proving  this  point,  and  the  question  has  also  been  discussed  in 
various  magazine  articles  and  histories  of  art.  It  is  manifestly  im- 
possible in  this  short  space  to  go  into  the  argument  at  length,  but  in 
a  general  way  Signor  Farabulini's  reasoning  is  as  follows.  In  1580 
Father  Horace  Civalli,  in  his  character  of  father  guardian  of  the 
Franciscan  convents  of  Urbino,  wrote  about  his  triennial  visit  to  that 
city:  "  I  will  not  here  make  mention  of  all  the  churches,  but  will 
come  at  once  to  Santa  Chiara,  where  we  find  two  things  worthy  of 
notice.  One  is  a  painting  a  foot  and  a  half  in  height  representing  the 
Blessed  Mother  with  her  Son  in  her  arms,  a  work  of  Raphael  Sanzio 
of  Urbino,  preserved  with  jealous  care  by  the  Reverend  Mothers." 
Thus  we  know  that  the  picture  was  in  the  convent  of  Santa  Chiara  as 
early  as  1580,  and  was  then  thought  to  be  by  Raphael.  Moreover, 
Passavant  states  that  it  was  there  in  1500,  according  to  a  chronicle 
of  that  year.  In  1822  Pungileoni,  in  his  Elogio  Storico  di  Raffaello 
Santi,  records :  "  The  painting  belonging  to  the  nuns  of  Santa  Chiara 
is  in  their  convent  guarded  with  the  greatest  jealousy.  Neither 
Algarotti,  who  made  the  tour  of  Italy  in  order  to  buy  objects  for 
Frederick,  king  of  Prussia,  nor  the  picture-dealer  Willi,  was  able  to 
carry  it  away  into  a  foreign  country,  as  had  happened  to  so  many 
other  paintings." 

There  is  an  inscription  on  the  back  of  the  picture  which  apparently 
Pungileoni  copied  at  that  time.  According  to  Professor  Farabulini, 
he  copied  and  interpreted  the  inscription  erroneously  and  Passavant 
and  Cavalcaselle  both  followed  his  interpretation.  As  given  by 
Pungileoni  it  is  as  follows:  "  fu  compro  da  Isabella  dogobio  matre 
di  Raffaello  Sante  da  Urbino  1548.  Fiorini  25."  This  inscription 
read  in  this  way  is  manifestly  absurd.  Raphael's  mother  was  named 
Magia  Ciarla,  not  Isabella.  She  died  in  1491,  hence  could  not  have 
bought  a  picture  by  her  son  in  1548.  The  inscription  actually  reads 
as  follows:  "  .  .  .  fu  comperato  da  Isabetta  da  Gobio  matre  di  .  .  . 
Raffael  Santi  .  .  .  1548  .  .  .  per  fiorini  25."  Professor  Farabulini 
supplies  the  missing  words  as  follows  and  makes  the  inscription  read 


172  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

thus:  "Questo  quadro  fu  comperato  da  Isabella  da  Gobio  matre  di 
questo  convento.  In  1548  fu  stimato  per  fiorini  25."  (This  picture  was 
bought  by  Isabella  of  Gubbio,  mother  of  this  convent.  In  1548  it 
was  appraised  at  25  florins.)  He  further  states  that  the  inscription 
which  says  "Raffael  Santi"  is  in  a  different  handwriting  and  earlier. 
He  then  points  out  that  the  meaning  is  clear;  Isabella  of  Gubbio 
was  the  daughter  of  Federigo  of  Montefeltro,  duke  of  Urbino.  She 
was  born  in  1461  and  was  betrothed  in  1471  to  Roberto  Malatesta, 
lord  of  Rimini,  and  was  married  to  him  in  1475.  After  a  brief  and 
unhappy  married  life  she  became  a  widow  at  the  age  of  twenty  or 
twenty-one,  when  her  husband  was  killed  at  Campo  Morto.  She 
then  retired  to  the  convent  of  Santa  Chiara  in  Urbino,  which  she 
endowed  with  her  possessions,  and  took  the  name  of  Sister  Chiara, 
probably  about  the  year  1482.  Professor  Farabulini  believes  that 
the  inscription  means  that  Isabella  da  Gubbio,  mother  superior  of 
this  convent,  bought  this  picture  and  gave  it  to  the  convent,  and 
that  in  1548  when  they  were  taking  account  of  stock  the  value  was 
estimated  at  twenty-five  florins. 

Vasari  tells  of  Raphael's  repeated  visits  to  Urbino,  and  mentions 
that  Duke  Guidobaldo  had  two  Madonnas,  small  but  beautiful,  by 
him,  and  Professor  Farabulini  conjectures  that  this  picture  must  be 
one  of  those  two,  and  was  perhaps  ordered  by  the  Duke  for  his  sister 
Isabella  of  Gubbio  at  some  time.  The  picture  was  sold  about  the 
year  i860  to  an  American  banker  in  Rome,  Mr.  Hooker.  Professor 
Farabulini  says  that  the  Madonna  di  Santa  Chiara  was  evidently 
copied  from  an  original  by  Perugino,  and  states  that  this  original  was 
in  Perugia  and  has  since  disappeared,  but  not  before  a  tracing  had 
been  made  which  came  into  the  possession  of  Mr.  Hooker,  and  which 
is  now  in  the  Fogg  Museum.  Signor  Farabulini's  theory  is  that  the 
picture  was  painted  when  Raphael  was  between  twelve  and  fifteen 
years  old,  while  he  still  showed  strong  traces  of  his  training  under  his 
father,  Giovanni  Santi.  Signor  Farabulini  further  gives  a  reproduc- 
tion of  the  design  on  the  neck  band  of  the  Madonna's  gown,  and 
quite  ingeniously  translates  it  as  follows:  "  Raphael .  Vr  .  In  .  tr", 
which  he  says  means  "  Raphael  Vrbinas  Inventor." 

Thus  he  builds  his  argument,  which  suggests  an  interesting  pos- 
sibility, but  the  weight  of  the  evidence  appears  to  be  against  his  case, 
as  this  picture  bears  no  resemblance  to  any  known  work  of  Raphael. 


MADONNA  DI  SANTA  CHIARA  1 73 

The  Madonna  di  Santa  Chiara,  however,  is  far  finer  than  any  of  the 
series,  with  the  possible  exception  of  Mr.  Morgan's  picture.  That 
appears  to  be  somewhat  nearer  Pintoricchio  than  does  the  painting 
in  the  Fogg  Museum,  but  in  spite  of  its  beauty  and  rich  colouring, 
there  are  certain  defects  in  the  draughtsmanship  of  the  Child,  which 
make  the  attribution  uncertain. 

Mr.  Hooker  during  his  lifetime  thoroughly  believed  the  painting 
to  be  a  Raphael,  but  his  wife,  who  sold  it,  came  to  the  conclusion 
that  it  was  by  Pintoricchio,  as  Morelli,  Sir  Edward  Poynter,  Sir 
Frederic  Leighton,  and  others  told  her  verbally  that  they  believed 
it  to  be  by  that  master.  Mrs.  Hooker  says  in  a  letter,  however,  that 
the  documentary  evidence  tends  decidedly  towards  Raphael,  and 
that  there  is  only  a  hiatus  of  forty  years  in  the  history  of  the  panel. 
Perhaps  future  study  and  research  will  solve  the  complicated  problem 
of  this  series  of  pictures.  At  the  present  time,  Umbrian  School  is  the 
safest  attribution  to  give. 

EXHIBITED 

London.    South  Kensington  Museum,  1876. 

London.    Royal  Academy.    Winter  exhibition,  1879.    Catalogue.    No.  193. 
Raphael-Ausstellung,  Dresden,  1879.    Catalogue.    8,  No.  3. 
A  photograph  of  the  picture  was  exhibited  at  the  Mostra  internazionale  Raf- 
faellesca  in  Urbino,  Aug.-Sept,  1897.    Catalogue.    49,  No.  447. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Pictures  in  the  Series 

Benson,  R.  H.  Catalogue  of  Italian  pictures  collected  by  Robert  and  Evelyn 
Benson.    London,  1914.  91-92,  No.  47. 

Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.   168. 

Broussolle,  J.  C.  La  jeunesse  du  Perugin  et  les  origines  de  Pecole  ombrienne. 
Paris,  1901.    356-360. 

Budapest.    Museum  der  Bildenden  Kunste.   Katalog,  1913.    176,  No.  83. 

Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club.  Catalogue  of  a  collection  of  pictures  of  the  Um- 
brian school.    London,  1910.  15-16,  No.  1;  46,  No.  64,  64a. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy.    1866.    iii,  164- 

l65- 
New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward  Hutton.    1909.    iii, 

194-195. 

History  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.   1914.  v,  273-275. 

Darmstadt.     Grossherzoglich  Hessisches  Landesmuseum.     Verzeiehnis 

der  Gemalde.     Bearbeitet  von  F.  Back.     Darmstadt,  1914.     64-65, 

No.  90. 


174  UMBRIAN  PAINTING 

Fry,  R.  E.  The  Umbrian  exhibition  at  the  Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club.  Bur- 
lington magazine.    London,  Feb.,  1910.  xvi  (83),  267-268. 

London.    National  Gallery.    Catalogue,  1913.    711,  No.  702. 

Magherini-Graziani.  L'arte  a  Citta.  di  Castello.    Citta,  di  Castello,  1897.  176. 

Phillips,  C.  The  Salting  collection;  the  Italian  pictures.  Burlington 
magazine.    London,  April,  1910.  xvii  (85),  15. 

Phillipps,  E.  M.    Pintoricchio.   148. 

Ricci,  C.    Pintoricchio.    Tr.  by  Florence  Simmonds.    London,  1902.    14-16. 

Rotjart,  H.  Catalogue  des  tableaux  anciens  composant  la  collection  de  feu  M. 
Henri  Rouart.    Paris,  Dec,  191 2.  i,  27,  No.  49. 

Thode,  H.  Pitture  di  maestri  italiani  nelle  gallerie  minori  di  Germania.  La 
pinacoteca  di  Darmstadt.  Archivio  storico  deW  arte.  Rome,  July-Aug., 
1890.    iii  (7-8),  252. 

Venturi,  A.    I  quadri  di  scuola  italiana  nella  Galleria  nazionale  di  Budapest. 
L'Arte.    Rome,  1900.  iii,  236-237. 
Storia  dell'  arte  italiana.    Milan,  1913.  vii,  pt.  2,  587-591,  712-713,  716. 

Madonna  di  Santa  Chiara 

Blanc,  C.  Histoire  des  peintres  de  toutes  les  ecoles;  ecole  ombrienne  et 
romaine.    Paris,  1870.    Andrea  di  Luigi  d'  Assise.    4-6,  8. 

Carr,  J.  C.    Academy.    London,  June  3,  1876.  544. 

Colvin,  S.  Old  masters  at  the  winter  exhibitions.  Nineteenth  century.  Lon- 
don, Feb.  24,  1879.  309. 

Farabtjlini,  D.    Letter  on  the  painting  of  Raphael  of  the  Virgin  of  Santa 
Chiara  at  Urbino.    Paris,  1879. 
Sopra  una  Madonna  di  Raffaello  d'Urbino.     Rome,  1875. 

Graesse,  J.  G.  T.  Ueber  eine  dem  Raphael  Sanzio  zugeschriebene  Madonna, 
jetz  im  Besitz  des  Herrn  J.  C.  Hooker  in  Rom.  Zeitsckr.  f.  Museologie 
und  Antiquitatenkunde.    Dresden,  Jan.,  1880.    No.  1,  6-8. 

Hutchinson,  G.    L'Art.    Paris,  Jan.  23,  1876.    iv  (56),  121-122. 

The  Madonna  or  Santa  Chiara,  Urbino.  Rome,  1875.  (Review  of  Professor 
Farabulini's  book.) 

Passavant,  J.  D.  Rafael  von  Urbino  und  sein  Vater  Giovanni  Santi.  Leip- 
sic,  1839.  i,  43. 

Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 
Rassegna  d'arte.     May,  1905.  67-68,  Reproduction. 

Pungileoni,  P.  L.   Elogio  storico  di  Giovanni  Santi.   Urbino,  1822.   131-132. 
Elogio  storico  di  Raffaello  Santi.     1829.    8-9. 

Raffaello  e  la  sua  Madonna  di  S.  Chiara  celebrata  in  Germania.  //  Raffaello. 
Urbino,  1880.  xii  (1),  5-7. 

Review  of  a  work  lately  published  by  Professor  David  Farabulini  descriptive 
of  the  early  painting  by  Raphael  now  in  possession  of  J.  C.  Hooker, 
Esq.,  Rome.    London,  1876. 

Tincker,  M.  A.  La  Madone  de  Santa  Chiara.  L'Art.  Paris,  May  28,  1882. 
xxix  (387),  161-168,  Reproduction. 

Trollope,  T.  A.  Mr.  Hooker's  picture.  Lippincott's  magazine.  Philadelphia, 
Aug.,  1875.  xvi  (92),  254-257. 


MADONNA  DI  SANTA  CHIARA  175 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Oct.-Dec,  1905.  2d  ser.,  ix  (4),  498. 
Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.  134.    (Antoniazzo  Romano.) 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    74,  Reproduction  (78). 
Bibliografia.    L' Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1905.    viii  (4),  315,  No.  283. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    26,  No.  9. 
Colucci,  Abate.    Antichita  Picene.     Visita  triennale  (nel  1580)  del  Padre 

Maestro  Civalli  de'  Minori  Conventuali.    Fermo,  1794.    xxv,  190. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy.    1866.   iii,  164. 
New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward  Hutton.    1909.    iii,  195, 

and  note  2. 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.    1914.  v,  274. 
Kunstgeschichtliche   Gesellschaft.      Sitzungsbericht.      Dec.    n,    1908. 

viii,  38,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551. 
London.    National  Gallery.    Catalogue,  1913.    711,  No.  702. 
Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.     17,  No.  4. 
Ricci.    Pintoricchio.    15. 

Rio,  A.  F.    De  l'art  chretien,  nouvelle  ed.    Paris,  1861.    ii,  272.    (LTngegno.) 
Vasari.    Le  Monnier.     1852.   viii,  72,  note  4. 

Ed.  by  Milanesi.    Sansoni.    1879.    iv,  395,  note  2. 
Weekly  register.     1876.    No.  14,  380. 

References  to  the  two  Madonnas  painted  for  Duke  Guidobaldo 

Comolli,  A.    Vita  inedita  di  Raffaello  da  Urbino.    Ed.  seconda.    Rome,  1791. 

13,  note  21. 
Dennistoun,  J.    Memoirs  of  the  Dukes  of  Urbino.    London,  1851.  ii,  223. 
Quatremere  de  Quincy,  A.  C  Histoire  de  la  vie  et  des  ouvrages  de  Raphael, 

39  ed.    Paris,  1835.  26. 
Vasari.    Tr.  by  Mrs.  Foster.     1851.  iii,  8. 
Le  Monnier.     1852.    viii,  7. 
Ed.  by  Milanesi.    Sansoni.     1879.  iv,  322. 
Ed.  by  E.  H.  and  E.  W.  Blashfield  and  A.  A.  Hopkins.     1911.  iii,  137. 


35 


BERNARDINO  DI  MARIOTTO 

About  1478  to  1566 

Bernardino  di  Mariotto  dello  Stagno,  one  of  the  most  important 
members  of  the  school  of  San  Severino,  was  born  in  Perugia  about 
1478.  Although  he  lived  after  Perugino  and  Pintoricchio,  Ber- 
nardino did  not  fall  under  the  spell  of  those  masters,  but  represented 
rather  the  older,  more  serious  tradition  of  Umbrian  painting  as  seen 
in  Fiorenzo  and  Signorelli.  His  first  master  was  probably  Lodovico 
di  Angelo  Mattioli  of  Perugia,  or 'perhaps  Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo. 
Bernardino  also  reflects  the  influence  of  Lorenzo  da  San  Severino  the 
Younger  and  of  Crivelli.  Documents  record  that  Bernardino  was 
in  San  Severino  in  1502;  he  probably  went  there  about  1497  or 
1498.  He  worked  with  Lorenzo  da  San  Severino  the  Younger,  and 
after  Lorenzo's  death  in  1503  took  over  his  workshop.  He  returned 
from  San  Severino  to  Perugia  in  1522,  and  was  active  there  until 
1541.   He  died  in  Perugia  in  1566. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Aleandri,  V.  E.   Un  affresco  a  Camerino  e  Bernardino  di  Mariotto  da  Perugia. 

Rivista  d'arte.    Florence,  Sept.-Dec,  1909.  vi  (5-6),  308-314. 
Bombe,  W.   In  Thieme-Becker.  Kunstler-Lexikon.  Leipsic,  1909.  iii,  441-442. 
Jacobsen,  E.     Umbrische  Malerei  des  xiv.,  xv.,  und  xvi.   Jahrhunderts. 

Strasburg,  1914.  61-65. 

MYSTIC  MARRIAGE  OF  SAINT  CATHERINE 

Oil  on  panel,  arched  top.  H.  2if  in.  W.  14!  in.  (55  X  36.8  cm.) 
The  violet  red  colour  motive  of  the  Madonna's  gown  is  repeated  by 
the  mantle  of  Saint  Catherine;  and  the  orange  yellow  of  Saint 
Catherine's  gown  is  repeated  in  the  lining  of  the  Madonna's  mantle, 
and  again  in  the  mantle  of  the  central  angel,  the  sleeves  of  the  left- 
hand  angel,  and  the  wings  of  the  one  on  the  right.  The  dark  blue 
mantle  of  the  Madonna  is  now  black.  The  sky  is  a  deep  blue  which 
grows  lighter  near  the  horizon.  The  central  angel  wears  a  robe  of 
pale  blue  with  collar  and  sleeves  of  violet  red;  his  wings  also  are 
violet  red.  The  angel  on  the  left  wears  a  pale  violet  robe.  His 
mantle  and  bis  wings  are  olive  green.  The  angel  on  the  right  wears 
a  garment  in  part  yellow  green  and  in  part  red  violet.  The  general 
tone  of  the  architecture  is  brown. 


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BERNARDINO  DI  MARIOTTO  1 77 

The  picture  at  one  time  belonged  to  Count  Augusto  Caccialupi  in 
Macerata,  and  appears  as  No.  xin  in  the  catalogue  of  his  collection, 
published  in  1870.  It  is  described  as  a  standard  and  is  attributed  to 
Crivelli.  On  the  opposite  side  was  a  picture  of  Saint  Sebastian  and 
Saint  Thomas  in  Adoration,  now  in  the  collection  of  F.  Mason 
Perkins.  Mr.  Perkins- describes  these  saints  as  Saint  Dominic  and 
Saint  Sebastian,  and  thinks  that  the  two  panels  were  originally  bier 
heads.  The  Fogg  Museum  panel  was  sold  in  Rome  in  the  Nevin  sale 
in  1907.  On  the  back  of  the  panel  is  written:  "  From  the  Chateau 
of  L'Abaddia."    The  picture  was  placed  in  this  Museum  in  1910. 

The  painting  well  illustrates  the  influences  to  which  Bernardino 
reacted.  The  three  angels  above  the  main  group  of  figures,  somewhat 
stiff  and  lacking  in  spontaneity,  probably  were  derived  from  Fiorenzo; 
the  type  of  Madonna  recalls  Signorelli;  while  the  Saint  Catherine  is 
modelled  directly  upon  Crivelli's  Saint  Mary  Magdalene  in  Berlin. 
The  colour  is  rich,  but  somewhat  metallic;  the  outlines  are  hard. 
The  painter's  interest  in  detail  is  seen  in  the  marble  pavement,  in 
Saint  Catherine's  crown,  in  her  jewels  and  those  of  the  Madonna  and 
Child.  The  picture  is  somewhat  stiff  and  formal,  revealing  the 
hand  of  the  provincial  painter. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Caccialupi,  A.    Catalogo  di  quadri  di  varie  scuole  pittoriche  raccolti  dal  Sig. 

Conte  Augusto  Caccialupi  in  Macerata  e  descritti  per  il  Marchese  Filippo 

Raffaelli.    Macerata,  1870.  9,  No.  xiii. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.    703. 
Perkins,  F.  M.    Dipinti  inediti  del  Pintoricchio  e  di  Bernardino  di  Mariotto. 

Rassegna  d'arte  umbra.  Perugia,  Dec.  15, 1910.  i  (4),  no,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan-March,  1912.    2d  ser.,  xvi  (1),  157; 

Jan.-March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124.        / 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  21. 

Bibliografia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  1911.    xiv,  159-160,  No.  87. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    38. 
Burlington  magazine.    London,  April,  1911.  xix  (97),  61. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    New  history  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Edward 

Hutton.    1909.  iii,  297,  note  4.    (Ex-Nevin  collection,  Rome.) 
History  of  painting  in  Italy;  ed.  by  Tancred  Borenius.  1914.  v,  419,  note  1. 
Nevin,  R.  I.    Catalogo  della  vendita  della  collezione  del  fu  Reverendo  Dottor 

Roberto  I.  Nevin.    Rome,  1907.  15,  No.  50. 
Perkins.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan,  April,  1906.    vi  (4),  53,  note  1. 


FRANCESCO  ZAGANELLI  DA  COTIGNOLA 

About  1460  to  1531 
Francesco  di  Bosio  Zaganelli  was  born  at  Cotignola  in  the  duchy 
of  Ferrara  in  the  latter  part  of  the  xv  century.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Palmezzano  of  Forli  and  in  addition  to  Umbrian  influence  shows  the 
influence  of  the  Ferrarese  school  —  especially  that  of  Ercole  Roberti 
and  Costa  —  of  the  Venetian  Rondinelli,  and  of  the  Bolognese 
Francia.  With  his  brother  Bernardino  he  worked  in  Cotignola  until 
the  death  of  Bernardino,  about  1509.  Then  Francesco  moved  to 
Ravenna  where  he  painted  a  large  number  of  works.  He  died  in 
Ravenna  in  153 1. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ricci,  C.    D'alcuni  dipinti  di  Bernardino  da  Cotignola.    Rassegna  d'arte. 

Milan,  April,  1904.  iv  (4),  49-52. 
La  "  Madonna  delle  Rose  "  dei  Zaganelli  da  Cotignola  nel  Museo  di 

Vicenza.    L'Arte.    Rome,  1914.  xvii,  1-6. 
Raccolte  artistiche  di  Ravenna.    Bergamo,  1905.  11-13. 

36    HOLY  FAMILY 

Lent  by  Charles  B.  Perkins. 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  25!  in.    W.  i8f  in.     (65.3  X  47.3  cm.) 

The  Madonna's  gown  is  of  red;  her  mantle,  originally  of  blue  has 
faded,  especially  over  her  knees,  to  a  dark  brown  green.  The  lining 
of  her  mantle,  once  green,  is  now  brown.  Her  hair  is  brown  yellow 
and  over  it  is  a  transparent  kerchief.  The  Child's  hair  is  brown. 
Saint  Joseph's  robe  is  violet  red  and  his  cloak  red,  similar  in  colour  to 
the  Madonna's  gown.  His  hair  and  beard  are  brown.  The  landscape 
background  has  faded  somewhat,  and  it  presents  a  harmony  of  warm 
grays  and  greenish  browns,  save  for  a  bit  of  dark  red  in  the  jacket  of 
one  of  the  two  men  standing  near  the  camel  and  in  the  bundle  over 
the  shoulder  of  one  of  the  men  driving  the  ass.  The  distant  moun- 
tains are  of  pale  gray  blue;  the  sky  shades  from  pale  blue  to  a  pale 
pink  at  the  horizon.  The  parapet  on  which  the  Madonna  and  Child 
are  seated  is  yellow  white,  with  a  yellow  brown  base;  the  fruit  is  of 
shades  of  brown  and  rose. 

The  picture  was  bought  by  Charles  C.  Perkins  in  Italy  some  time 
between  the  years  1850  and  i860,  and  was  placed  on  exhibition  in  the 
Museum  in  1 910  as  an  indefinite  loan. 


ZAGANELLI  179 

The  painting  illustrates  especially  the  Umbrian  element  in  Zaga- 
nelli's  work.  In  the  romantic  background  with  its  knights,  rocks, 
feathery  trees,  and  far  distances,  Zaganelli  is  close  to  Pintoricchio  — 
indeed  the  picture  was  formerly  attributed  to  Pintoricchio.  The 
types  also  are  Umbrian. 

On  the  parapet  by  the  Madonna  and  Child  are  cherries,  apples, 
and  a  gourd.  The  apple  and  the  gourd  were  often  painted  together 
by  artists,  notably  Crivelli.  The  use  of  the  gourd  dates  back  to  the 
wall  pictures  in  the  catacombs,  where  Jonah  was  represented  as  the 
type  of  the  Risen  Christ  and  the  gourd  as  the  symbol  of  the  Resur- 
rection. As  the  apple  was  the  fruit  of  Eden  which  brought  sin  into 
the  world,  so  the  gourd  represented  the  Resurrection  which  saved  the 
world  from  the  consequences  of  its  sin. 

MENTIONED 

Berenson.    Central  Italian  painters,  2d  ed.    264.    (Boston.    Museum  of  Fine 

Arts.) 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    38. 
Brown  and  Rankin.    409.     (Boston.    Bernardino  Zaganelli.) 


NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 


NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 


STRICTLY  speaking,  northern  Italy  consists  of  the  whole  region 
north  of  the  Apennines,  including  Venice;  but  in  connection 
with  the  history  of  painting,  Venice  is  ordinarily  regarded  as  a  sep- 
arate school,  for  the  development  of  its  art  is  somewhat  distinct  from 
that  of  Northern  Italian  art  as  a  whole  and  much  more  definite.  As 
a  matter  of  fact,  outside  of  Venice,  there  was  no  school  in  northern 
Italy  which  had  a  continuous  development,  and  until  the  middle  of 
the  xv  century  there  were  few  masters  of  conspicuous  individual 
genius.  There  was  always  a  tendency  to  import  noted  artists  from 
abroad  to  execute  the  more  important  works.  Thus  the  Florentines, 
Giotto,  Uccello,  Filippo  Lippi,  and  Donatello,  were  all  commissioned 
to  work  in  Padua,  and  later  on  Leonardo  was  called  to  Milan. 

In  the  xrv  century  the  intercourse  between  the  cities  of  northern 
Italy,  in  particular  those  of  Lombardy,  and  the  north  of  Europe 
seems  to  have  been  especially  close,  and  a  late  Gothic  style  developed 
toward  the  end  of  the  xrv  century  very  similar  to  the  International 
art  of  France  and  of  Cologne.  Grassi,  Besozzo,  and  the  Zavattari 
were  the  more  important  of  these  Lombard  "Internationalists." 
Altichiero  of  Verona  and  his  follower  Jacopo  d'Avanzi,  who  some- 
what earlier  painted  the  series  of  frescoes  in  the  oratory  of  Saint 
George  in  Padua  and  one  or  two  other  works  still  extant  in  Padua  and 
Verona,  were  also  typically  late  Gothic  painters  in  their  combination 
of  discursive  naturalism  and  grace  and  charm  of  style.  In  the  genera- 
tion after  Altichiero,  Pisanello,  also  of  Verona,  a  great  medallist  as 
well  as  painter,  became  the  chief  northern  Italian  representative  of 
the  International  school.  Pupil  of  the  Umbrian,  Gentile  da  Fabriano, 
whom  he  probably  assisted  in  the  Ducal  Palace  in  Venice,  he  was  one 
of  the  most  charming  of  all  northern  painters.  He  was  the  keenest 
of  naturalists,  taking  a  particular  interest  in  the  representation  of 
animals. 

Padua  with  its  university  was  the  chief  centre  of  learning  and  cul- 
ture in  northern  Italy  during  the  xiv  and  early  xv  centuries.  At 
first  its  more  important  art  was  the  work  of  foreign  artists,  like 


Giovanni  da 

Grassi 

ah.  1340-1398 

Besozzo,  active 

1394-1442 

The  Zavattari 

xv  c,  1st  half 

Altichiero 

Allichieri 

ab.  1330-1395 

Jacopo 

d'Avanzi 

xiv  c,  2d  half 

Pisanello 

ab.  1385-1453 


1 84 


NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 


Guariento 
active  ab. 
1338-ab. 
1368 


Francesco 

Squarcione 

I394-H74 


Andrea 

Mantegna 

1431-1506 


Giotto  and  Altichiero.  Its  native  art  in  the  xrv  century  was  repre- 
sented by  Guariento,  whose  style  was  a  meagre  example  of  the 
Byzantine-Gothic,  which  prevailed  so  long  in  Venice  and  the  neigh- 
bouring cities  of  the  north  that  came  less  directly  in  touch  with  the 
more  vigorous  Gothic  current.  As  Padua,  however,  had  been  a 
centre  of  humanism  throughout  the  Middle  Ages,  it  was  peculiarly 
ready  for  the  awakening  of  the  Renaissance,  which  there,  as  in  Um- 
bria,  came  largely  through  Florentine  influence.  The  invigorating 
influence  of  the  sculptor  Donatello,  who  came  to  the  city  in  1443, 
was  of  the  greatest  importance  in  forming  the  characteristics  of  the 
school. 

Paduan  art  in  the  Quattrocento  was  centred  in  the  workshop  or 
academy  of  Francesco  Squarcione,  who  was  more  significant  as  a 
collector,  antiquarian,  and  teacher  than  as  a  painter.  His  art  and 
that  of  his  scores  of  pupils,  who  came  from  all  over  the  north  of  Italy, 
including  Venice,  was  founded  largely  on  a  study  of  antique  sculpture, 
combined  with  the  inspiration  derived  from  Donatello's  works  in 
Padua.  A  strongly  sculpturesque  point  of  view,  shown  in  the  keen 
interest  in  modelling  of  surface  and  the  emphasis  on  hard  metallic 
edge  as  well  as  in  a  liking  for  sculpturesque  details  of  classical  form, 
and  a  striving  for  the  rendering  of  great  intensity  of  feeling  in  pos- 
ture and  facial  expression,  were  striking  characteristics  of  the  school. 
The  style  is  thus  to  a  considerable  extent  mannered  and  unnatural; 
poses  of  figures  are  distorted,  facial  expression  tends  toward  grimace, 
draperies  are  metallic  or  cartaceous,  the  landscape  is  strangely  barren 
and  rocky,  and  bas-reliefs  and  garlands  of  fruit  and  flowers  are  super- 
abundant. Nevertheless,  within  its  limits,  the  style  is  in  its  best 
examples  forceful  and  harmonious. 

The  greatest  exponent  and  perhaps  the  principal  founder  of  this 
Paduan  style  was  Mantegna.  He  was  one  of  the  most  individual  and 
powerful  painters  of  the  xv  century,  and  no  doubt  his  presence  in 
Squarcione's  workshop  accounted  to  a  considerable  extent  for  its 
stimulating  effect  on  his  fellow  pupils.  His  influence  was  very  wide- 
spread. He  developed  the  scientific  and  plastic  tendencies  of  Florence 
along  special  lines  of  his  own,  taking  particular  interest  in  perspec- 
tive and  foreshortening,  but  without  ignoring  possibilities  of  beauty 
and  charm.  Mantegna  is  notable  not  only  as  a  painter  but  also  as  an 
engraver,  and  seven  engraved  plates  are  attributed  to  him.    Impres- 


NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 


185 


sions  from  all  but  one  of  these  will  be  found  in  the  Print  Room  of  the 
Fogg  Museum. 

It  might  be  useful  to  think  of  Northern  Italian  art  as  composed  of 
horizontal  layers  or  strata,  spreading  out  from  various  centres  more 
or  less  completely,  rather  than  divided  vertically  into  local  schools; 
for  if  we  examine  the  art  of  the  separate  towns  and  cities  we  find 
little  homogeneity  running  through  the  different  periods,  even  in  the 
work  of  the  same  artists,  but  if  we  examine  all  northern  art  at  any 
one  moment  we  are  likely  to  find  considerable  likeness.  Thus  Squar- 
cionesque  painting  had  for  a  time  great  influence  on  the  art  of  various 
towns  to  which  pupils  returned.  The  Squarcionesque  stratum 
centred  in  Padua  and  took  on  a  somewhat  different  aspect  in  different 
places  according  to  the  individual  character  of  the  various  painters, 
but  it  spread  out  pretty  completely  over  the  whole  of  northern  Italy. 
Foppa  in  Milan;  Benaglio,Domenico  Morone,  Liberale,  and  Girolamo 
dai  Libri  in  Verona;  Girolamo  in  Cremona;  Cosimo  Tura,  Ercole 
Roberti,  and  Zoppo  in  Ferrara;  as  Well  as  Bartolommeo  Vivarini  and 
Crivelli  in  Venice:  these  were  all,  at  least  for  a  time,  a  part  of  the 
Squarcionesque  or  Mantegnesque  stratum. 

Among  these,  one  of  the  most  important  was  Cosimo  Tura,  pupil 
of  Squarcione  and  founder  of  the  Ferrarese  school.  In  many  ways  his 
painting  is  mannered  and  bizarre,  as  in  the  angular  folds  of  his  dra- 
pery, but  his  figures  are  dignified  and  expressive,  often  intensely 
emotional.  In  subtle  adjustment  of  colour  design,  he  and  his  pupil 
Cossa  are  hardly  surpassed  by  any  other  painters  of  the  Renaissance. 

In  the  next  generation  Umbrian  influence,  combined  with  Fer- 
rarese, produced  in  Bologna  the  more  sophisticated  art  of  Costa  and 
Francia. 

Another  stratum  which  extended  as  far  as  Milan,  in  the  painting  of 
Andrea  Solario,  was  due  to  the  influence  of  the  late  xv  century  Vene- 
tian painting,  especially  that  of  Alvise  Vivarini.  Solario  later  be- 
came a  follower  of  Leonardo.  Many  painters  in  a  similar  way  fol- 
lowed the  vogue  of  different  masters  in  their  successive  periods, 
beginning  perhaps  in  the  style  of  Alvise  Vivarini,  then  imitating 
Giorgione  and  Titian,  or  perhaps  Leonardo  and  even  Raphael  and 
Michelangelo,  in  turn. 

A  certain  amount  of  Umbrian  influence  penetrated  to  Milan  when 
Bramante,  coming  from  Urbino,  took  up  his  abode  there.  It  is  notice- 


Vincenzo 

Foppa,  ab. 

1427-after 

1502 

Francesco 

Benaglio 

xv  c,  2d  half 

Domenico 

Morone 

1442-  after 

1503 

Liberale  da 
Verona 
I45i~i536 
Girolamo  dai 
Libri 

i474-i55<> 

Girolamo  da 

Cremona 

active 

14.67-1483 

Ercole 

Roberti 

ab.  1430-1496 

Marco  Zoppo 

ab.  1440-1498 

Cosimo  Tura 

ab.  1430-1495 

Francesco  del 

Cossa 

ab.  1435-1477 

Lorenzo  Costa 

1460-1535 

Francesco 

Francia 

ab.  1450-1517 

Andrea 

Solario 

ab.  1459- 

ab.  1520 


1 86 


NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 


Bramanlino 
ab.  1460-1520 


Bernardino 
Luini 
ab.  1475- 
1531/32 


Defendente 
Ferrari 
active  ab. 

1510-1535 
Correggio 

1494-1534 
Francesco 
Bianchi 
I457-I5IO 


Dosso  Dossi 

I479-I54I 

Romanino 

1485/86-1566 

Morello  da 

Brescia,  ab. 

I4g8-ab.  1554 

Giovanni 

Battista 

Moroni 

1520/25-1578 


Antonio 

Badile 

I5i7(?)-I56'° 


able  especially  in  the  work  of  Suardi,  known  as  Bramantino,  who  is 
represented  in  the  Boston  Museum  by  an  unusually  lovely  panel 
strongly  suggestive  of  Umbrian  quality.  Later  on,  Leonardo  became 
the  dominating  factor  in  all  Milanese  art,  and  almost  all  the  Milanese 
painters,  even  Luini,  who  under  the  influence  of  ea  flier  artists  had 
developed  a  style  of  rare  grace  and  charm,  succumbed  to  the  in- 
fluence of  Leonardo's  exotic  style,  with  its  insistence  on  plastic 
modelling  obtained  by  melting  contours  and  blackened  shadows, 
and  its  search  for  subtle  phases  of  emotion. 

Farther  to  the  west,  in  Vercelli,  painters  like  Defendente  Ferrari 
showed  the  influence  of  Flemish  and  French  xv  century  painting. 

In  the  High  Renaissance  the  most  significant  northern  artist  was 
Correggio.  His  direct  masters  were  Bianchi  of  Modena  and  Francia 
and  Costa  of  Bologna,  but  he  combined  the  style  of  xvi  century 
Venice  with  the  weaker  sentimentality  of  Bologna,  borrowing  also 
something  of  Leonardo's  exaggerated  chiaroscuro  and  soft  modelling. 
Possibly  the  signs  of  decadence  in  his  work  may  also  be  attributed 
somewhat  to  Leonardo's  influence.  In  his  best  work  he  is  one  of  the 
most  masterly  painters  of  all  time  in  his  free  and  expressive  handling 
and  in  his  subtle  adjustment  of  tones  to  achieve  harmonious  mellow 
light  and  to  express  existence  in  different  planes  forward  and  back. 

Among  other  North  Italian  painters  of  the  xvi  century  Dosso 
Dossi  of  Ferrara  came  strongly  under  Giorgione's  influence,  and 
Romanino,  Moretto,  and  Moroni  of  Brescia  followed  the  methods  of 
Titian  and  contemporary  Venetian  painters.  Moretto  and  his  pupil 
Moroni  are  among  the  finest  portrait  painters  of  the  xvi  century. 
They  incline  toward  a  more  silvery  tone  than  Titian  or  Tintoretto, 
but  otherwise  their  paintings  are  practically  Venetian  both  in  mode 
and  in  technique. 

A  similar  silvery  tone  is  found  in  the  works  of  the  xvi  century 
school  of  Verona,  which  produced  masters  like  Badile  and  his  great 
pupil,  Paolo  Caliari.  The  latter  is  usually  thought  of,  however,  as 
belonging  to  the  school  of  Venice,  where  he  did  his  more  important 
work,  but  where  he  was  known  as  "  II  Veronese." 

Arthur  Pope. 


NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING  1 87 

The  North  Italian  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum  will  be  found  under  Nos. 
37-42  in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch  the  following  are  repre- 
sented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John  L. 
Gardner  at  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Andrea  Solario,  Portrait;  Bramantino, 
Madonna  and  Child;  Moroni,  Portrait. 

Fenway  Court:  Attributed  to  Squarcione,  Madonna  and  Child;  Man- 
tegna,  Madonna  and  Saints;  Liberale  da  Verona,  Madonna  and  Saint 
Joseph  adoring  the  Infant  Christ;  Cosimo  Tura,  Circumcision  (companion 
piece  to  Fogg  Museum  tondo,  No.  37);  Francia,  Madonna;  Bramantino, 
Three  Saints;  Correggio,  Venus;  or,  Girl  with  Thorn;  Moroni,  Portrait. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    North  Italian  painters  of  the  Renaissance.    New  York,  1907. 
Borenitjs,  T.    Painters  of  Vicenza,  1480-1550.    London,  1909. 
Gardner,  E.  G.    Painters  of  the  school  of  Ferrara.    New  York,  191 1. 
Grtjyer,  G.    L'art  ferrarais  a,  Pepoque  des  princes  d'Este.    Paris,  1897.    2  v. 
Malaguzzi-Valeri,  F.    Pittori  lombardi  del  quattrocento.    Milan,  1902. 
Ricci,  C.    Art  in  northern  Italy.    New  York,  1911.    (Ars  una:  species  mille.) 
Toesca,  P.    La  pittura  e  la  miniatura  nella  Lombardia,  dai  piu  antichi  monu- 
menti  alia  meta,  del  quattrocento.    Milan,  1912. 


COSIMO  TURA 
About  1430  to  1495 

Cosimo  (Cosme)  Tura,  the  founder  of  the  Ferrarese  school,  was  born 
in  Ferrara,  probably  in  the  early  part  of  the  year  1430.  He  was  the 
son  of  a  shoemaker,  Domenico  di  Tura.  Little  is  known  of  his  earliest 
training,  but  records  show  that  in  1451  he  was  employed  by  the  Duke 
of  Ferrara  with  the  local  master  Galasso.  He  was  absent  from 
Ferrara  fromabout  1452  to  1456,  and  it  is  probable  that  he  spent  most 
of  this  time  in  Padua,  studying  in  the  Squarcione  workshop.  During 
his  absence  from  Ferrara  he  doubtless  visited  Venice  also.  The  de- 
termining influence  in  his  training  was  that  of  Padua,  where  he 
"  drank  deep  "  of  the  inspiration  of  Donatello  and  Mantegna.  He 
may  have  had  some  share  in  the  less  important  frescoes  of  the  Ere- 
mitani  Chapel.  At  some  time  he  may  have  come  under  the  influence 
of  Pier  dei  Franceschi,  deriving  perhaps  from  him  something  of  his 
sense  of  colour  harmony  and  his  feeling  for  monumental  quality  in 
design. 

Tura  returned  to  Ferrara  in  1456  and  in  1458  was  appointed  court 
painter;  be  held  this  position  under  Dukes  Borso  and  Ercole  d'  Este 
until  a  few  years  before  his  death.  His  work  for  the  Este  family  in- 
cluded a  long  series  of  paintings  of  religious  and  profane  subjects,  of 
portraits,  of  designs  for  tapestries,  furniture,  and  silver  plate,  and 
decorations  for  court  festivities  and  tournaments.  Between  the 
years  1465  and  1467  he  was  absent  from  Ferrara  at  Mirandola, 
where  he  decorated  the  library  of  Francesco  Pico,  the  father  of  Pico 
della  Mirandola.  Tura  returned  to  Ferrara  in  1467;  and  there  he 
spent  the  rest  of  his  life,  save  for  a  short  visit  to  Venice  and  Brescia 
in  connection  with  a  commission  from  Duke  Borso  to  decorate  his 
chapel  in  Belriguardo,  and  a  second  visit  to  Venice  in  connection 
with  a  commission  from  Duke  Ercole  for  a  silver  service  designed 
by  Cosimo  and  executed  by  a  Venetian  goldsmith  in  honour  of  the 
marriage  of  the  Duke  to  Leonora  of  Aragon.  Tura's  official  con- 
nection with  the  court  ended  about  1485.    He  died  in  1495. 

Tura  is  represented  in  this  country  by  the  panels  in  the  Fogg 
Museum  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John  L.  Gardner,  Boston;  by 
two  small  panels  of  Saint  John  the  Baptist  and  Saint  Peter  in  the 
John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia;  by  the  portrait  of  Duke 


37     COSIMO   TURA 


COSIMO  TURA  189 

Borso  d'  Este  in  the  Altaian  collection  of  the  Metropolitan  Mu- 
seum; and  by  a  Madonna  and  Child  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Harold  I.  Pratt,  New  York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Borenius,  T.    "  The  Crucifixion,"  by  Cosimo  Tura.    Burlington  magazine. 

London,  Aug.,  1915.  xxvii  (149),  202-205. 
Gardner,  E.  G.    Painters  of  the  school  of  Ferrara.    New  York,  1911.  16-31. 
Gruyer,  G.    L'  art  ferrarais  a  1'  epoque  des  princes  d'  Este.    Paris,  1897.  ii, 

56-84. 
Harck,  F.    Die  Fresken  im  Palazzo  Schifanoia  in  Ferrara.    Jahrb.  d.  kon. 

preuss.  Kunstsamml.    Berlin,  1884.  v,  99-127. 
Verzeichnis  der  Werke  des  Cosma  Tura.   Jahrb.  d.  kon.  preuss.  Kunst- 
samml.   Berlin,  1888.  ix,  34-40. 
Ricci,  C.    Tavole  sparse  di  un  polittico  di  Cosme  Tura.    Rassegna  d'arte. 

Milan,  Oct.,  1905.  v  (10),  145-146. 
Venturi,  A.    L  'arte  emiliana  al  Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club  di  Londra.   Archi- 

vio  storico  dell'  arte.    Rome,  March-April,  1894.    Ser.  i,  vii  (2),  89-96. 
Cosma  Tura,  genannt  Cosme,  1432  bis  1495.     Jahrb.  d.  kon.  preuss. 

Kunstsamml.    Berlin,  1888.  ix,  3-33. 
Maestri  ferraresi  del  rinascimento.    L'Arte.    Rome,  May-July,  1903.    vi 

(5-7),  I33-I34- 
Le  opere  de'  pittori  ferraresi  del'  400  secondo  il  catalogo  di  Bernardo 
Berenson.    L'Arte.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1908.  xi  (6),  419-422. 

37    ADORATION  OF  THE  KINGS 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  15!  in.    W.  15!  in.    (38.8  X  38.6  cm.)    Visible 
surface,  tondo. 

The  Madonna's  mantle  is  of  a  peculiar  neutral  blue;  the  high  light, 
as  is  often  the  case  with  Tura's  draperies,  is  of  a  silvery  quality  and  is 
blue  green  in  colour.  The  shadows  are  of  a  greenish  blue  turned 
brown  in  parts  with  age.  A  rose  red,  almost  a  red  violet,  appears  not 
only  in  the  mantle  of  the  kneeling  king  but  in  the  sleeves  of  the 
Madonna's  gown  and  the  collar  and  sleeves  of  Saint  Joseph's  tunic, 
and  a  fainter  echo  of  this  same  colour  appears  in  the  subdued  rosy 
light  in  the  sky  near  the  horizon  showing  under  the  dark  blue  green 
clouds,  and  in  the  sleeves  and  cap  of  the  Ethiopian  king.  Saint 
Joseph  and  the  fair-haired  standing  king  both  wear  tunics  of  deep 
blue  green,  almost  black,  and  this  same  colour  appears  in  the  sleeves 
of  the  kneeling  king.  The  strongest  colour  note  in  the  picture  is  the 
vermilion  mantle  of  Saint  Joseph.  The  drapery  of  the  Ethiopian 
king  and  of  the  figure  kneeling  before  him  as  well  as  the  under  tunic, 


I  go  NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 

the  drapery  over  the  right  arm,  and  the  cap  of  the  standing  king  are 
of  a  warm  yellowish  brown.  This  colour  appears  in  a  variety  of  skil- 
fully graded  tones,  many  of  them  verging  towards  green,  in  the  rocks, 
the  shoes,  the  presents  offered  to  the  Infant  Christ,  and  in  the  hair 
and  flesh  tones  of  all  except  the  Ethiopian  king,  thus  giving  a  har- 
monious unity  to  the  picture. 

The  panel  belonged  at  one  time  to  the  Santa  Croce  family,  Rome, 
and  later  was  in  the  collection  of  the  Contessa  di  Santa  Fiora,  Rome. 
It  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1905. 

The  picture  was  formerly  considered  to  be  one  of  a  series  of  five 
tondi  which  formed  parts  of  the  altarpiece  of  Saint  Maurelius  in  San 
Giorgio  fuori  le  Mura  at  Ferrara.  Two  of  the  series  were  thought  to 
be  the  Trial  and  Martyrdom  of  Saint  Maurelius,  now  in  the  Ferrara 
Gallery;  and  the  other  three,  the  Circumcision,  in  the  collection  of 
Mrs.  John  L.  Gardner,  Boston;  the  Adoration,  in  the  Fogg  Museum; 
and  the  Flight  into  Egypt,  in  the  collection  of  Robert  H.  Benson, 
London.  The  theory  that  the  five  tondi  formed  one  series  has  now, 
however,  been  discarded,  and  Dr.  Venturi  and  Dr.  Schubring  have 
published  the  three  tondi  belonging  to  Mrs.  Gardner,  to  Mr.  Ben- 
son, and  to  the  Fogg  Museum,  and  representing  scenes  from  the  life 
of  the  Madonna,  as  forming  one  series.  Similar  types  are  used  in  the 
three  panels;  the  same  Saint  Joseph  appears  in  all;  there  is  a  close  re- 
semblance between  the  Madonnas  in  the  Fenway  Court  and  the  Fogg 
Museum  panels,  and  between  the  Saint  Simeon  of  the  Fenway  Court 
panel  and  the  kneeling  king  of  the  Fogg  Museum  Adoration. 

The  types,  though  reminiscent  of  the  Paduan  school,  are  somewhat 
less  gaunt  and  hollow-eyed  than  is  usual  in  the  pictures  of  these 
northern  masters;  the  Madonna  is  youthful  and  comely,  lacking  the 
excessive  plainness  which  often  characterizes  the  figures  of  the  real- 
istic Tura.  The  drapery  is  somewhat  complicated  and  metallic, 
though  less  so  than  is  customary  with  the  school.  The  background 
is  a  naturalistic  representation  of  the  geologic  formation  which  the 
masters  of  Padua  and  Verona  delighted  in  portraying. 

The  incident  of  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi  is  related  only  in  the 
Gospel  of  Saint  Matthew,  and  there  very  briefly,  but  many  legends 
grew  up  around  the  Magi  and  Kings  from  the  East.  The  number  of 
the  Magi  was  at  first  indeterminate,  but  about  the  rv  century  the 


COSIMO  TURA  191 

number  three  became  general.  It  was  not  until  the  v  and  vi  centuries 
that  the  Magi  became  Kings,  and  not  until  the  x  century  were  they 
represented  as  crowned  Kings.  The  Magi  were  for  the  first  time 
pictured  as  of  different  ages,  an  old  man,  a  middle-aged  man,  and  a 
young  man,  in  an  eastern  manuscript  dating  from  about  550.  During 
the  Middle  Ages  the  exact  age  of  each  was  given  —  the  eldest  was 
sixty,  the  youngest  twenty,  and  the  other  forty  years  old.  Their 
names,  the  Latin  forms  of  which  were  Jaspar  —  later  Gaspard  — 
Balthasar,  and  Melchior,  first  appeared  in  a  Greek  vi  century  manu- 
script. A  passage  attributed  to  Bede,  quoted  in  Male's  Religious 
Art  in  France,  xiii  century  (p.  214),  states  that  "  Melchior,  an  old 
man  with  long  white  hair  and  a  long  beard  .  .  .  offered  gold,  symbol 
of  the  divine  kingdom.  The  second,  named  Caspar,  young  and 
beardless,  with  a  ruddy  countenance  .  .  .  honoured  Christ  in  pre- 
senting incense,  an  offering  pointing  to  His  divinity.  The  third, 
named  Balthazzar,  with  a  dark  skin  and  a  full  beard,  testified  in  his 
offering  of  myrrh  that  the  Son  of  Man  must  die."  It  was  not  until  the 
xrv  and  xv  centuries  that  artists  represented  the  third  King  as  a 
negro,  in  accordance  with  the  teachings  of  the  theologians  that  the 
three  Kings  represented  the  three  races  of  mankind  coming  to  render 
homage  to  the  Christ  Child.  The  subject  of  the  Adoration  of  the 
Magi  was  a  favourite  one  with  artists,  particularly  in  the  xv  cen- 
tury, as  it  lent  itself  to  the  richest  and  most  elaborate  treatment. 
The  early  legends  asserted  that  Saint  Joseph  did  not  appear,  but  in 
representations  dating  from  the  xv  century  he  is  almost  invariably 
present. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.   Bulletin.   June,  1909.    26,  No.  13,  Repro- 
duction (27). 
Beeck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.   169-170,  Reproduction. 
Gardner.     28,  Reproduction;  208,  note  1. 
LafenestrE,  G.    La  peinture  en  Europe;  Rome,  les  Musees,  les  Collections, 

les  Palais.    Paris,  1905.  p.  291,  292,  Reproduction. 
Schubring,  P.     Cassoni.    Leipsic,  1915.   i,  151;  352,  Nos.  560-561,  Repro- 
duction (ii,  PI.  cxxvi,  No.  560). 
Venture.    Arckivio  storico  dell'  arte.    March-April,  1894.    90-94,  Reproduc- 
tion (opp.  p.  96). 
L'Arte.    Nov.-Dec,  1908.  419,  420-421. 
Storia  dell'  arte  italiana.    vii,  pt.  3,  546,  Reproduction  (550). 
Tesori  d'  arte  inediti  di  Roma.     Rome,  1896.  3,  Nos.  vii-viii,  Reproduc- 
tion (PL  vii). 


192  NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1910.   2d  ser.,  xiv  (1),  137. 

Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  21. 

Benson,  R.  H.    Catalogue  of  Italian  pictures  .  .  .  collected  by  Robert  and 

Evelyn  Benson.    London,  1914.  p.  105. 
Beeenson.    North  Italian  painters.    297. 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    74-75,  Reproduction  (80). 
Bibliografia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  Nov.-Dec,  1909.    xii  (6),  480,  No.  204. 
Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club.    Exhibition  of  pictures,  drawings,  and  photo- 
graphs of  works  of  the  school  of  Ferrara-Bologna,  1440-1540.    London, 

1894.    xv. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    Painting  in  North  Italy;  ed.  by  Tancred  Bore- 

nius.  ii,  230,  note  1. 
Gruyer.    ii,  71,  82. 

Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.    703. 
Jacobsen,  E.    Die  Gemaldegalerie  im  Ateneo  zu  Ferrara.    Repert.  f.  Kunstw. 

Berlin,  1900.  xxiii,  360,  note  4. 
Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Dec.  n,  1908,  viii, 

38,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551. 
London.    National  Gallery.    Catalogue,  1913.    p.  697. 
Olcott,  L.    In  Bryan's  Dictionary  of  painters  and  engravers,  new  ed.    New 

York,  1905.  v,  212.    (Rome.    Contessa  di  Sta.  Fiora.) 


FOLLOWER    OF    FRANCESCO    DEL    COSSA  —  PERHAPS 
LEONARDO  SCALETTI 

Active  from  1458  to  before  1495 

Francesco  del  Cossa  (1435  (?)-i477)  was  a  pupil  of  Cosimo  Tura 
and  was  influenced  by  Pier  dei  Franceschi  and  by  Mantegna. 
With  Ercole  Roberti  he  founded  the  Bolognese  school.  Among  his 
followers  was  Leonardo  Scaletti  of  Faenza,  member  of  a  family  of 
painters  and  architects,  who  has  been  suggested  as  the  possible 
painter  of  the  Fogg  Museum  panel.  His  name  appears  for  the  first 
time  in  Faenza  records  under  date  of  June  9, 1458.  An  account  book 
of  the  Servite  order  records  payments  made  to  him  on  September  30, 
1475  and  on  June  1,  1483,  for  painting  done  for  the  order.  Scaletti 
died  before  1495.  He  shows  Veronese  influence  as  well  as  Ferrarese 
characteristics.  Mr.  Berenson  attributes  to  him  the  Madonna  and 
Saints,  dating  from  1484,  and  the  Portrait  of  the  young  Astorre 
Manfredi  kneeling  before  Saint  Bernardino  da  Feltre,  both  in  the 
Faenza  Gallery;  and  a  picture  in  Fenway  Court —  Catherine  Sforza 
praying  at  the  Tomb  of  a  Saint. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Francesco  del  Cossa 

Bernath,  M.  H.    In  Thieme-Becker.    Kiinstler-Lexikon.    Leipsic,  191 2.  vii, 

507-510. 
Gardner,  E.  G.    Painters  of  the  school  of  Ferrara.    New  York,  1911.  32-45. 
Gruyer,  G.    L'  art  ferrarais  a.  1'  epoque  des  princes  d'  Este.    Paris,  1897.  ii, 

101-121. 

Leonardo  Scaletti 

Desteee,  J.   Notes  sur  les  primitif s  italiens ;  sur  quelques  peintres  des  Marches 

et  de  rOmbrie.    Florence,  1900.  57-61. 
Messeri,  A.,  and  Calzi,  A.    Faenza  nella  storia  e  nelT  arte.    Faenza,  1909. 

383,  S30-53I- 
Toesca,  P.    Di  un  pittore  emiliano  del  rinascimento.    L'Arte.    Rome,  1907. 

x  (1),  18-24. 

38    YOUTH  SALUTING  A  KING 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  2o§  in.    W.  17!  in.    (52  X  43-5  cm0 
The  king  is  dressed  in  a  neutral  red  violet  gown  with  collar  and 
cuffs  of  black  velvet.   The  red  violet  is  repeated  in  the  doublet  of  the 
second  youth  on  the  right  and  also  in  the  cap  of  the  second  youth  on 


I94  NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 

the  left.  The  black  is  repeated  in  the  tunic  of  the  youth  saluting,  in 
the  striped  hose  and  under  tunic  of  the  second  youth  on  the  right-,  In 
the  hose  of  the  figure  next  the  king  on  the  right,  and  in  the  brims  of 
two  of  the  caps.  The  columns  on  either  side,  alternating  black  and 
red,  repeat  these  colours,  the  red  being  nearer  the  foreground  on  both 
sides.  Bright  vermilion  occurs  in  the  cloak  of  the  youth  in  the  back- 
ground on  the  left,  the  collar  and  stocking  of  the  youth  saluting,  and 
in  the  sleeves,  cap,  hose,  and  shoes  of  the  first  figure  on  the  right,  and 
the  cap  of  the  youth  behind  him.  The  doublet  of  the  youth  just  to 
the  right  of  the  king  and  the  mantle  of  the  youth  saluting  are  of  a 
dark  green.  The  columns  on  each  side  of  the  door  behind  the  king 
are  of  a  neutral  red  orange  as  arc;  the  king's  shoes.  The  prevailing 
tones  of  the  architectural  setting  are  yellow  and  brown,  punctuated 
by  the  black  of  the  door  and  the  arch  over  the  door.  In  the  two 
upper  corners  of  the  panel  is  a  scroll  decoration  on  a  black  ground. 

The  picture  was  bought  by  the  Misses  Williams  of  Salem  during 
their  residence  in  Italy  between  i860  and  1872.  It  was  placed  on 
exhibition  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1915,  and  in  1916  it  was  purchased 
and  given  to  the  Museum  by  Dr.  Denman  W.  Ross. 

The  panel  shows  a  certain  rigidity  characteristic  of  the  north,  as 
well  as  the  northern  interest  in  polychrome  architectural  settings. 
Several  critics  have  felt  that  the  picture  belongs  to  the  school  of  Fer- 
rara,  and  more  than  one  has  tentatively  suggested  Scaletti.  Mr.  F. 
Mason  Perkins,  judging  by  a  photograph  which  is  none  too  good, 
suggests  that  the  panel  may  be  by  the  same  Ferrarese  master  who 
painted  two  pictures  in  the  Brera,  No.  226,  which  Professor  Venturi 
attributes  to  Agnolo  degli  Erri.  Even  if  not  by  Scaletti,  the  panel 
appears  to  be  of  the  school  of  Cossa. 

A  panel  formerly  in  the  Sedelmeyer  collection  (No.  162  in  the 
catalogue  of  the  third  sale,  June  3,  4,  5,  1907),  representing  the 
Martyrr'  ,m  of  Saint  Bosone,  bears  a  striking  resemblance  to  the  Fogg 
Muse'  i  r;  picture.  The  architectural  backgrounds  in  the  two  pictures 
are  very  similar,  both  having  colonnaded  courts,  although  the  archi- 
tecture of  the  Sedelmeyer  panel  is  in  better  proportion  to  the  figures 
than  that  of  the  Fogg  Museum  panel.  In  both  pictures  the  youths 
wear  doublets,  hose,  and  caps  of  red  and  black,  and  the  attitudes, 
gestures,  and  general  treatment  of  the  figures  are  a'lmost  identical. 
The  measurements  of  the  two  panels  are  practically  the  same,  the 


38     FOLLOWER   OF    COSSA,   PERHAPS   LEONARDO    SCALETTI 


FOLLOWER  OF  COSSA  1 95 

Sedelmeyer  panel  measuring  52  cm.  in  height  and  46  cm.  in  width. 
According  to  the  catalogue  this  panel  also  has  a  scroll  decoration  on 
a  black  ground  in  the  corners.  The  two  panels  are  so  similar  in  every 
way  that  it  seems  as  if  originally  they  must  have  belonged  together. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.   2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 
Nation.    March  18,  1915.  314.    (Narrative  panel  in  the  style  of  Cossa.) 


ANDREA  SOLARIO  (?) 

About  1459  t0  about  1520 

Andrea  Solario  was  a  painter  of  the  school  of  Milan;  he  combined 
Lombard  training  with  the  Venetian  influence  of  Alvise  Vivarini,  the 
influence  of  Antonello  da  Messina  —  derived  perhaps  through  Alvise, 
perhaps  from  contact  in  Venice  with  Antonello's  work  —  and  the 
influence  of  Leonardo.  In  his  later  work  he  shows  Raphaelesque 
traits.  He  probably  received  his  earliest  training  under  his  brother 
Cristoforo,  a  sculptor.  He  went  to  Venice  with  his  brother  in  1490, 
remaining  there  until  1493;  and  from  1507  until  1509  he  was  in 
France  at  work  on  the.  decoration  of  the  chapel  of  the  Cardinal 
Georges  d'  Amboise,  in  the  Chateau  de  Gaillon.  Little  is  known  of 
the  last  years  of  his  life.    He  died  probably  about  1520. 

In  addition  to  religious  subjects  Solario  painted  a  number  of  por- 
traits in  which  he  shows  the  influence  of  Antonello  in  his  approach  to 
the  total  visual  effect  of  nature. 

Solario  is  represented  in  this  country  by  a  Madonna  and  Donors,  a 
Bust  of  a  Man  in  Prayer,  and  an  Ecce  Homo  in  the  John  G.  Johnson 
collection,  Philadelphia;  a  Portrait  of  a  Man  in  the  Boston  Museum 
of  Fine  Arts,  strongly  Venetian  in  character;  a  Portrait  in  the  Met- 
ropolitan Museum;  and  a  Madonna  with  Saint  Roch,  in  the  collec- 
tion of  John  M.  Longyear,  Boston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Badt,  K.    Andrea  Solario.    Leipsic,  1914. 

Berenson,  B.    Catalogue  of  a  collection  of  paintings  and  some  art  objects 

(John  G.  Johnson  collection) ;  Italian  paintings.   Philadelphia,  1913.  i, 

175-177,  Nos.  272-274. 
Study  and  criticism  of  Italian  art.    London,  1901.  i,  106-108. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.   Bulletin.    Oct.,  1911.    ix  (53),  44-45. 
Frizzoni,  G.    Rassegna  d'  insigni  artisti  italiani  a  ricordo  dell'  incremento 

dato  ai  Musei  di  Milano  dal  Direttore  Giuseppe  Bertini.   L'Arte.   Rome, 

1899.  ii  (4-7),  147-158. 
Phillips,  C.    An  uncatalogued  Solario.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  Aug., 

1911.  xix  (101),  287-288. 
Schlegel,  L.  de.    Andrea  Solario.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Milan,  June-July,  1913. 

xiii  (6-7),  89-99,  105-109. 


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ANDREA  SOLARIO  (?)  1 97 

39    MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Lent  by  John  Thaxter. 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  2o|  in.    W.  i6f  in.     (51.5  X  41.7  cm.) 

The  Madonna  in  a  rose  red  gown  has  a  brilliant  greenish  blue 
mantle  with  an  orange  yellow  lining.  Over  her  head  is  a  white  ker- 
chief similar  to  the  white  sheet  in  which  the  Child  is  lying.  The 
background  is  black. 

The  picture  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  1913  as  a  loan. 

The  painting  may  have  come  originally  from  the  hands  of  Solario, 
but  has  suffered  so  that  the  attribution  is  now  uncertain. 


MARCELLO  FOGOLINO  (?) 
Active  from  about  1519  to  1548 

Marcello  Fogolino  was  born  in  Friuli,  at  San  Vito,  probably  about 
1470.  He  was  active  from  about  1519  to  1548,  working  chiefly  in 
Vicenza,  Pordenone,  and  Trent.  He  was  influenced  by  Giovanni 
Speranza  of  Vicenza  and  later  by  Pordenone.  He  shows  also  certain 
Raphaelesque  traits,  perhaps  brought  into  Friuli  by  Giovanni  da 
Udine.  His  paintings  are  rare.  Among  his  extant  pictures  are  the 
Madonna  and  Child  and  Saints,  now  in  the  Berlin  Gallery;  the 
Madonna  and  Child,  in  the  Poldi-Pezzoli  Gallery,  Milan;  and  the 
Adoration  of  the  Magi,  at  Vicenza. 

Fogolino  was  also  an  engraver.  Seven  plates,  impressions  of  which 
are  very  rare,  are  known  to  be  by  him.  In  them  Fogolino  followed 
the  technical  processes  of  the  Campagnolas. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.  History  of  painting  in  North  Italy;  ed.  by  Tan- 
cred  Borenius.  1912.  ii,  146-153. 

Hind,  A.  M.  Catalogue  of  early  Italian  engravings  preserved  in  the  depart- 
ment of  prints  and  drawings  in  the  British  Museum.  London,  1910. 
5*2-5 14- 

40    ADORATION  OF  THE  KINGS 

Oil  on  panel.  H.  45!  in.  W.  35!  in.  (116.2  X  90.6  cm.) 
The  strongest  colour  in  the  picture  is  in  the  extreme  right-hand 
corner  in  the  rich  red  lining  of  Saint  Joseph's  mantle,  which  covers 
most  of  his  form.  This  colour  is  carried  into  the  picture  by  means  of 
the  Madonna's  hood,  the  tunic  of  the  standing  king — though  this 
appears  wholly  in  the  shadow — the  hose  of  the  boy  next  him,  and 
then  in  smaller  and  paler  forms  in  the  band  around  the  head  of  the 
ox,  the  bridles,  saddles,  and  trappings  of  the  horses,  and  in  the  shoes 
and  garments  of  one  or  two  of  the  figures  on  the  left.  The  colour 
of  the  lining  of  the  Madonna's  mantle,  a  curious  neutral  violet  red, 
also  recurs  through  the  picture,  appearing  in  the  mantle  of  the  Ethi- 
opian king,  the  tunic  of  the  youth  next  him,  and  in  smaller  measures 
in  the  turbans  and  garments  of  various  other  figures,  as  well  as  in  a 
darker  value  in  the  mantle  over  Saint  Joseph's  right  shoulder  and  in 
his  hood  and  gown. 


FOGOLINO  (?)  199 

These  dominant  colours  are  foiled  by  the  other  colours  on  the 
principal  figures  in  the  foreground.  The  Madonna  wears  a  bluish 
green  gown;  the  kneeling  king  is  clad  in  a  yellow  brown  garment,  and 
the  king  standing  next  him  wears  a  mantle,  red  in  the  shadow  and 
yellow  in  the  light,  with  a  shining  cream  coloured  lining  and  head- 
gear. The  boy  next  him  wears  jacket  and  shoes  of  blue  green  like 
the  Madonna's  gown.  On  the  left,  the  Ethiopian  king  wears  a  bright 
tunic,  yellow  in  the  light,  red  in  the  shadow;  his  turban  is  pale  blue 
embroidered  with  red.  His  breeches  are  grayish  blue  and  his  boots 
are  yellow.  The  sky  is  blue  merging  into  yellow  at  the  horizon.  The 
prevailing  tones  of  the  rocks  and  the  clouds  are  yellow  brown,  con- 
trasting with  the  cool  gray  green  shed  on  the  right  and  the  castle  on 
the  hill  at  the  left.  The  ground  is  of  a  grayish  yellow  with  heavy 
neutral  shadows;  the  foliage  is  a  greenish  brown  and  the  distant  hills 
a  neutral  bluish  green. 

This  picture  has  strong  contrasts  of  light  and  shade.  The  artist 
illuminated  certain  portions  with  a  powerful  light  relieved  against 
the  dark  surroundings.  The  principal  light  spots  in  the  foreground 
are  the  faces  of  the  Holy-  Family  and  the  faces  and  garments  of  the 
three  kings;  in  the  middle  distance  the  dog  lapping  from  the  pool  and 
the  white  horse  among  the  attendants;  and  in  the  background,  the 
luminous  sky  seen  through  the  arch  and  the  illuminated  portions  of 
the  rock  standing  out  against  the  dark  mass  in  shadow. 

The  painting  came  from  the  collection  of  the  Duca  di  Galese, 
and  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1899. 

William  Rankin  was  the  first  to  attribute  the  picture  to  Fogo- 
lino  on  account  of  its  general  similarity  to  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi 
by  this  master  in  Vicenza.  Mr.  Perkins  agrees  with  this  view.  The 
painting  shows  evidence  of  an  influence  from  the  north  of  Europe. 
On  the  back  are  two  rather  blind  inscriptions,  one  of  which  seems  to 
read:  "Luca  di  Olanda."  Above  that  is  written:  "Almagiis  (?) 
Gierolomo  Padovani  Bolognia."  It  is  curious  to  find  the  names  of 
Lucas  van  Leyden  and  Girolamo  Sordo  on  the  back  of  the  same  pic- 
ture. Girolamo  Sordo,  more  commonly  known  as  Girolamo  Padovano 
or  del  Santo,  was  a  prolific  painter  whose  works  have  largely  dis- 
appeared and  who  has  been  nearly  forgotten.  He  was  employed  as 
early  as  1518  and  died  in  the  latter  half  of  the  xvi  century.  It  is 
difficult  to  know  who  wrote  the  inscriptions  on  the  picture  and 
whose  guesses  they  represent. 


200  NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    April-June,  1900.    2d  ser.,  iv  (2),  285. 

(School  of  Ferrara.) 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    75. 

Boston.    Museum  or  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.      June,  1909.    26-27,  No.  14. 
Brown  and  Rankin.    361. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 

Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  68-69. 
Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.     17,  No.  10. 


ANTONIO  BADILE  (?) 
1517  (?)  -1560 

Antonio  Badile,  a  painter  of  the  school  of  Verona,  was  born  in  that 
town  in  1516  or  1 51 7.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Caroto,  and  was  influenced 
by  Francesco  Torbido  and  Brusasorci  of  Verona,  and  by  the  Venetian 
school,  especially  Titian.  He  painted  many  portraits  and  represen- 
tations of  religious  subjects,  but  his  greatest  claim  to  importance  is 
the  fact  that  he  was  the  master  of  Paolo  Veronese.  He  was  one  of  the 
first  of  the  Veronese  masters  to  break  away  from  the  old  dry  manner 
and  to  approach  the  freer,  broader  handling  of  the  later  xvi  century. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Thieme-Becker.    Kiinstler-Lexikon.    Leipsic,  1908.  ii,  334-335. 

41     PORTRAIT  OF  A  LADY 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  49  in.  W.  41I  in.  (124.4  X  105.4  cm.) 

The  tonality  of  the  picture  is  a  silvery  gray.  The  lady  is  repre- 
sented in  a  gown  of  dark  olive  green  and  silver  brocade;  the  sleeves 
and  front  of  her  bodice  are  creamy  white.  She  wears  a  string  of 
pearls  and  pearl  ear-rings.  Her  hair  is  neutral  brown.  The  strongest 
colour  and  almost  the  only  colour  in  the  picture  is  the  table-cloth, 
painted  with  the  same  quality  of  red  violet  that  Tintoretto  loved  to 
use.  The  background  behind  the  lady  is  of  a  warm  greenish  brown 
growing  cold  as  it  approaches  the  shadow,  and  a  similar  colour 
scheme  is  used  for  the  dog.  The  general  tone  of  the  sky  and  land- 
scape is  a  yellowish  brown,  and  the  trees  in  the  middle  distance  are 
a  greenish  brown. 

The  portrait  was  bought  at  the  Blakeslee  sale  in  1915  and  placed 
in  the  Fogg  Museum  as  a  loan. 

On  a  label,  probably  modern,  on  the  back  of  the  picture  is  written: 
"...  Leonora  de  Toledo  Daughter  of  Don  Pedro  de  Toledo,  Viceroy 
of  Naples  .  .  .  Grandi  of  Spain,  Married  Cosimo  de  Medici  1st 
Duke  of  Tuscany."  Eleonora  of  Toledo  was  married  to  Cosimo  in 
1539  and  died  in  1562.  Vasari  tells  us  that  "for  the  nuptials  of 
the  most  illustrious  Lady  Leonora  de  Toledo,  wife  of  Duke  Cosimo," 
Bronzino  "painted  two  stories  of  chiaroscuro  in  the  court  of  the 


202  NORTH  ITALIAN  PAINTING 

Medici  Palace,"  and  that  the  Duke,  "  perceiving  Bronzino's  ability, 
commanded  him  to  begin  a  chapel  for  the  Signora  Duchess,  a  lady 
excellent  above  all  who  have  ever  lived,  and  whose  infinite  merits 
render  her  worthy  of  eternal  praise."  Bronzino  painted  more  than 
one  portrait  of  this  lady.  The  portrait  in  the  P  ogg  Museum  does 
not  appear  to  bear  any  relation  to  the  representations  of  Eleonora 
by  Bronzino. 

It  appears  from  another  label  on  the  back  that  the  picture  be- 
longed to  Mr.  Farrer,  who  evidently  lent  it  to  the  Winter  Exhibition 
of  Old  Masters,  Royal  Academy,  London,  1 884.  The  picture  appears 
in  the  catalogue  of  that  exhibition  as  follows:  "157.  Frederick 
W.  Farrer,  Esq.  Attributed  to  Paolo  Veronese.  Three-quarter  figure, 
life-size,  standing  slightly  to  1.,  nearly  full-face;  her  r.  hand  rests 
on  a  dog,  which  is  standing  on  a  table;  in  the  background  a  wall; 
landscape  seen  through  a  window  to  1.  Canvas,  49  by  41  in."  In 
the  Athenaeum  for  January  26,  1884,  is  a  review  of  this  exhibition, 
which  states  that  the  painting  was  attributed  to  Paolo  Veronese 
"  and  evidently  .  .  .  owes  much  to  that  master,  whose  predilection 
for  olive  and  silver  brocade,  and  the  warm,  rich  golden  buff  under- 
painting  of  the  carnations,  is  distinct."  It  further  states  that  "  the 
picture  is  almost  good  enough  for  Paolo,  and,  apart  from  considera- 
tions of  costume  and  the  like,  it  is  rather  too  good  for  F.  Zucchero, 
whose  work  it  much  resembles." 

Another  label  on  the  back  mentions  Lady  Ashburton.  It  is  pos- 
sible that  it  was  once  in  her  collection.  It  later  came  into  the  pos- 
session of  T.  J.  Blakeslee  of  New  York,  and  appears  as  No.  33  in 
the  catalogue  of  his  pictures  sold  in  April,  1915.  Dr.  Osvald  Siren, 
who  prepared  the  catalogue  for  this  sale,  attributed  the  picture  with- 
out a  question  to  Badile,  and  mentioned  its  close  affinity  of  style  with 
Badile's  two  portraits  in  Vienna. 

EXHIBITED 

London.    Royal  Academy.     Winter  exhibition  of  old  masters,  1884.    Cat- 
alogue.   No.  157. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Athenaeum.    Jan.  26,  1884.  126. 

Blakeslee  Galleries.    Illustrated  catalogue.    New  York,  1915.    No.  33. 


41      ANTONIO    BADILE   (?) 


42 


NORTH    ITALIAN    SCHOOL  —  PERHAPS    PIEDMONTESE 

Early  xvi  century 

HOLY  FAMILY 

Tempera  on  panel.    Tondo.    Diameter,  33%  in.     (84.1  cm.) 

The  Madonna,  in  a  rose  red  gown  and  dark  blue  green  mantle  lined 
with  green,  kneels  before  the  Child.  A  transparent  white  veil  is 
draped  over  part  of  the  Child's  body.  Saint  John,  clad  in  a  hairy 
garment,  kneels  close  to  the  side  of  the  Infant  Christ.  He  is  wrapped 
in  a  rose  red  cloak,  which  might  almost  be  the  continuation  of  the 
Madonna's  gown  upon  which  the  Child  is  lying.  Saint  Joseph  is  just 
behind  the  two  youthful  figures,  his  head  leaning  against  his  hand. 
His  mantle,  yellowish  in  the  lights,  a  pale  red  in  the  shadows,  covers 
most  of  his  dark  gown.  Two  shepherds  are  behind  the  Madonna; 
the  nearer  one  is  dressed  in  brown  and  the  farther  one  in  a  rather 
bright  blue  green.  His  cap  is  bright  red  and  his  hose  are  brown.  The 
stable  walls  are  gray  and  the  thatched  roof  is  yellow  brown,  similar 
in  colour  to  the  hair  of  all  the  figures,  except  that  of  the  white- 
bearded  Joseph  and  the  black-haired  shepherd  on  the  extreme  right. 
In  the  distance  are  warm  gray  hills  and  a  village  with  red  tiled  roofs. 

The  tondo  was  given  anonymously  to  the  Fogg  Museum  in  191 2. 

The  picture  is  a  crude  provincial  or  eclectic  painting,  which  sug- 
gests Florentine  and  possibly  Umbrian  influence  and  was  perhaps 
executed  by  some  painter  of  the  Piedmontese  or  other  North  Italian 
school. 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


IN  Venice,  which  had  formerly  been  almost  a  part  of  the  Eastern 
Empire,  painting  was  naturally  slow  in  abandoning  the  Byzantine 
tradition,  and  a  general  liking  for  a  rich,  often  somewhat  heavy 
golden  tone  seems  to  have  been  a  permanent  inheritance  from  the 
splendour  of  gold  and  enamel  of  the  early  mosaics  and  jewelled  altar- 
pieces.  The  xiv  century  was  marked  by  a  general  transition  from 
the  Byzantine  to  the  Gothic  style,  the  beginning  of  which  is  repre- 
sented by  the  works  of  the  earlier  masters  of  the  century,  like  Paolo 
and  Lorenzo. 

Guariento  of  Padua,  who  later  in  the  century  painted  in  the  Ducal 
Palace  a  large  fresco  of  Paradise,  covered  afterward  by  Tintoretto's 
canvas  of  the  same  subject,  reveals  to  some  extent  the  influence  of 
Giottesque  art,  while  Niccolo  di  Pietro's  Madonna  and  Angels, 
painted  in  1394,  though  perhaps  not  an  extraordinary  performance, 
shows  in  the  drawing  and  modelling  of  the  figures  and  draperies  a 
completely  Gothic  quality. 

In  the  xv  century  the  development  of  Venetian  painting  depended 
much  on  foreign  influence.  No  doubt  the  Venetian  rulers  felt  that 
their  own  art  was  somewhat  provincial  and  behind  the  times,  as 
compared  with  that  of  the  mainland,  for  early  in  the  century  they 
called  Gentile  da  Fabriano  and  also  Pisanello  to  paint  in  the  Ducal 
Palace.  Gentile  painted  there  from  1409  to  1414  and  Pisanello  at 
that  time  or  soon  after.  Gentile  was  trained  in  the  traditions  of  the 
later  Gothic  painting — the  International  style — and  his  art  was 
representative  not  only  of  Umbria  but  of  Europe  at  the  time.  His 
influence  on  Venetian  art  was  therefore  distinctly  broadening. 
Jacobello  del  Fiore  and  Giambono  are  striking  illustrations  of  its 
effect;  and  Jacopo  Bellini,  the  father  of  the  famous  Giovanni  and 
Gentile,  as  well  as  father-in-law  of  the  Paduan  Mantegna,  was  a 
direct  pupil  of  Gentile  da  Fabriano  and  possibly  also  of  Pisanello. 

Jacopo  Bellini  came  also  under  the  sway  of  another  important  out- 
side influence,  that  of  the  Renaissance  art  of  Padua.  This  was  of 
especial  importance  about  the  middle  of  the  xv  century.    Jacopo, 


Paolo 

Veneziano 
xiv  c,  ist  half 
Lorenzo 
Veneziano 
active  middle 
of  xiv  c. 

Niccolo  di 
Maestro 
Pietro,  active 
1304-1409 


Jacobello  del 

Fiore 

ab.  1370-1439 

Michele 

Giambono 

active 

1420-1462 

Jacopo  Bellini 

active 

1430-1470 

Gentile  Bellini 

1429-1507 


208 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


Antonio  da 

Murano 

active 

1440-1464 

Giovanni 

d'Alemagna 

active 

1440-1450 


Bartolommeo 

Vivarini 

ab.  1431-1409 


Carlo  Crivelli 
1430/40- 
ajter  1493 


however,  although  he  was  interested  in  classical  things,  as  is  shown  in 
the  drawings  of  classical  architectural  details  and  ancient  statues 
and  of  large  palaces  of  more  or  less  Renaissance  pattern,  always 
treated  these  in  the  discursive  manner  of  the  Gothic  naturalist.  His 
interest  in  them  was  one  of  random  curiosity,  like  his  interest  in 
monkeys  and  bears.  He  remained  a  Gothic  painter.  Jacopo  was  the 
founder  of  one  of  the  large  workshops  of  Venice,  which  was  carried  on 
later  by  his  sons.  The  painters  of  this  workshop  made  a  specialty  of 
histories,  large  pictures  with  many  figures,  of  subjects  like  scenes 
from  the  lives  of  various  saints,  employed  as  decorations  of  the  walls 
of  the  Ducal  Palace  or  the  various  Scuole. 

The  chief  rival  workshop  was  that  of  the  Vivarini  on  the  island  of 
Murano.  The  Vivarini  made  a  specialty  of  altarpieces,  or  anconae, 
usually  composed  of  a  large  number  of  panels  with  single  figures  on  a 
gold  ground,  placed  in  an  elaborate  Gothic  frame.  The  founder  of 
this  workshop,  Antonio  da  Murano,  with  his  partner  Giovanni 
d'Alemagna,  carried  on  the  manner  derived  from  Gentile,  but  some- 
what over-enriched,  well  into  the  century.  Antonio's  younger 
brother,  Bartolommeo,  displaced  Giovanni  as  partner  about  1450, 
and  he  with  his  nephew  Alvise  continued  the  workshop  with  many 
of  its  traditions  through  the  century.  Their  style  was  modified,  how- 
ever, according  to  the  influences  prevailing  in  Venice  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  century. 

After  the  middle  of  the  xv  century  the  late  Gothic  manner  of  the 
followers  of  Gentile  and  Pisanello  gave  way  to  the  influenee  of  Squar- 
cione  and  Mantegna  of  Padua.  Bartolommeo  Vivarini  and  Carlo 
Crivelli  were  among  the  chief  exponents  of  this  influence,  and  they 
followed  it  much  more  thoroughly  than  did  Jacopo  Bellini.  Bar- 
tolommeo combined  the  rich  ornamental  quality  of  Venetian  art  with 
the  more  plastic  character  of  Paduan  painting,  emphasizing  the  bony 
structure  of  the  figure  and  the  ungainliness  of  pose.  He  showed  also 
a  strong  liking  for  the  intense  emotionalism  which  Paduan  art  de- 
rived from  the  Florentine  sculptor  Donatello.  Crivelli  developed 
these  characteristics  into  a  still  more  extreme  style  which  became  at 
times  a  somewhat  exotic  mannerism.  His  use  of  elaborate  gold 
ornament,  frequently  modelled  from  the  surface  of  the  panel  in  low 
relief,  produces  at  times  a  somewhat  confused,  though  richly  decora- 
tive effect.   Leaving  Venice  for  the  Marches  in  1468,  he  did  not  come 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


209 


under  the  influence  of  the  later  changes  wrought  in  the  Venetian 
style,  but  developed  what  may  be  called  the  mid-fifteenth  century 
Venetian  manner  to  a  degree  of  perfection  not  attained  by  any  other 
master.  In  works  of  the  last  quarter  of  the  century,  as  in  the  Pieta 
of  1485  in  the  Boston  Museum,  he  continued  to  paint  in  the  manner 
which  had  been  abandoned  for  some  years  by  the  painters  of  Venice. 

Painting  in  Venice  itself  underwent  a  great  change  in  mode  and 
technical  method  with  the  introduction  of  the  Flemish  oil  process 
and  the  mode  of  representation  which  accompanied  it.  The  chief 
instrument  in  effecting  this  change  was  probably  Antonello  da  Mes- 
sina, who  came  to  Venice  in  1474  or  1475.  He  had  been  trained  in  the 
Flemish  methods  in  Sicily  or  in  Naples,  possibly  under  Flemish 
masters.  Vasari  was  probably  in  error  in  saying  that  he  visited 
Flanders.  Painting  in  Venice,  as  in  the  rest  of  Italy,  had  up  to  this 
time  been  mainly  in  the  mode  of  relief  more  or  less  in  imitation  of  the 
idea  of  sculpture  in  relief.  There  had  been  little  attempt  to  express 
by  the  tone  relations  effect  of  existence  in  atmosphere  beyond  the 
plane  of  the  picture,  and  there  had  been  little  regard  for  effect  of 
light  and  shade  except  as  bringing  out  the  modelling  of  the  separate 
fields.  The  most  important  painting  which  Antonello  executed  in 
Venice,  the  large  altarpiece  for  San  Cassiano,  has  unfortunately  been 
lost,  but  the  revolutionary  character  of  the  art  he  introduced  into 
Venice  may  easily  be  seen  in  the  Saint  Jerome  in  the  National  Gal- 
lery, London,  or  in  the  Saint  Sebastian  in  Dresden.  Henceforth 
most  Venetian  paintings  were  in  a  more  developed  mode,  which  in- 
cluded expression  of  light  effect  and  atmosphere,  and  they  were 
usually  executed  in  oil.  At  first  the  Flemish  oil  method  or  a  simple 
adaptation  of  it,  with  a  white  ground  on  panel,  was  employed,  but  in 
the  xvi  century  a  canvas  with  a  dark  ground  served  as  a  foundation 
in  further  developments  in  method  and  mode.  Antonello's  style  was 
immediately  imitated  by  many  Venetian  painters,  especially  closely 
by  Alvise  Vivarini  and  more  particularly  in  his  portraits.  Alvise  also 
served  as  a  master  to  hand  on  the  new  traditions  to  fresh  pupils. 

The  greatest  master  of  the  last  part  of  the  xv  century,  however, 
was  Giovanni  Bellini.  Born  about  1430,  he  was  trained  first  of  all  in 
his  father's  workshop,  but  came  into  close  contact  with  the  Paduan 
painters,  particularly  with  his  brother-in-law  Mantegna.  Bellini's 
earlier  works  show  clearly  the  influence  of  the  elaborate  sculp- 


Antonello  da 
Messina,  ab. 
1444-ab.  1493 


Alvise 
Vivarini 
active 
1461-1503 


Giovanni 

Bellini 

ab.  1430-1516 


2IO 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


Marco  Basaiti 
ab.  1470-1527 
Citna  da 
Conegliano 
1460-ab.  1517 
Bissolo 
1464-1528 
Catena,  active 

I495-I53I 

Rondinelli 

active  ab- 

1480-1500 

Lazzaro 

Bastiani 

ab.  1425-1512 

Carpaccio 

active 

1478-1522 


turesque  manner  of  Squarcione  and  Mantegna,  but  even  in  some  of 
these  Bellini  showed  a  power  for  expression  of  existence  in  space  and 
atmosphere,  which  he  developed  much  more  fully  in  the  works  of  his 
mature  period,  and  which  he  seems  to  have  transmitted  to  his  pupils 
Giorgione  and  Titian.  Bellini  sums  up  the  whole  history  of  Venetian 
painting  from  1450  to  the  time  of  his  death  in  1516,  and  would  do  so 
still  more  completely  for  us  if  his  larger  histories  had  not  been  de- 
stroyed, for  he  changed  his  style  readily  to  follow  the  latest  develop- 
ments and  even  became  to  some  extent  a  follower  of  his  own  pupil 
Giorgione.  His  works,  like  those  of  other  followers  of  the  Paduan 
influence,  are  intensely  emotional,  but  they  are  more  restrained,  less 
exotic  and  mannered  than  those  of  Bartolommeo  Vivarini  and 
Crivelli.  They  are  not  intellectual  like  Florentine  pictures,  but 
broadly  human  in  their  appeal.  His  figures  are  stately  and  dignified, 
though  capable  of  deep  feeling;  they  are  expressive  of  the  devotion 
— to  State,  to  Church,  to  cause  —  which  was  one  of  the  noblest 
qualities  of  the  great  Venetian  statesmen  and  admirals. 

The  Vivarini  and  Bellini  workshops  produced  a  host  of  other 
artists,  all  working  at  the  end  of  the  xv  and  the  beginning  of  the  xvi 
century.  Some  of  them,  like  Basaiti  and  Cima,  were  pupils  of  Alvise, 
but  they  were  influenced  also  by  the  Bellini.  Others,  like  Bissolo, 
Catena,  and  Rondinelli,  were  direct  followers  of  Bellini.  A  few  of 
them  continued  to  paint  in  the  Venetian  manner  of  the  last  quarter 
of  the  xv  century  well  into  the  xvi  century,  but  many  followed  the 
Giorgionesque  or  the  Titianesque  vogue. 

Alongside  of  the  Vivarini  and  Bellini  workshops  existed  a  third  of 
great  importance,  that  of  Carpaccio.  Carpaccio,  who  was  possibly  a 
pupil  of  Lazzaro  Bastiani,  was  influenced  by  Gentile  Bellini.  Gentile 
devoted  himself  principally  to  large  histories,  and  Carpaccio  also 
made  these  his  speciality.  Several  series  of  these,  among  them 
scenes  from  the  lives  of  Saint  Ursula,  Saint  George,  and  Saint 
Jerome,  have  been  preserved.  They  continue  the  naturalistic  tradi- 
tions of  the  earlier  histories,  like  those  no  doubt  of  Jacopo  Bellini, 
but  in  a  more  advanced  mode.  Carpaccio  had  a  fine  sense  for 
comedy  and  his  paintings  are  full  of  delightful  bits  of  acting  which 
show  his  keen  observation  of  human  nature. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  xvi  century  a  new  phase  of  Venetian  paint- 
ing, intensely  lyrical  in  spirit,  singing  the  praise  of  youth  and  beauty 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


211 


and  love,  delighting  especially  in  the  charms  of  landscape  and  pas- 
toral life,  but  accompanied  by  a  note  of  plaintive  sadness,  was  intro- 
duced under  the  guidance  of  Giorgione.  The  lyrical  quality  of  this 
art  was  referred  to  at  the  time  as  "  il  fuoco  Giorgionesco."  Gior- 
gione's  treatment  of  classical  themes,  like  Bellini's  treatment  of 
religious  subjects,  was,  as  opposed  to  the  intellectual  style  of  the 
Florentines,  distinctly  human,  sensuous,  and  passionate.  The  sug- 
gestion of  music  by  means  of  figures  represented  as  playing  on  musi- 
cal instruments  was  often  used  to  heighten  the  sensuous  effect. 
Giorgione's  influence  on  contemporary  artists  was  evidently  well- 
nigh  overpowering,  for  they  almost  all  imitated  his  manner,  at  least 
for  a  time,  and  some  so  successfully  that  the  question  of  authorship 
of  works  of  this  school  has  been  one  of  the  most  puzzling  problems 
with  which  modern  criticism  has  had  to  deal.  At  any  rate,  Sebas- 
tiano  del  Piombo,  Titian,  and  Palma  Vecchio,  the  most  important 
painters  of  Giorgione's  own  generation  in  Venice,  each  went  through 
a  distinctly  Giorgionesque  phase,  and  hardly  any  painter  of  Venice 
or  its  neighbourhood  escaped  his  influence. 

Titian  was,  after  Giorgione's  death  in  151 1,  the  supreme  master  of 
the  new  generation.  Although  he  began  in  the  lyrical  manner  of 
Giorgione,  the  work  of  his  mature  period  is  essentially  dramatic, 
sometimes  achieving  great  heights  in  the  realm  of  tragedy,  or  at  other 
times  revealing  a  delightful  vein  of  comedy.  Occasionally  he  was 
somewhat  melodramatic,  sometimes  perhaps  rather  dull.  His  whole 
art,  like  that  of  his  fellow  painters,  depended  intimately  on  the  new 
technical  method,  which  was  developed  by  the  Venetians  in  the  xvi 
century  and  differed  materially  from  that  of  preceding  Venetian 
masters.  It  consisted  of  painting  on  canvas  which  was  prepared  with 
a  dark  ground,  instead  of  on  the  white  gesso  ground  used  formerly. 
The  lights  were  heavily  loaded,  the  darks  painted  more  thinly,  and 
much  expression  was  obtained  by  the  variations  in  the  quality  of  the 
surface.  The  final  colour  was  obtained  by  glazing  in  transparent 
pigments  over  an  opaque  underpainting  which  was  typically  in  red, 
white,  and  black,  giving  distinctions  only  of  relative  warm  and  cool 
tone.  The  peculiar  richness  and  depth  of  surface,  in  particular  the 
translucency  and  warmth  of  flesh  tone,  of  the  great  Venetian  masters 
can  be  achieved  in  no  other  way.  All  the  Venetians  of  the  xvi  cen- 
tury adopted  this  general  method  of  painting.    It  was  also  adopted 


Giorgione 
1478-1510 


Sebastiano 
del  Piombo 
ab.  1485-1547 
Palma 
Vecchio 
1480-1528 

Titian 
1477-1576 


212 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


Lorenzo 

Lotto 

1480-1556 


Paris 
Bordone 
1495-1570 
Polidoro  da 
Lanciano 

1515-IS65 

Tintoretto 

1518-1594 


by  other  artists  in  Italy  and  by  many  in  foreign  countries,  and  with 
certain  variations  it  survived  through  the  xvin  century  and  on  into 
the  early  part  of  the  xrx  century,  as  in  the  works  of  the  English  and 
American  portrait  and  landscape  painters.1 

Titian  employed  this  manner  with  great  ease  and  freedom  of  hand- 
ling, and  also  with  great  expressiveness  in  the  rendering  of  textures 
and  in  the  clear  indication  of  planes.  He  was  also  a  consummate 
designer,  especially  in  works  on  a  moderate  scale  with  not  too  many 
figures  —  he  was  sometimes  not  so  successful  in  compositions  with 
large  numbers  of  figures.  His  portraits  are  among  the  greatest  of 
all  time,  distinguished  for  directness  and  nobility  of  characterization 
and  simplicity  and  sureness  of  handling. 

Lotto  was  another  Venetian  of  the  same  generation  as  Giorgione 
and  Titian;  but  he  was  trained  in  the  Vivarini  workshop,  and  al- 
though he  was  influenced  by  Giorgione  and  Titian,  the  fact  that  he 
worked  a  good  deal  away  from  Venice,  for  some  time  in  Rome  where 
he  was  affected  by  Raphael,  and  still  longer  in  Bergamo,  may  ac- 
count for  an  eclectic  and  somewhat  provincial  quality  in  his  work. 
He  was  at  the  same  time  markedly  individual  in  his  conceptions. 
Beside  the  simplicity  of  Titian,  many  of  his  compositions  seem  over- 
wrought. A  liking  for  elaborate  detail  and  something  of  a  senti- 
mental restlessness  suggest  a  curious  spiritual  kinship  with  some  of 
the  Pre-Raphaelites  of  the  xdc  century. 

In  the  middle  of  the  xvi  century  all  the  younger  painters  were 
affected  to  a  greater  or  less  degree  by  the  ruling  master,  Titian. 
Among  his  direct  pupils  or  imitators  were  Bordone  and  Polidoro,  who 
reflected  but  feebly  the  glory  of  the  master.  Tintoretto,  on  the  other 
hand,  was  a  painter  of  outstanding  individual  genius.  Though 
brought  up  in  the  Titian  tradition,  he  was  largely  self-trained,  and  he 
modified  the  technical  procedure  of  Titian  to  suit  his  own  needs  of 
more  rapid  and  summary  handling,  not  always  quite  happily  from 
the  standpoint  of  colour  and  quality.  He  was  more  serious  minded 
than  Titian  and  dwelt  constantly  on  the  tragic  elements  of  his 
themes.  These  were  mainly  religious,  as  in  the  paintings  in  the 
Scuola  di  San  Rocco,  but  even  his  paintings  of  slighter  classical  sub- 

1  This  may  be  seen  in  the  painting  of  Monmouth  before  King  James  n,  by  Copley, 
in  the  Fogg  Art  Museum,  and  in  the  portraits  in  Memorial  Hall  and  the  Faculty 
Room,  University  Hall. 


VENETIAN  PAINTING 


213 


jects,  like  the  Diana,  or  the  Bacchus  and  Ariadne,  reveal  the  same 
gravity  of  thought. 

Tintoretto  was  more  skilful  than  Titian  in  handling  compositions 
with  large  numbers  of  figures,  but  Veronese  was  the  master  of  mas- 
ters in  this.  As  his  nickname  indicates  —  his  real  name  was  Caliari 
—  he  was  born  in  Verona  and  trained  there  under  Badile,  who,  like 
his  fellow  townsman,  had  absorbed  the  Venetian  technique  and 
point  of  view.  He  did  not  come  to  Venice  until  after  1550.  Though 
leaning  always  toward  comedy,  and  typically  gay  and  light-hearted, 
he  yet  shows  often  quite  profound  knowledge  of  human  character, 
and  this  is  expressed  in  very  subtle  fashion.  Indeed  he  might  be  re- 
garded as  a  late  Renaissance  descendant  of  Carpaccio.  His  large 
decorative  paintings  either  in  fresco  or  in  oil  reveal  the  consummate 
designer  and  marvellously  skilled  craftsman.  Like  most  of  the  North 
Italian  painters  of  the  xvi  century,  Veronese  inclined  toward  a 
silvery  tonality,  in  contrast  to  the  golden  tone  preferred  by  the 
Venetians. 

The  Bassani — Jacopo  and  his  sons,  among  them  Leandro — carried 
on  the  traditions  of  Venetian  painting  into  the  xvn  century,  though 
the  nobility  of  the  works  of  the  great  period  was  soon  lost  in  the 
treatment  of  trivial  genre  subjects.  In  the  xvn  century  as  a  whole, 
there  was  little  but  imitation  of  the  masterpieces  of  the  xvi  century. 
Still  the  tradition  survived,  and  in  the  xvm  century  there  was  a 
revival  of  something  of  the  glory  of  the  great  period.  By  this  time 
Venice  had  become  little  more  than  a  pleasure  resort  for  the  rest  of 
Europe.  Longhi  painted  the  society  of  the  time,  while  Canaletto 
and  Guardi  painted  views  of  the  canals,  especially  at  fete  times. 
Tiepolo  was  a  spectacular  and  melodramatic  but  magnificent  dec- 
orator, a  worthy  successor  of  the  great  masters  of  the  xvi  century. 

Although  the  Venetian  school  of  painting  had  a  continuous  exist- 
ence from  Byzantine  and  early  Gothic  times  to  the  close  of  the  xvni 
century,  what  we  usually  think  of  as  the  distinctive  Venetian  school 
was  especially  that  founded  by  Giovanni  Bellini  and  embracing  the 
art  of  the  great  masters  of  the  xvi  century.  This  was  the  Golden 
Age  of  Venetian  painting;  and,  like  the  great  epochs  of  Sienese  and 
Florentine  painting,  it  had  a  comparatively  short  existence.  It  had 
its  rise  in  the  last  part  of  the  xv  century,  its  great  period  in  the 
middle  of  the  xvi  century,  and  it  was  well  on  the  road  to  decline  by 
the  close  of  this  century.  Arthur  Pope. 


Paolo 

Veronese 

1528-1588 


Jacopo 

Bassano 

1510-1592 

Leandro 

Bassano 

Pietro  Longhi 

1702-178$ 

Canaletto 

1697-1768 

Francesco 

Guardi 

1712-1793 

Tiepolo 

1693-1770 


214  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

The  Venetian  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum  will  be  found  under  Nos.  43-50 
in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch,  the  following  are  repre- 
sented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John  L. 
Gardner,  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Bartolommeo  Vtvarini  or  School,  Altar- 
piece;   Crivelli,  Pieta;   Carpaccto,  Portraits. 

Fenway  Court:  Giambono,  Bishop;  Crivelli,  Saint  George;  Cima,  Ma- 
donna and  Child;  Catena,  Delivery  of  Keys  to  Saint  Peter;  Giorgione,  Head 
of  Christ;  Sebastiano  del  Piombo,  Portrait  of  Bandinelli;  Titian,  Rape  of 
Europa;  Bordone,  Christ  in  the  Temple;  Tintoretto,  Portraits;  Attributed 
to  Veronese,  Coronation  of  Hebe. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Venetian  painters  of  the  Renaissance,  3d  ed.    New  York,  1894. 

Venetian  painting  in  America;  the  xvth  century.    New  York,  1916. 
Ricct,  C.    Art  in  northern  Italy.   New  York,  1911.    (Ars  una:  species  mille.) 
Testi,  L.    La  storia  della  pittura  veneziana.    Pt.  i.    Bergamo,  1909. 
Venturi,  L.    Giorgione  e  il  Giorgionismo.    Milan,  1913. 

Le  origini  della  pittura  veneziana,  1300-1500.    Venice,  1907. 


JACOBELLO  DEL  FIORE 

About  1370  to  1439 

The  date  of  Jacobello's  birth  is  uncertain;  it  was  probably  about 
1370.  Before  1412  he  was  in  the  employ  of  the  Venetian  signory,  re- 
ceiving from  them  at  first  one  hundred  and  later  fifty  ducats  a  year. 
His  father,  Francesco  del  Fiore,  was  a  member  of  the  Painters'  Guild 
in  Venice  at  the  end  of  the  xiv  century;  Jacobello  was  president  of 
the  Guild  from  141 5  until  about  1436.    He  died  in  1439. 

Although  essentially  a  mediaeval  painter,  Jacobello  was  one  of  the 
first  Venetians  in  whom  may  be  seen  the  breaking  away  from  the  old 
Byzantine-Gothic  tradition  and  the  elements  of  the  new  awakening 
brought  into  Venice  by  the  Umbrian  Gentile  da  Fabriano. 

Jacobello's  paintings  are  very  rare;  his  earliest  dated  work,  now 
lost,  was  an  altarpiece  for  San  Cassiano,  Pesaro,  completed  in  1401. 
Among  his  extant  paintings  are  the  Lion  of  Saint  Mark,  in  the  Ducal 
Palace,  Venice,  1415;  the  Justice  and  two  Archangels,  1421,  now  in 
the  Venice  Academy;  the  Coronation  of  the  Virgin,  also  in  the 
Venice  Academy,  painted  in  1432  or  1438  —  a  free  copy  of  the  fresco 
of  Paradise  in  the  Ducal  Palace  painted  by  Guariento  of  Padua  in 
1365  —  and  the  Coronation  of  the  Virgin  with  Saints,  in  Teramo. 
Even  in  his  early  picture  of  Justice,  Jacobello  showed  the  influence 
of  Gentile,  but  he  developed  the  International  manner  of  Gentile 
into  a  more  florid  style,  with  complicated,  fluttering  drapery  and 
exaggerated  poses. 

The  paintings  all  have  a  markedly  decorative  character,  with  their 
gold  backgrounds,  elaborate  use  of  gold  ornamentation  on  halos  and 
robes,  their  deep,  strong  colour,  their  architectural  settings  and  mo- 
tives, and  their  suggestion  of  the  rich  tradition  of  the  Byzantine  and 
the  Gothic  so  wonderfully  mingled  in  Venice. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Frizzoni,  G.    La  raccolta  Mond  ed  opere  attinenti  alia  medesima.    Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  Feb.,  1911.  xi  (2),  26-27. 
Gronatj,  G.  In  Thieme-Becker.  Kiinstler-Lexikon.  Leipsic,  1915.  xi,  595-597. 
Testi,  L.    La  storia  della  pittura  veneziana.    Bergamo,  1909.    393-421. 
Valentini,  O.    Di  un  polittico  di  Jacobello  del  Floro  esistente  in  Lecce.    Bol- 

lettino  d'arte.    Rome,  July,  1913.  vii  (7),  272-274. 
Venturi,  L.    Le  origini  della  pittura  veneziana.    Venice,  1907.    80-85. 


216  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

43     MADONNA  ENTHRONED  WITH  ANGELS 

Tempera  on  panel,  arched  top.  H.  20&  in.  W.  17!  in.   (75.1  X  45.4  cm.) 

The  Madonna's  rose  red  gown  shows  not  only  in  the  main  mass, 
but  near  her  right  foot  in  the  lower  left-hand  corner  and  also  in  the 
lower  right-hand  corner.  An  orange  red  curtain  hangs  behind  her 
throne.  The  garments  of  the  angels  standing  beside  her  and  of  two 
of  the  angels  with  crossed  hands  at  the  top  of  the  picture  furnish  in- 
termediate steps  between  these  two  qualities  of  red.  The  seat  of  the 
Madonna's  throne  and  the  capitals  on  which  the  angels  stand  are  of  a 
lighter  shade  of  orange  red.  The  Madonna  wears  a  dark  blue  mantle 
with  a  dragon-like  design  in  gold,  a  heavy  gold  border,  and  a  white 
lining.  This  dark  blue  is  repeated  in  the  robes  of  three  of  the  angels 
in  the  upper  part  of  the  picture.  The  back  and  arms  of  the  throne 
are  of  a  grayish  green  and  the  apple  which  the  Child  holds  is  yellow. 
The  strongest  colour  note  in  the  picture  is  the  yellow  orange  mantle 
embroidered  with  gold  which  hangs  over  the  Infant  Christ's  shoulder. 
The  background  is  of  gold  incised. 

The  panel  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  191 6  as  a  gift  from 
Arthur  Sachs. 

With  its  rich  colour  and  gold  ornament  the  painting  shows  the 
decorative  quality  of  Jacobello's  art;  in  its  tender  feeling  it  reveals 
the  influence  of  Gentile.  Mr.  Perkins  in  Rassegna  d'  Arte  for  June, 
1916,  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  this  is  perhaps  the  only  example 
of  Jacobello's  work  outside  of  Italy. 

The  Madonna's  mantle  and  deep  rose  coloured  gown,  both  em- 
broidered with  gold,  illustrate  the  tendency  which  appeared  at  an 
early  date  among  the  Venetians  to  use  sumptuous  materials.  This 
may  have  been  due  to  Byzantine  influence,  or  may  have  been 
introduced  by  Gentile  da  Fabriano.  The  early  Byzantine  masters 
represented  the  Madonna's  garments  enriched  with  lines  of  gold. 
Giotto  and  the  early  Florentine  painters  as  a  rule  preferred  to  suggest 
a  plain  material,  often  of  delicate  colour,  except  when  the  Madonna 
was  portrayed  as  the  Queen  of  Heaven.  In  their  devotional  pictures 
the  Sienese  masters  used  gorgeous  gold  and  red,  or  white  and  gold 
fabrics.  Some  of  the  Giotteschi,  and  perhaps  Gentile  da  Fabriano, 
inherited  from  Siena  their  love  of  representing  splendid  textiles. 


43     JACOBELLO   DEL  FIORE 


JACOBELLO  DEL  FIORE  217 

This  may  be  seen  in  the  two  panels  of  the  Madonna  Enthroned,  by 
Spinello  Aretino  (Nos.  3  and  4A).  Later,  colour  effects  were  made 
more  of  a  study  and  deeper,  richer  tones  appeared,  but  simple  ma- 
terials were  represented,  except  among  the  Venetians,  who  fre- 
quently in  their  pictures  of  both  sacred  and  profane  subjects  painted 
elaborate,  richly  coloured  fabrics.  This  cult  of  splendour  reached  its 
height  in  the  xvi  century  under  Paolo  Veronese.  The  portrait 
(No.  41)  in  this  Gallery  attributed  to  Badile,  the  master  of  Veronese, 
shows  the  use  of  rich  brocade,  so  prevalent  in  the  Venetian  school. 
It  has  already  been  noted  that  the  Child  holds  an  apple.  In  early 
pictures  the  apple  sometimes  represents  the  fruit  of  Paradise  which 
the  King  of  Heaven  brings  down  to  earth  with  Him.  In  general, 
however,  it  is  used  as  the  symbol  of  the  sin  of  the  world  which  the 
Christ  takes  upon  Himself.' 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perkins,  F.  M.     Due  quadri  inediti;  un  quadro  veneto.    Rassegna  d'arte 
antica  e  moderna.    Milan,  June,  1916.  iii  (6),  121-122,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1917.    xvi,  135. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.    2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97; 

April-June,  1918.  2d  ser.,  xxii  (2),  223. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Jan.  25,  1917.  328. 


BARTOLOMMEO  VIVARINI  (?) 

About  143 1  to  1499 

Bartolommeo  Vivarini  was  a  member  of  the  family  which  was, 
after  the  Bellini,  the  most  important  family  of  xv  century  Venetian 
artists.  The  exact  dates  of  his  birth  and  death  are  not  known.  On 
a  painting  of  the  Madonna  and  Child  in  the  collection  of  the  late  Sir 
Hugh  Lane  is  an  inscription  signed  with  Bartolommeo's  name  and 
dated  1448,  which  states  that  the  artist  was  sixteen  years  old  when 
the  picture  was  painted.  If  this  was  so,  it  follows  that  Bartolommeo 
was  born  in  1431  or  1432.  The  authenticity  of  this  picture  has, 
however,  been  doubted.  In  Viadana  there  is  a  polyptych  dated 
1449  and  signed  with  the  name  Barthol  .  .  .  which  has  been  at- 
tributed to  him.  His  name  next  appears  with  that  of  his  brother 
Antonio  on  a  polyptych  in  the  Bologna  Gallery  dated  1450.  It  is 
probable  that  soon  after  this  Bartolommeo  withdrew  from  partner- 
ship with  his  brother.  Documents  relating  to  Bartolommeo  date 
from  1458  to  1490.  The  latest  date  which  can  be  read  on  a  picture  by 
him  is  1 49 1.  This  occurs  on  a  triptych  now  in  the  Carrara  Gallery, 
Bergamo.  It  is  supposed  that  he  died  in  1499.  In  Bartolommeo's 
work  we  find  the  influence  of  the  older  Gothic  style  of  Venice,  repre- 
sented by  his  brother  Antonio,  combined  with  that  of  the  Squar- 
cionesque  school  of  Padua. 

Bartolommeo  is  represented  in  this  country  by  several  pictures, 
the  finest  among  them  being  Mr.  Morgan's  Epiphany.  Other  paint- 
ings are  in  the  Piatt,  Johnson,  Philip  Lehman,  and  Quincy  A.  Shaw 
collections,  and  in  the  collection  of  the  late  Theodore  M.  Davis  of 
Newport,  now  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum.  The  Fogg  Museum 
panel  and  the  polyptych  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  show 
the  hand  of  Bartolommeo  or  of  his  school. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Aru,  C.    Un  quadro  di  Bartolomeo  Vivarini.    L'Arte.    Rome,  May- June, 

1905.  viii  (3),  205-207. 
Beeenson,  B.    Venetian  painting  in  America.    New  York,  1916.     13-18. 
Borenius,  T.    Three  paintings  by  Bartolomeo  Vivarini.    Burlington  magazine. 

London,  July,  191 1.  xix  (100),  192-198. 
Cagnola,  G.    Un'  opera  inedita  della  scuola  di  Murano.    Rassegna  d'arte. 

Milan,  Nov.,  1903.  iii  (n),  166-169. 
II  "Vivarini"  di  Viadana.  Rassegna  d'arte.  Milan,  Sept.,  1907.  vii  (9),  139. 


44     BARTOLOMMEO   VIVARINI  (?) 


BARTOLOMMEO  VIVARINI  (?)  219 

Fabriczy,  C.  von.    Una  scultura  del  rinascimento  a  Viadana.    Rassegna 

d'arte.    Milan,  Dec,  1905.  v  (12),  185. 
Frizzoni,  G.  Opere  di  pittura  venete  lungo  la  costa  meridionale  dell'  Adriatico. 

Bollettino  d'arte.    Rome,  Jan.,  1914.  viii  (1),  28-30,  33. 
Sinigaglia,  G.    De'  Vivarini,  pittori  da  Murano.    Bergamo,  1905. 
Venturi,  L.  Le  origini  della  pittura  veneziana.    Venice,  1907.     169-180. 

44     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Tempera  on  panel.    H.  365  in.    W.  26^  in.    (92.1  X  66.8  cm.) 

The  Madonna's  gown  is  a  subdued  red.  The  drapery  hanging  be- 
hind her  head  is  red  violet  with  a  red  lining  showing  at  the  edges.  The 
Child's  tunic  is  a  very  dark  yellow  brown.  The  blue  green  mantle  of 
the  Madonna  swings  around  in  a  curving  line  over  the  parapet,  and 
up  over  her  right  arm  and  emphasizes  the  beauty  and  harmony  of  the 
reds  in  the  picture.  The  parapet  is  yellowish  brown  and  the  back- 
ground is  gold.  The  picture  is  painted  in  tempera  and,  with  the 
exception  of  some  rubbing  away  of  the  surface  in  the  mantle,  and 
other  minor  injuries,  is  in  fair  condition.  Many  of  the  lines  of  the 
preliminary  drawing  are  incised  deeply  in  the  surface  of  the  gesso. 

The  picture  was  bought  by  C.  Fairfax  Murray  about  1876,  of 
the  Inspector  of  the  Academy  of  Venice,  for  John  Ruskin,  who  sold 
it  very  soon  to  Sir  Frederic  Leighton.  Mr.  Murray  repurchased  it 
later  at  the  Leighton  sale.  The  panel  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum 
in  1904. 

A  picture  at  Sassari  almost  identical  with  this  in  drawing  is  signed: 
Bartholomeus  Vivarinus  de  Murano  pinxit  mcccclxx.  This  pic- 
ture is  therefore  either  a  replica  by  Bartolommeo's  own  hand,  or  a 
school  piece  probably  from  the  original  cartoon.  But  if  it  is  not  by 
Bartolommeo's  own  hand  it  is  a  first-rate  performance  of  the  work- 
shop, and  the  significance  of  the  conception  is  certainly  due  entirely 
to  Bartolommeo.  The  picture  is  one  of  the  small  Madonnas  of  emo- 
tional type  invented  by  Mantegna  largely  on  the  basis  of  Donatello's 
Madonna  reliefs.  In  perhaps  no  other  composition  does  Bartolom- 
meo come  so  close  to  the  passionate  mysticism  of  Mantegna. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1905.    v,  162. 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Oct.-Dec,  1905.  2d  ser.,  ix  (4),  498. 

Aru.    L'Arte.    May-June,  1905.  207. 

Berenson.    Venetian  painting  in  America.  17-18. 


220  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.  76. 

Bibliogeafia.  L'Arte.  Rome,  July-Aug.,  1905.  viii  (4),  315,  No.  283. 
Boston.  Museum  of  Fine  Arts.  Bulletin.  June,  1909.  27,  No.  16. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaseixe.   History  of  painting  in  North  Italy;  ed.  by  Tan- 

cred  Borenius.    1912.  i,  40,  note. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  191 1.  54. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.   Boston,  Dec,  1904.    xiii  (50),  278;  Dec,  1912. 

xxi  (82),  290. 
Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.   Sitzungsbericht.   Dec.  n,  1908.    viii, 

37,  No.  1,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    550, 

No.  1. 
New  England  magazine.    Aug.,  1905.  702. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4, 1905. 

Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  68,  Reproduction. 
Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.    17,  No.  1. 
Venturi.    vii,  pt.  3,  323. 
Venturi,  L.    Le  origini  della  pittura  veneziana.     174. 


GIOVANNI  BELLINI  (?) 

1430  (?)-isi6 

The  exact  dateof  Giovanni  Bellini's  birth  is  not  known,  but  it  must 
have  been  about  1430.  He  was  apparently  the  natural  son  of  Jacopo 
Bellini.  Giovanni  received  his  first  training  under  his  father;  later 
on  he  worked  for  a  while  with  his  brother,  Gentile;  but  finally  he  had 
a  large  workshop  of  his  own  with  many  assistants.  During  the  last 
part  of  the  xv  century  he  was  recognized  as  the  leading  painter  of 
Venice,  and  was  the  master  of  the  greatest  artists  of  the  next  genera- 
tion —  Giorgione,  Titian,  Palma,  and  many  lesser  painters. 

Giovanni's  father  evidently  kept  in  close  touch  with  the  Paduan 
artists  and  very  likely  resided  in  Padua  during  part  of  the  boyhood  of 
his  sons,  so  that  Giovanni's  early  work,  executed  in  tempera,  shows 
the  influence  of  the  Squarcionesque  school  of  Padua  and  of  the  Flor- 
entine sculptor  Donatello.  Later  on,  after  the  Flemish  oil  process 
and  the  Flemish  mode  of  representation  had  been  introduced 
into  Venice,  largely  through  the  visit  of  Antonello  da  Messina, 
Giovanni,  although  not  a  direct  disciple  of  Antonello,  was  one  of  the 
first  to  master  the  new  technique  and  also  the  new  mode,  for  from 
this  time  on  he  painted  always  in  oil,  and  he  put  his  figures  more  dis- 
tinctly into  atmosphere  and  rendered  definite  effects  of  light.  Gio- 
vanni was  one  of  the  first  painters  to  give  his  attention  to  the  expres- 
sion of  existence  in  three-dimensional  space,  in  the  terms  of  pure 
paint,  by  the  manipulation  of  edges  and  the  adjustment  of  tone  con- 
trasts in  the  different  planes  of  distance,  as  is  shown  even  in  the  work 
of  his  first  period.  In  this  respect  he  was  the  real  founder  of  the  great 
Venetian  school  of  the  xvi  century.  Giovanni's  works  included  his- 
tories, although  none  of  them  has  been  preserved,  as  well  as  large 
altarpieces  and  smaller  religious  paintings  and  a  few  paintings  of 
allegorical  or  classical  subjects.  Half-length  Madonnas  were  espe- 
cially popular  at  the  time,  and  in  addition  to  those  executed  by 
Giovanni's  own  hand  are  many  painted  by  pupils  or  assistants  but 
often  bearing  the  official  signature:  Ioannes  Bellinvs. 

B  ellini  is  represented  in  America  by  a  number  of  fine  pictures.  Mr. 
Frick's  Saint  Francis  is  perhaps  the  most  famous.  There  are  many 
Madonnas  attributed  to  him,  several  undoubtedly  by  his  hand. 


222  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

Mr.  Berenson  discusses  the  pictures  fully  in  his  Venetian  Painting 
in  America. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Venetian  painting  in  America.    New  York,  1916.  54-142. 
Fry,  R.  E.    Giovanni  Bellini.    London,  1899.    (Artist's  library.) 
Gronau,  G.  In  Thieme-Becker.  Kunstler-Lexikon.  Leipsic,  1909.  iii,  259-265. 
Die   Kiinstlerfamilie   Bellini.     Bielefeld    and   Leipsic,    1909.     52-132. 
(Kiinstler-Monographien,  96.) 
Venturi,  L.    Le  origini  della  pittura  veneziana.    Venice,  1907.    347-409. 

45     MADONNA  AND  CHILD 

Oil  on  panel.  H.  29  A  in.  W.  22^  in.  (74.4  X  58  cm.) 
The  Madonna  wears  a  red  gown,  brilliant  blue  mantle,  and  lu- 
minous silvery  white  hood.  The  drapery  of  the  background  is  bright 
yellow  green.  The  sky  on  the  left  is  pale  blue,  and  the  rocks  neutral 
brown.  The  parapet  is  a  dark  red  brown;  the  book  is  red.  On  the 
parapet  is  the  signature:  Ioannes  Bellinvs. 

The  panel  formerly  belonged  to  W.  H.  Matthews  of  Bromley, 
Kent,  who  died  in  1890.  It  was  later  in  the  collection  of  C.  Fairfax 
Murray,  London,  and  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  1902. 

The  picture  shows  the  sweet  and  grave  dignity  typical  of  Bellini, 
but  it  is  almost  certainly  the  work  of  one  of  his  pupils,  perhaps  Nic- 
col6  Rondinelli.  In  the  Layard  collection  of  the  National  Gallery  is 
another  version,  differing  only  in  that  the  Madonna's  hood  is  more 
elaborately  embroidered  and  that  there  is  more  of  the  landscape 
visible  on  the  left.  This  panel  also  is  signed  on  the  parapet :  Ioannes 
Bellinvs.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle  think  that  Basaiti  helped 
Bellini  in  the  Layard  collection  picture.  Mr.  Perkins  believes  that 
these  pictures  were  executed  by  Rondinelli.  He  states  (1905)  that 
a  third  version  is  in  the  collection  of  the  Marquis  Visconti  Venosta 
at  Rome.  Mr.  Berenson,  in  his  Venetian  Painting  in  America, 
discusses  the  Fogg  Museum  and  the  Layard  collection  Madonnas 
at  length,  and  agrees  with  Mr.  Perkins  that  Rondinelli  is  the  prob- 
able author  of  the  Layard  Madonna,  at  least.  He  thinks  that 
both  pictures  are  copies  of  an  original  Bellini,  apparently  painted 
towards  1490,  which  has  disappeared.  Mr.  Berenson  further  points 
out  the  connection  of  the  Fogg  Museum  painting,  in  certain  details, 
with  a  Madonna  in  the  Duomo  at  Chioggia  and  a  Madonna  formerly 


45      GIOVANNI    BELLINI   (?) 


46     FRANCESCO    RIZZO    DA   SANTA    CROCE   (? 


GIOVANNI  BELLINI  (?)  223 

in  the  Ferrarese  Cavalieri  collection.  There  is  also  said  to  be  in  the 
Barberini  Gallery,  Rome,  a  Madonna  and  Child  attributed  to 
Rondinelli,  which  is  practically  a  replica  of  the  Fogg  Museum 
Madonna. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson.    Venetian  painting  in  America.     11 5-1 19,  Reproduction. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905. 
Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  68,  Reproduction. 

,       MENTIONED 

American  architect  and  building  news.  Boston,  Jan.  17,  1903.  lxxix  (1412),  18. 
American  journal  of  archaeology.    July-Sept.,  1903.  2d  ser.,  vii  (3),  404;  Oct- 

Dec,  1905.    2d  ser.,  ix  (4),  498. 
Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.  76. 

Bibliograeia.    L'Arte.    Rome,  July-Aug.,  1905.  viii  (4),  315,  No.  283. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.   Bulletin.   June,  1909.    22;  27,  No.  15. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.    History  of  painting  in  North  Italy;  ed.  by  Tan- 

cred  Borenius.  1912.  i,  183,  note  3. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.  Oct.  25,  1911.  54. 
Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Dec.  n,  1908.    viii, 

38,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551. 
New  England  magazine.    Aug.,  1905.  702,  Reproduction  (706). 
Rankin.    Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.     17,  No.  2. 


FRANCESCO  RIZZO  DA  SANTA  CROCE  (?) 

Active  from  about  1513  to  about  1545 

Towards  the  end  of  the  xv  century  a  family  of  Santa  Croces  came 
to  Venice  from  a  Bergamesque  mountain  village,  Santa  Croce.  The 
first  of  the  family  to  settle  in  Venice  was  Francesco  di  Simone  da 
Santa  Croce,  who  painted  the  Annunciation  now  in  the  Carrara 
Gallery  at  Bergamo. 

Francesco  di  Bernardo  de'  Vecchi,  or  Francesco  Rizzo  da  Santa 
Croce,  was  a  pupil  of  Francesco  di  Simone.  Among  his  signed  and 
dated  works  is  a  Noli  Me  Tangere  in  the  Venice  Academy  (No.  149) 
painted  in  1 5 1 3 .  A  number  of  unsigned  paintings  may  be  attributed 
to  him.  The  latest  record  of  Francesco  Rizzo  is  dated  1545.  The 
Santa  Croces  were  not  men  of  great  distinction,  and  contented  them- 
selves with  following  in  the  footsteps  of  Giovanni  Bellini. 

In  this  country  Mr.  Berenson  attributes  to  Francesco  Rizzo  two 
pictures  in  the  collection  of  Henry  Walters,  Baltimore,  in  addition 
to  the  Fogg  Museum  painting. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berenson,  B.    Venetian  painting  in  America.    New  York,  1916.  262-263. 
Bernardini,  G.     Sette  dipinti  della  raccolta  Lazzaroni.     Rassegna  d'arte. 

Milan,  June,  1911.  xi  (6),  103. 
Fiocco,  G.    I  pittori  da  Santa  Croce.    L'Arle.    Rome,  Aug.,  1916.  xix  (3-4), 

183-186, 199-200. 
Fornoni,  I.  E.    I  pittori  da  Santa  Croce.     1908. 
Ludwig,  G.  Archivalische  Beitrage  zur  Geschichte  der  venezianischen  Malerei; 

Francesco  Rizzo  da  Santa  Croce.    Jahrb.  d.  kon.  preuss.  Kunstsamml. 

Berlin,  1903.  xxiv,  Suppl.,  4-8. 
Molmenti,  P.    I  pittori  bergamaschi  a  Venezia;  I  Santacroce.    Emporium. 

Bergamo,  June,  1903.   xvii  (102),  420-421. 

46    MADONNA  AND  CHILD  AND  SAINT  JOHN 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  17I  in.    W.  19!  in.    (45.1  X  50.5  cm.) 

The  strongest  note  in  the  picture  is  the  brilliant  red  of  the  Madon- 
na's gown  contrasted  with  the  somewhat  cold  silvery  white  drapery 
wrapped  around  the  Child  and  the  white  kerchief  which  shows  over 
the  Madonna's  forehead  and  on  her  breast.  The  Madonna's  mantle 
is  dark  blue  with  a  dark  orange  Hning,  and  the  garment  of  the  little 


FRANCESCO  RIZZO  DA  SANTA  CROCE  (?)  225 

Saint  John  is  orange  red.  The  landscape  in  the  foreground  and  in  the 
distance  is  painted  with  greens  and  browns  and  the  mountains  are 
blue.  The  sky  is  a  bluish  green  shading  into  a  pale  and  subdued 
orange  red  near  the  horizon. 

The  painting  was  bought  in  Rome  in  1900  from  John  Elliott  of 
Newport,  who  had  bought  it  of  a  Roman  dealer.  There  is  a  tradition 
that  it  came  from  the  Cenci  family  of  Vicovaro.  It  was  placed  in  the 
Museum  the  year  of  its  purchase,  1900. 

In  his  book  on  Venetian  Painting  in  America,  Mr.  Berenson  at- 
tributes this  picture  to  Francesco  Rizzo  da  Santa  Croce,  and  calls 
attention  to  the  fact  that  the  design  of  the  Madonna  and  Child  bears 
a  marked  similarity  to  the  design  of  the  Madonna  and  Child  in 
Mantegna's  late  Epiphany,  "  of  which  there  is  a  good  copy  in  Mr.  J. 
G.  Johnson's  collection."  Kristeller,  in  his  life  of  Mantegna,  lists  six 
copies  of  this  picture;  three  of  them,  those  in  the  Kaiser  Friedrich 
Museum  (No.  22),  the  Hermitage  Gallery  (No.  11),  the  Verona 
Gallery  (No.  147),  are  probably  by  Francesco  Rizzo  or  Francesco  di 
Simone. 

Marco  Bello  and  Girolamo  da  Udine  have  also  been  suggested  as 
the  possible  authors  of  the  Fogg  Museum  panel,  but  Mr.  Berenson's 
suggestion  is  more  likely  to  be  right;  Charles  Loeser,  judging  by  a 
photograph,  agrees  with  him. 

MENTIONED 

Berenson.    Venetian  painting  in  America.    263. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    27,  No.  18. 
Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Dec.  11,  1908.   viii, 
38,  No.  5,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551, 

No.S. 
Perkins.    Boston  evening  transcript.    Oct.  4,  1905.    (Marco  Bello.) 

Rassegna  d'arte.    May,  1905.  68.     (Marco  Bello.) 
Rankin.   Notes  on  three  collections  of  old  masters.    17,  No.  9. 


LORENZO  LOTTO 

1480-1556 

Lorenzo  di  Tommaso  Lotto  was  born  in  Venice  in  1480.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  Alvise  Vivarini,  and  was  influenced  also  by  Jacopo  di  Bar- 
bari,  by  Giovanni  Bellini,  by  Palma,  by  Giorgione,  and  by  Titian; 
certain  of  his  paintings  show  Raphaelesque  elements,  a  result  of  con- 
tact with  Raphael  in  Rome  where  Lotto  must  have  spent  the  years 
1508-1512.  From  about  15:1^01526  Lotto  was  in  Bergamo  for  the 
greater  part  of  the  time,  and  this  isolation  from  Venice  and  the  all- 
absorbing  influence  of  Giorgione  and  Titian  was  of  the  utmost  im- 
portance, in  that  it  fostered  the  development  of  his  own  distinctive 
manner.  B etween  1527  or  1528  and  1 5 50  Lotto  was  for  the  most  part 
in  Venice,  and  from  this  time  date  perhaps  his  greatest  religious 
paintings  and  some  of  his  most  sympathetic  portraits.  He  died  in 
Loreto  in  1556. 

In  the  luxurious  and  splendid  art  of  his  day  Lotto  represents  a  very 
individual  note.  He  was  ardent,  high-strung,  and  deeply  religious, 
and  his  paintings  of  sacred  subjects  are  characterized  by  their  rest- 
lessness and  by  their  somewhat  bizarre,  intensely  personal  treatment. 
At  times  he  is  very  dramatic  as,  for  instance,  in  the  Crucifixion  of 
Monte  San  Giusto.  He  painted  almost  no  secular  subjects.  Lotto 
ranks  high  as  a  portraitist  on  account  of  his  extremely  sensitive  and 
sympathetic  interpretations  of  character. 

Paintings  by  Lotto  in  this  country  are:  a  Portrait  of  a  Young  Man 
in  the  Metropolitan  Museum;  a  Madonna  and  Child,  a  Madonna  and 
Child  and  Saints,  and  a  Portrait  of  Gian  Giacomo  Stuer  and  his  Son, 
in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia;  and  the  Fogg 
Museum  picture. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beeenson,  B.    Lorenzo  Lotto.    London,  Bell.  1905. 

Biscaeo,  G.    Ancora  di  alcune  opere  giovanili  di  Lorenzo  Lotto.    L'Arte. 

Rome,  iqoi.  iv,  152-161. 
Lorenzo  Lotto  a  Treviso  nella  prima  decade  del  secolo  xvi.     L'Arte. 

Rome,  1898.     i,  138-153. 
Fogolari,  G.    RR.  Gallerie  di  Venezia;  acquisto  di  un  ritratto  di  Lorenzo 

Lotto.    Bollettino  d'arte.    Rome,  1907.   i  (1),  23-24. 


47     LORENZO  LOTTO 


LORENZO  LOTTO 


227 


Frizzoni,  G.    Ein  bisher  nicht  erkanntes  Werk  Lorenzo  Lottos  in  der  kaiser- 
lichen  Gemaldegalerie.     Jahrb.  d.  kunsthist.  Samml.  d.  Kaiserhauses. 
Vienna,  1911.  xxx  (1),  49-57. 
Intorno  a  Lorenzo  Lotto  e  ad  una  sua  pala  smembrata.    Rassegna  d'arte 

antica  e  moderna.    Milan,  July,  1916.   iii  (7),  145-150. 
Lorenzo  Lotto,  pittore.    ArchMo  storico  dell'  arte.    Rome,  1896.    Ser.  2, 
ii  (i~3>  6),  1-24,  195-224,  427-447- 

Libro  dei  conti  di  Lorenzo  Lotto  (1538-1556).     In  Le  Gallerie  nazionali 
italiane.    Rome,  1894.  i,  115-224. 

Loeser,  C.    Ein  neu  aufgefundener  Lotto.    Repert.  f.  Kunstw.    Berlin,  1899. 
xxii  (4),  319-320. 

Sinigaglia,  G.    La  "  Nativita  del  Signor  finta  di  notte  "  di  Lorenzo  Lotto. 
Bollettino  d'arte.    Rome,  Aug.,  1908.   ii  (8),  298-302. 

47     SAINT  PETER  MARTYR 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  34-1!  in.     W.  26f  in.     (88.5  X  68  cm.) 

This  picture  has  not  the  brilliancy  of  colour  often  used  by  Lotto. 
The  saint  wears  a  white  tunic  and  scapular  mellowed  with  age,  and  a 
cloak  of  dark  green  brown.  His  hair  and  eyes  are  dark  brown;  the 
tones  of  his  flesh  are  ruddy.  His  book,  lettered  Nouum  Testamen- 
tum,  is  dark  green  with  red  brown  edges  and  gray  yellow  decoration. 
The  dagger  is  dark  green  gray.  On  the  right  sleeve  of  the  saint's 
tunic  is  a  drop  of  blood.    The  background  is  dark  red  brown. 

The  painting  was  bought  in  London  and  placed  in  the  Fogg 
Museum  in  1906.  It  is  said  to  have  come  from  Venice.  On  the  back 
is  a  label  which  reads:  No.  31,  Paris  Bordone,  San  Pietro  Martire. 
Mr.  Murray,  who  at  one  time  owned  the  picture,  was  the  first  to 
attribute  it  to  Lotto.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  in  an  account 
book  of  Lotto's,  discovered  at  Loreto  in  1892  and  published  in  Le 
Gallerie  Nazionali  Italiane,  Rome,  1894,  there  are  references  to  a 
Saint  Peter  Martyr  painted  for  a  Dominican  friar.  The  book  covers 
the  years  1 538-1 556,  and  under  date  of  September,  1549,  we  find 
the  following  entry:  "1549,  sett.  A  Frate  Angelo  Feretti  da  San 
Domenico  un '  San  Piero  martire,  grande  quanto  lui  in  ritratto  suo.' " 
(From  Brother  Angelo  Feretti  of  San  Domenico  a  Saint  Peter  Martyr, 
life-size,  in  his  own  likeness.)  References  to  payments  appear  later. 
It  is  not  impossible  that  these  entries  concern  the  Fogg  Museum 
picture.  The  portrait  bears  a  curious  resemblance  in  type  and  in 
colour  scheme  to  Titian's  famous  Saint  Dominic  in  the  Borghese 
Gallery.     The  earnest,  rather  melancholy,  character  of  the  saint, 


228  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

or  rather  of  the  friar  whom  Lotto  portrayed  as  the  saint,  is  vividly 
and  sympathetically  realized.  Lotto  as  usual  has  given  life  and 
character  to  his  sitter  by  expressive  painting  of  the  hands. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1908.    vi,  143. 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    22;  27,  No.  17. 

Breck.    Rassegna  d'arte.    Oct.,  1909.  171. 

Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.  54. 

Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    Boston,  Dec,  1906.    xv  (58),  286. 

Kunstgeschichtliche  Gesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Dec.  11, 1908.  viii, 

38,  No.  9,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Liter aturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.  551, 

No.  9. 

Reference  to  a  Painting  of  Saint  Peter  Martyr 

Libro  dei  conti  di  Lorenzo  Lotto  (1538-1556).     In  Le  Gallerie  nazionali 
italiane.    Rome,  1894.    i,  127,  133. 


TINTORETTO 

1518-1594 

Tintoretto,  whose  real  name  was  Jacopo  Robusti,  was  born  in  1518. 
His  father  was  a  dyer,  or  tintore,  by  trade,  hence  his  son's  nickname 
of  Tintoretto,  little  dyer.  According  to  Ridolfi,  he  entered  Titian's 
workshop  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  and  was  dismissed  because  of 
Titian's  jealousy.  The  story  of  jealousy  sounds  unlikely;  but  Titian 
may  have  thought  him  without  talent,  or  he  may  himself  have  had  a 
distaste  for  the  strict  discipline  of  a  big  workshop.  At  any  rate,  he 
probably  set  up  a  studio  for  himself  and,  although  the  influence  of  a 
number  of  different  masters  is  to  be  seen  in  his  early  work,  he  was  no 
doubt  much  more  completely  self-taught  than  most  painters  of  his 
time.  He  was  especially  interested  in  the  work  of  Michelangelo, 
revealed  to  him  in  drawings  by  Daniele  da  Volterra,  on  account  of 
Michelangelo's  extraordinary  knowledge  of  the  human  figure;  and 
Tintoretto  is  said  to  have  placed  above  the  door  of  his  workshop  the 
famous  motto:  II  disegno  di  Michelangelo  e'l  colorito  di  Titiano. 
(The  drawing  —  or  form  —  of  Michelangelo  and  the  colour  of 
Titian.)  His  earlier  works  show  rather  conscious  striving  for  variety 
of  action  and  rhythm  of  pose  in  pictures  often  overloaded  with 
figures,  as  in  the  Last  Judgment  of  the  Madonna  dell'  Orto;  but  his 
later  works  reveal  perfect  mastery  in  the  composition  of  figures  which 
seem  to  fall  into  their  places  in  the  design  with  ease  and  naturalness. 

At  first  Tintoretto  had  to  be  content  with  small  orders  in  less  im- 
portant churches,  and  he  is  said  to  have  painted  frescoes  on  houses 
for  the  cost  of  materials.  His  first  "  success  "  came  in  1548  in  work 
for  the  Scuola  di  San  Marco.  After  that  he  was  apparently  in  easy 
circumstances,  although  he  never  achieved  the  great  reputation 
abroad  won  by  Titian  and  Veronese.  He  married  in  1548  and  had 
eight  children,  some  of  whom  became  his  assistants.  For  a  large 
part  of  his  life  he  was  occupied  with  the  execution  of  paintings  for 
the  Scuola  di  San  Rocco,  for  the  refectory  of  which  he  painted  the 
famous  Crucifixion;  but  some  of  his  most  masterly  work  consists  of 
paintings  of  mythological  subjects,  generally  on  a  smaller  scale  than 
his  religious  paintings.  Among  them  is  the  famous  group  of  four  pic- 
tures which  forms  the  decoration  for  the  Anticollegio  in  the  Ducal 


230  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

Palace.  His  last  work  on  a  large  scale  was  the  Paradise  in  the  hall 
of  the  Gran  Consiglio  in  the  Ducal  Palace. 

Tintoretto,  like  Rubens  and  Franz  Hals,  was  a  virtuoso  with  his 
brush.  At  his  best  his  splendid,  dashing  workmanship  shows  con- 
summate skill,  but  often  his  execution  was  hasty  and  his  colour 
lacked  clearness,  showing  a  tendency  to  black  shadows.  His  tech- 
nique was  less  sound  than  that  of  his  predecessors,  so  that  many  of 
his  pictures  have  not  lasted  so  well  as  theirs.  Tintoretto  was  the 
most  independent  and  original,  perhaps  the  most  profound,  thinker 
among  the  great  Venetian  artists  of  the  xvi  century. 

There  are  a  number  of  pictures  in  this  country  that  are  attributed 
to  Tintoretto,  but  few  of  them  do  full  justice  to  his  genius. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Colvin,  S.  Tintoretto  at  the  British  Museum.  Burlington  magazine.  Lon- 
don, Jan.-Feb.,  1910.   xvi  (82-83),  189-200,  254-261. 

Holborn,  J.  B.  S.  Jacopo  Robusti  called  Tintoretto.  London,  1903.  (Great 
masters  in  painting  and  sculpture.) 

Osmaston,  F.  P.  B.    The  art  and  genius  of  Tintoret.    London,  1915.   2  v. 

Phillipps,  E.  M.    Tintoretto.    London,  191 1.    (Classics  of  art.) 

Ruskin,  J.  Relation  between  Michael  Angelo  and  Tintoret.  In  his  Works; 
ed.  by  E.  T.  Cook  and  Alexander  Wedderburn.  Library  ed.  London, 
1906.  xxii,  71-108. 

Soulier,  G.    Le  Tintoret.    Paris,  191 1.    (Les  grands  artistes.) 

Thode,  H.  Tintoretto.  Bielefeld  and  Leipsic,  1901.  (Kiinstler-Mono- 
graphien,  49.) 

48     DIANA 

Lent  by  Samuel  Sachs. 

Oil *  on  canvas.    H.  43!  in.    W.  41  in.     (109.8  X  104.2  cm.) 

This  picture  furnishes  an  excellent  opportunity  to  study  Tin- 
toretto's technique.  The  canvas  was  evidently  originally  covered 
with  a  tone  of  brown  ochre.  The  unfinished  parts  of  the  picture, 
which  are  perhaps  the  most  instructive,  appear  to  be  handled  in  the 
following  way.  The  shadows  are  indicated  by  a  dark  brown  tone 
and  the  high  lights  put  in  with  yellow  ochre  and  white,  except  for  the 
foliage,  which  is  a  dark,  neutral  green.  The  dog  on  the  right  is  cooler 
in  tone  than  the  dog  on  the  left.    The  general  tone  of  the  sky  is  yel- 

1  Osmaston  and  others  say  that  the  Venetians  used  tempera  for  underpainting, 
but  the  brush  work  of  this  picture  is  that  which  we  associate  with  the  use  of  oil  paint. 


TINTORETTO 


TINTORETTO  23 1 

lowish  on  the  right  and  pinkish  on  the  left.  It  was  doubtless  pro- 
duced by  a  scumble  of  yellow  ochre  and  white  shading  into  a  scumble 
of  Venetian  red  and  white.  Diana's  flesh  tones  are  light  in  the  high 
lights  and  somewhere  between  the  yellow  and  pink  quality  of  the  sky 
Her  hair  is  yellow  in  the  light  and  brown  in  the  shadows.  The  moun ' 
tains  are  produced  by  a  light  scumble  over  the  background,  giving  an 
atmospheric  and  neutral  effect.  The  strongest  colour  note  in  the 
picture  is  Diana's  bodice,  which  appears  to  be  of  Venetian  red. 

The  painting  comes  closest  to  Tintoretto's  four  pictures  in  the 
Anticollegio  of  the  Ducal  Palace,  Venice  —  Bacchus  and  Ariadne, 
the  Three  Graces,  Minerva  repelling  Mars,  and  the  Forge  of 
Vulcan  —  and  probably  was  painted  about  the  same  time.  It  was 
formerly  in  the  collection  of  John  Ruskin,  who  bought  it  in  Venice 
in  1852  from  the  painter  Nerly.  In  a  letter  to  his  father  Ruskin 
says:  "  .  .  .  for  it  must  be  accompanied  by  a  sad  confession  —  that 
I  gave  thirty  pounds  the  other  day  for  the  —  not  Paul  Veronese  — 
but  Tintoret,  as  I  afterwards  discovered  it  to  be  by  accident.  It  was 
put  into  a  frame  too  small  for  it;  in  talking  over  it  one  day,  moving 
it  into  a  light,  it  slipped  and  came  out,  and  behold,  behind  the  frame, 
a  piece  of  foliage  and  landscape  which  only  one  man's  hand  in  the 
world  could  have  painted." 

Ruskin  left  the  picture  to  his  friend  Arthur  Severn.  It  remained 
in  this  collection  until  191 5  when  it  was  bought  by  Samuel  Sachs 
of  New  York.  Mr.  Sachs  lends  it  to  the  Fogg  Museum  for  a  certain 
number  of  months  each  year. 

The  painting  was  published  by  Arthur  Pope  in  Art  in  America 
for  October,  19 16.  We  quote  from  his  article:  "  In  its  present 
state,  as  left  by  Tintoretto,  the  upper  part  of  the  picture  seems  to 
be  practically  finished;  but  in  the  lower  half,  although  extraor- 
dinarily real  existence  in  three  dimensions  is  indicated  by  the  broad 
masses  of  light  and  dark  swept  in  so  surely,  the  dark  brown  ground 
of  the  canvas  is,  except  for  one  or  two  heavily  loaded  lights,  hardly 
more  than  '  run  over '  with  light  strokes,  and  in  many  places  is 
entirely  untouched.  In  its  decisive  vigour  the  sketching  in  of  the 
legs  is,  in  handling,  exactly  like  that  of  the  tempera  studies  in  the 
British  Museum.  Apparently  Tintoretto  first  of  all  sketched  in  the 
whole  figure  in  this  way  to  get  the  action  and  the  placing  on  the  can- 
vas, and  then  covered  this  skeleton  of  paint  with  flesh  and  clothing; 


232  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

and  we  may  accept  this  as  his  usual  method  of  procedure  in  the  work 
of  his  great  period.  Evidently  the  legs  were  to  have  been  covered 
with  drapery  with  only  part  of  the  right  foot  actually  showing  in  the 
finished  picture;  but  the  structure  of  the  figure  would  have  governed 
the  folds  of  the  dress  and  would  always  have  been  felt  as  existing 
beneath  them.  The  drapery  over  the  legs  might  very  likely  have 
been  a  subdued  blue  green,  if  completed,  but  except  for  a  little  dull 
green,  there  are  no  cool  tones  in  the  picture  as  it  stands  at  present; 
even  the  landscape  is  warm  gray  in  tone  —  yellowish  and  pinkish  — 
like  most  of  the  San  Rocco  landscapes.  A  superb  bit  of  design  is  the 
placing  of  the  dull  red  bodice  as  a  controlling  accent  in  the  centre  of 
the  picture." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Osmaston.    i,  48,  note;  ii,  191. 

Perkins,  F.  M.    Un  dipinto  del  Tintoretto  depositato  nel  Museo  Fogg.   Ras- 

segna  d'arte.    Milan,  Feb.,  1916.    iii  (2),  25,  Reproduction. 
Pope,  A.    Tintoretto's  Diana.    Art  in  America.    New  York,  Oct.,  1916.   iv 

(6),  353-357,  Reproduction. 
Ruskin.    Works,  library  ed.  xi,  376,  note. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    April-June,  1917.    2d  ser.,  xxi  (2),  229; 

July-Sept.,  1917.  xxi  (3),  358;  Jan.-March,  1918.   2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 
Bell,  Mrs.  A.    Tintoretto.    New  York,  n.  d.    p.  xliv.  (Newnes'  art  library.) 

(Belonging  to  Mrs.  Arthur  Severn.) 
Holborn.    107. 
Holborn.    In  Bryan's  Dictionary  of  painters  and  engravers,  new  ed.  1904. 

iv,  262. 


POLIDORO  DA  LANCIANO 

1515-1565 

Polidoro  de  Renzi  da  Lanciano,  the  Venetian  painter,  belonged  to 
a  family  who  came  originally  from  Lanciano,  a  town  of  the  Abruzzi. 
His  grandfather,  Alessandro  Renzi,  was  a  vase  painter.  Polidoro 
was  born  in  1 5 1 5  and  spent  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in  Venice.  He 
was  one  of  the  most  pleasing  of  the  followers  of  Titian.  He  shows 
also  the  influence  of  Bonifazio,  Pordenone,  and  Paolo  Veronese.  He 
died  in  Venice  in  1565. 

In  addition  to  the  Fogg  Museum  painting,  Polidoro  is  represented 
in  this  country  by  the  Holy  Family  and  Saints  owned  by  Professor 
Palmer  of  Cambridge;  by  pictures  in  the  Holden  collection,  Cleve- 
land, and  the  collection  of  Henry  Walters,  Baltimore. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Baxzano,  V.    Polidoro  de  Renzi  di  Lanciano,  pittore.    Rassegna  d'  arte  degli 

Abruzzi  e  del  Molise.    Rome,  March,  1912.  i  (1),  20-26. 
Berenson,  B.    Opere  attribuite  a  Polidoro  de  Renzi  di  Lanciano.    Rassegna 

d'  arte  degli  Abruzzi  e  del  Molise.    Rome,  June,  1912.    i  (2),  33-34. 
Ffoulkes,  C.  J.    La  collezione  Mond.    L'Arte.    Rome,  May- June,  191 1.  xiv 

(3),  172-173. 
Gronau,  G.     Uber  die  Herkunf  t  des  Malers  Polidoro  Veneziano.    Repert.  f. 

Kunstw.    Berlin,  1910.   xxxiii  (6),  545-546. 
Ludwig,  G.     Bonifazio  di  Pitati  da  Verona,     ii.  Die  Schuler  Bonifazios  — 

Polidoro  da  Lanzano.    Jahr.  d.  kon.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.   Berlin,  1901. 

xxii  (3),  196-198. 

49     MADONNA  AND  CHILD  AND  SAINT  JEROME 
Oil  on  canvas.    H.  28|  in.    W.  35!  in.     (72.2  X  90.2  cm.) 

Although  distinctly  inferior  in  quality,  in  its  present  condition  at 
any  rate,  this  picture  is  characteristic  of  the  method  practised  in 
Venice  by  the  masters  influenced  by  Titian.  The  Madonna's  gown 
is  a  fine  red,  very  dark  and  neutral  in  the  shadows.  This  same  colour 
is  carried  into  the  other  half  of  the  picture  by  means  of  the  cardinal's 
hat  of  Saint  Jerome.  The  mantle  of  the  Madonna  is  a  dark  blue 
green,  lined  with  orange  yellow.  Her  hood  is  a  neutral  grayish  green. 
The  Child  rests  on  a  white  drapery  which  is  seen  mostly  in  shadow. 
The  page  of  Saint  Jerome's  book,  his  right  sleeve,  and  his  beard,  to- 


234  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

gether  with  the  clouds  in  the  sky,  carry  this  tone  through  the  picture. 
Saint  Jerome's  mantle  is  similar  to  the  Madonna's  in  colour,  and  the 
lion  introduces  a  note  of  dark  brown.  The  trees  are  of  a  rather  fine 
neutral  green  and  the  prevailing  tone  of  the  distant  landscape  of  the 
mountains  and  sky  is  a  grayish  blue.  The  flesh  tones  show  the  typi- 
cal warm  golden  glaze  used  by  Titian  and  his  followers. 

The  picture  was  at  one  time  in  the  collection  of  Charles  C.  Perkins, 
who  bought  it  in  Italy  some  time  between  the  years  1850  and  i860. 
It  was  bought  and  placed  in  the  Museum  in  191 1. 

The  painting  shows  the  favourite  Venetian  Cinquecento  treat- 
ment, evolved  originally  by  Mantegna  and  developed  in  Venice  by 
Palma,  of  the  Madonna  and  Child  and  saints  brought  down  to  earth 
and  represented  in  an  intimate,  informal  relationship,  in  an  out-of- 
doors  setting.  The  types  and  the  general  point  of  view  of  the  picture 
as  well  as  the  technical  handling  are  reminiscent  of  Titian.  The 
figures  are  treated  as  masses  of  light  and  shade  in  the  foreground,  and 
the  landscape,  the  sky,  mountains,  and  trees,  are  rendered  as  a  sort 
of  conventional  tapestry  background  to  enhance  the  beauty  of  the 
figures.  But  neither  in  the  figures  nor  in  the  background  are  the 
values  exactly  true  to  nature  from  the  modern  standpoint,  though 
they  successfully  and  adequately  tell  the  story,  and  give  the  feeling 
of  figures  seated  in  front  of  trees  and  in  the  distance  a  mountain 
landscape  against  a  sombre  sky. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Art  and  archaeology.    July,  1915.  22. 

Berenson.    Rassegna  d'  arte  degtt  Abruzzi  e  del  Molise.    June,  191 2.    34. 
Boston.    Museum  or  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    39. 


49     POLIDORO    DA   LANCIANO 


50     LEANDRO   BASSANO 


LEANDRO  BASSANO 

J557  (?)-i622 

Leandro  da  Ponte,  called  Bassano,belonged  to  a  family  of  painters 
active  in  Venice  in  the  latter  part  of  the  xvi  and  the  beginning  of  the 
xvn  century.  The  most  important  member  of  the  family  was 
Jacopo,  the  father  of  Leandro.  Jacopo  introduced  genre  scenes  of 
country  life  into  Italian  art  and  was  a  naturalistic  landscape  and 
animal  painter  of  great  technical  ability,  also  a  painter  of  portraits. 
Leandro  Bassano,  born  probably  in  1557,  was  the  most  talented  of 
Jacopo's  four  sons.  He  was  trained  in  his  father's  workshop  and 
inherited  his  father's  technical  ability.  He  painted  in  Bassano  and 
Venice  and  was  chiefly  noted  for  his  portraits;  he  also  painted  his- 
tories —  among  them  the  Meeting  of  Pope  Alexander  in  with  the 
Doge  Sebastiano  Ziani,  in  the  Doge's  Palace  —  and  religious  and 
genre  subjects.  He  died  in  1622.  The  Bassani,  like  all  other  Venetian 
painters  of  that  day,  were  profoundly  influenced  by  the  geniuses  of 
the  time,  and  applied  to  their  genre  paintings  the  methods  of  Titian 
and  Tintoretto. 

In  this  country  Leandro  Bassano  is  represented  in  the  John  G. 
Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia;  in  the  Holden  collection,  Cleve- 
land; and  in  the  Fogg  Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Geeola,  G.    In  Thieme-Becker.    Ktinstler-Lexikon.    Leipsic,  1909.    iii,  7-8. 

Bassano.    Bergamo,  1910.    119-121.     (Italia  artistica,  59.) 
Veeci,  G.  B.    Notizie  intorno  alia  vita  e  alle  opere  de'  pittori,  scultori,  e  inta- 

gliatori  della  citta.  di  Bassano.    Venice,  1775.    182-206. 
Zottmann.L.   Zur  Kunst  der  Bassani.   Strasburg,  1908.    58-66.    (ZurKunst- 

geschichte  des  Auslandes,  57.) 

SO    CHRIST  APPEARING  TO  A  NOBLEMAN 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  30I  in.    W.  44  in.    (76.8  X  111.7  cm.) 

The  picture  is  sombre  in  tone  and  is  lighted  up  by  certain  highly 
illuminated  spots.  Christ  appears  in  a  lemon  yellow  opening  in  the 
clouds.  He  wears  a  rose  red  tunic  and  a  blue  green  mantle,  which  is 
similar  in  colour  to  the  heavy  clouds  in  the  sky,  and  as  his  mantle 
appears  against  the  brownish  tones  of  the  clouds  where  they  burst 


23 6  VENETIAN  PAINTING 

asunder,  it  counts  as  a  brilliant  colour.  Christ's  face  appears  to  be 
highly  illuminated,  although  it  is  seen  in  relief  against  the  yellow, 
which  is  still  lighter.  Just  at  the  horizon  is  an  orange  streak  of 
light  on  the  western  sky.  The  nobleman  to  whom  the  apparition 
appears  is  clad  in  a  dark  mantle  and  his  ruddy  face  is  relieved  against 
the  heavy  clouds.  The  dog  is  brown  and  white  and  the  pillars  and 
steps  together  with  the  rest  of  the  landscape  are  of  a  grayish  green. 

The  painting  came  from  the  collection  of  an  English  country 
clergyman,  who  obtained  it  from  the  Wilson  collection  in  Yorkshire. 
It  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1910. 

This  picture,  even  more  than  the  Polidoro,  shows  the  practice  of 
the  Venetian  painters  of  placing  a  face  as  a  mass  of  light  against  a 
dark  tapestry-like  landscape  background. 

In  the  left  hand  of  Christ  is  an  orb  or  globe  surmounted  by  a  cross. 
The  orb  was  a  symbol  of  sovereignty  and  is  said  to  have  been  as- 
sumed by  the  Emperor  Augustus.  It  was  always  borne  in  the  left 
hand.  The  cross,  symbol  of  faith,  was  added  by  Constantine.  This 
symbol  appears  early  in  art. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1914.  2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Berenson.    Catalogue  of  a  collection  of  paintings  and  other  art  objects  (John 

G.  Johnson  collection);  Italian  paintings,    i,  p.  132. 
Boston.    Museum  op  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    39. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.     703-704. 


SPANISH  PAINTING 


SPANISH  PAINTING 

PAINTING  reached  the  height  of  its  development  in  Spain  later 
than  in  the  neighbouring  peninsula  of  Italy.  It  was  not  until 
the  xvrr  century  that  the  art  reached  its  most  complete  national 
expression.  Yet  throughout  its  history  Spanish  painting  has  a 
distinctive,  if  somewhat  strange  and  exotic  appeal. 

Spanish  art  was  always  peculiarly  susceptible  to  foreign  influences. 
Moorish,  French,  Italian,  Flemish,  and  German  elements  made  their 
way  into  the  country  and  left  their  impress  —  but  in  their  turn  they 
were  moulded  by  the  strongly  marked  individuality  of  the  Spanish 
people  and  helped  to  form  a  national  art. 

The  ruling  factor  in  the  life  of  Spain  was  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church.  In  the  struggle  against  the  Moors  the  people  came  to  re- 
gard themselves  as  the  chosen  defenders  of  the  true  faith,  and  with 
the  driving  out  of  the  infidel  this  feeling  became  intensified.  A 
fervid  Catholicism  developed,  together  with  a  spirit  of  religious 
ecstasy  and  mysticism  which  gradually  became  self-conscious  and 
sentimental.  The  Spaniard  was  a  "  pietistic  dreamer."  Force  of 
circumstances  however  made  of  him  a  practical  man  of  action  as 
well.  The  painting  of  Spain  reflects  both  these  characteristics.  The 
fervid  and  somewhat  exaggerated  religious  sentiment  is  seen  at  its 
height  in  the  work  of  the  Valencian  master  Ribera  and  of  Murillo. 
Naturalism,  apparent  even  in  the  early  xrv  century  paintings, 
reached  its  fullest  expression  in  the  xvn  century  in  the  work  of 
Velazquez.  The  fact  that  painting  was  primarily  devoted  to  the 
service  of  the  Church  furthered  the  naturalistic  spirit,  as  the 
Church's  teachings  had  to  be  so  rendered  that  all  might  read. 

The  Spaniard  was  by  nature  gloomy  and  melancholy,  so  a  strain  of 
the  gruesome  is  apparent  in  Spanish  painting,  as  in  the  realistic  re- 
presentations of  martyrdoms  by  Ribera.  The  gravity  of  the  race  also 
reacted  upon  the  colours  of  painting,  which  tended  on  the  whole  in 
the  most  characteristically  national  period  to  dark  and  sombre  tints. 
As  already  stated,  painting  was  primarily  devoted  to  the  service  of 


240 


SPANISH  PAINTING 


Luis  Borrassd 
1366  (?)-i424 
Master  of 
St.  George 
active  1430 


the  Church  —  in  contrast  to  Italy,  with  the  exception  of  the  por- 
traiture of  the  xvi  and  xvn  centuries,  few  profane  subjects  were 
represented.  Landscape  painting  was  practically  unknown  to  Span- 
ish art,  until  in  the  xvn  century  Italy  taught  its  beauty  to  Velazquez. 

Though  the  painting  of  Spain  as  a  whole  has  its  distinctive,  indi- 
vidual character,  there  are  local  differences  which  divide  it  into  cer- 
tain main  groups  or  schools;  in  the  east  the  Aragonese  group,  which 
included  Aragon,  Catalonia,  and  Valencia;  in  the  south  the  Andalu- 
sian  school,  and  in  the  central  and  northwestern  part  of  Spain  the 
school  of  Castile. 

In  general,  the  Catalan  school  with  Barcelona  as  its  centre  held 
the  leading  place  through  the  xv  century,  although  Andalusia  pro- 
duced Vermejo,  the  greatest  of  Spanish  primitives.  Valencia  was 
prominent  in  the  xvi  century;  in  the  xvn  century  the  schools  of 
Valencia,  of  Seville  in  Andalusia,  and  of  Madrid  in  Castile  each 
produced  important  masters.  Painting  in  general  passed  through 
three  main  phases  —  the  early  period  of  varied  outside  influences, 
chiefly  Italian,  Flemish,  and  French,  or  rather  International;  the 
period  of  Italian  classicism  in  the  xvi  century;  and  the  so-called 
Golden  Age  of  the  xvn  century,  when  the  national  art  is  seen  in  its 
fullest  expression. 

In  the  east,  in  the  Catalan  school,  through  the  xiv  and  the  early 
part  of  the  xv  century,  Italian  influence  prevailed  —  in  a  slight  de- 
gree that  of  Florence,  but  chiefly  the  influence  of  Siena,  which  was 
introduced  through  trade  with  Italy  and  which  also  spread  from  the 
school  of  Simone  Martini  at  Avignon,  bringing  with  it  the  courtliness, 
splendour,  quaint  realism,  and  picturesque  detail  of  the  International 
movement.  Native  characteristics  of  the  Catalan  school  were  the 
love  of  the  ornate  —  seen  in  the  use  of  gold  backgrounds,  gold  orna- 
mentation, and  magnificent  brocades  —  and  the  feeling  for  formal 
design.  These  qualities  appear  in  the  work  of  Luis  Borrassa.  A 
noteworthy  painting,  probably  of  the  Catalan  school,  dating  from 
about  1430,  by  the  so-called  Master  of  Saint  George,  is  a  triptych  — 
the  central  panel  of  which,  representing  Saint  George  and  the  Dragon, 
is  in  Barcelona,  the  wings  in  the  Louvre.  This  picture  is  mod- 
elled almost  exactly  after  a  French  miniature  in  the  Andr6  collection, 
Paris,  and  shows  the  qualities  of  the  International  school  —  its  use 
of  contemporary  costume,  its  smiling  landscape,  and  gay  naturalism 


SPANISH  PAINTING 


241 


—  but  the  raised  and  gilded  stucco  ornamentation  on  the  panel  be- 
trays its  Spanish  origin. 

In  western  Spain  —  Castile  and  Andalusia  —  during  the  xrv  and 
first  half  of  the  xv  century,  although  a  Sienese  element  is  apparent, 
Florentine  influence  prevailed,  probably  introduced  by  Stamina,  the 
master  of  Masolino,  and  later  by  Dello  Delli  of  Florence,  who  came 
to  Spain  about  1432  and  brought  more  of  the  influence  of  the  Italian 
Renaissance.   In  the  second  half  of  the  xv  century,  Flemish  influence 

—  particularly  "from  the  school  of  Tournai  —  superseded  that  of 
Florence,  and  made  a  much  stronger  impression  than  the  Italian 
influence  had  made.  Flemish  pictures  and  tapestries  became  the 
fashion  and  were  imported  into  Spain,  and  native  artists  absorbed 
the  foreign  models.  Flemish  tonality,  oil  technique,  and  feeling  for 
realism  spread  throughout  the  west.  To  this  period  belongs  the 
greatest  of  Spanish  primitive  painters,  Bartolom6  Vermejo,  of 
Cordova  in  Andalusia,  who  combined  Flemish  and  native  character- 
istics with  the  Italian  feeling  for  beauty,  and  whose  best  work  ranks 
with  that  of  any  of  his  Italian  or  Flemish  contemporaries.  His 
Saint  Michael,  in  the  Wernher  collection,  London,  is  one  of  the  finest 
of  Spanish  paintings. 

Flemish  elements  were  introduced  into  eastern  Spain  also  in  the 
second  half  of  the  xv  century,  as  is  seen  in  a  certain  stimulus  to 
realism  and  the  occasional  use  of  oil  technique;  but  in  the  main  the 
painters  of  this  period  did  not  employ  the  Flemish  medium,  and 
kept  largely  to  the  gold  backgrounds  and  elaborate  ornamentation 
of  the  earlier  Catalan  painting,  making  free  use  of  gilded  reliefs  to 
enhance  the  richness  of  their  panels.  Luis  Dalmau  was  a  close  imita- 
tor of  Jan  van  Eyck,  but  continued  the  old  method  of  tempera  paint- 
ing. A  family  of  painters  by  the  name  of  Vergos,  who  worked  from 
about  1434  to  1503,  raised  painting  in  Catalonia  to  a  high  level. 
Their  pictures  show  the  Catalan  tendency  to  overload  with  gold,  but 
many  of  their  altarpieces  have  fine  and  realistic  portrait  heads  and 
are  characterized  by  quiet  dignity  and  strength. 

During  the  last  thirty  years  of  the  xv  century  and  in  the  beginning 
of  the  xvi  century  the  full-fledged  Italian  Renaissance  entered  Spain, 
appearing  first  in  Valencia  in  the  work  of  a  Master  Roderigo,  a 
transitional  painter,  and  his  son,  Master  Roderigo  n,  and  in  Fer- 
rando  de  Llanos  and  Ferrando  Yanez,  both  of  whom  modelled  them- 


Barlolomi 
Vermeio 
active  late 
xv  c. 


Luis  Dalmau 
active 
1428-1460 
Vergds  family 
active 
1434-1503 
Master 
Roderigo 
active  late 
xv  c. 
Master 
Roderigo  II 
active  early 
xvi  c. 

Ferrando  de 
Llanos,  active 

i5°5-i525 
Ferrando 
Yanez,  active 
I505-I53I 


242 


SPANISH  PAINTING 


Pedro 

Berruguete 

active 

1483-1504 

Juan  de 

Borgona 

active 

1495-1533 


Juan  de 
Juanes 

1507(J)-I579 

Luis  de 

Vargas 

1502-1568 

Luis  de 

Morales 

ah.  1500-1586 


Alonso 

Sanchez 

Coetto 

ah.  I5I5-I5QO 

Juan  Pantoja 

de  la  Cruz 

1551V)- 

i6oq(?) 

Francisco 

Pacheco 

1571-1654 

Francisco  de 

Herrera  the 

Eider 

1576-1656 

Francisco  de 

Ribalta 

ah.  1551-1628 


selves  on  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  In  Castile,  Pedro  Berruguete,  who 
painted  altarpieces  for  the  inquisitor  Torquemada,  represented 
Italianism,  combined  with  Flemish  elements  and  the  native  Spanish 
mysticism.  With  Berruguete  at  Toledo  worked  Juan  de  Borgona, 
who  had  studied  in  Italy  where  he  perhaps  had  been  a  pupil  of  Ghir- 
landaio.  Through  Italian  influence  he  painted  in  fresco  and  brought 
into  Spain  the  lovely  Italian  garden  backgrounds.  The  second  stage 
of  Italian  influence  dates  from  about  1525  to  1575,  when  Spain,  like 
every  other  European  country,  was  permeated  with  classicism.  The 
great  Italian  masters  were  imitated,  and  conventional  forms  and 
canons  grew  up,  based  on  the  works  of  Raphael,  Leonardo,  and 
Michelangelo.  To  this  period  belong  a  number  of  painters  whose 
works  are  dull  and  lacking  in  interest,  among  them  Juan  de  Juanes 
of  Valencia,  Luis  de  Vargas  of  Seville,  and  Luis  de  Morales  of  Mad- 
rid. Towards  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Philip  11  more  direct  Italian 
influence  entered  Spain  through  the  Italian  artists  whom  Philip 
imported  to  work  in  his  palace  of  the  Escorial.  The  Flemish  portrait 
painter  Antonio  Moro  also  came  to  Madrid.  He  had  been  court 
painter  to  Charles  v  in  Flanders  in  1552.  Moro's  "  hard  "  manner 
was  admirably  suited  to  the  stiff,  unbending  royalty  of  Spain.  He 
trained  two  able  Spanish  masters,  Alonso  Sanchez  Coello,  who 
successfully  assimilated  the  "  hard  "  technique,  and  Juan  Pantoja 
da  la  Cruz.  A  slight  beginning  of  naturalism  appeared  in  Seville  in 
the  work  of  Francisco  Pacheco,  the  second  master  of  Velazquez,  but 
Pacheco's  pictures  are  of  less  importance  than  his  teachings  which  he 
embodied  in  a  work,  Arte  de  la  Pintura.  This  book  contains  also  a 
wealth  of  anecdote  in  regard  to  Spanish  painters  of  the  day.  Fran- 
cisco de  Herrera  the  Elder,  the  first  master  of  Velazquez,  to  a  certain 
extent  abandoned  classicism  for  naturalism.  He  was  the  first  to 
paint  the  so-called  Bodegones,  "  shop  pictures,"  or  scenes  of  popular 
life,  a  type  which  he  handed  on  to  his  pupil  Velazquez. 

About  1575  definite  reaction  against  classicism  appeared  in  Valen- 
cia in  the  work  of  Francisco  de  Ribalta,  who  founded  his  style  largely 
on  that  of  Correggio  and  the  painters  of  the  Eclectic  school  who 
initiated  the  revolt  against  classicism  in  Italy.  Ribalta  was  partic- 
ularly influenced  by  the  naturalism  of  the  Caravaggi,  and  their  so- 
called  tenebroso  manner,  in  which  the  greater  part  of  the  canvas  was 
painted  in  deep  shadow  and  certain  other  parts  in  bright  light 


SPANISH  PAINTING 


243 


relieved  against  the  dark.  The  Valencian  school  culminated  in  the 
xvn  century  in  the  work  of  Jusepe  de  Ribera,  who  was  a  pupil  of 
Ribalta  and  who  also  studied  in  Italy.  In  Ribera  the  tenebroso 
manner  was  carried  to  an  extreme,  and  in  his  work  the  reaction 
against  classicism  resulted  in  an  excessive  naturalism,  in  which 
scenes  of  bloody  martyrdoms  were  portrayed  in  all  their  dreadful 
details.  Ribera  also  illustrates  Spanish  religious  fervour  carried  to 
the  point  of  extreme  sentimentality;  but  he  was  a  master  of  com- 
position and  drawing,  as  is  seen  in  such  a  work  as  the  Holy  Trinity 
in  the  Escorial. 

In  Castile  the  revolt  against  classicism  was  incarnated  in  El  Greco 
(Domenico  Theotocopuli),  so  called  because  of  his  Cretan  origin,  who 
combined  Italian  influence  —  particularly  that  of  Tintoretto  and 
Michelangelo  —  with  certain  Greek  elements,  and  a  weird,  feverish 
power  of  his  own.  He  is  perhaps  seen  at  his  best  in  his  portraits, 
which  are  piercing  characterizations  of  the  haughty,  morose  Spanish 
noblemen  of  his  day.  In  El  Greco's  other  works  his  bizarre  origi- 
nality led  him  into  strange  extravagances  of  line,  colour,  and  lighting. 
He  believed  that  fantastic  drawing  and  harsh,  discordant  colour 
were  permissible  for  the  sake  of  attaining  the  desired  effect,  and 
sought  to  portray  the  supernatural  by  means  of  the  unnatural.  In 
his  readiness  to  sacrifice  truth  of  representation  to  expression,  he 
was  the  forerunner  of  the  modern  Post-Impressionist.  His  art  did 
not  have  a  marked  influence  on  Spanish  painting. 

The  great  master  of  the  school  of  Madrid  in  the  xvn  century,  and 
one  of  the  world's  greatest  painters,  was  Diego  Velazquez.  In  con- 
trast to  the  passionate,  "  temperamental "  El  Greco,  he  was  im- 
personal and  a  realist,  basing  his  work  on  a  minute  and  scrupulous 
study  of  nature.  His  colour  is  clear  and  beautiful;  at  times  he  used 
subdued  gray  and  silver  tones,  and  again  he  painted  in  richer  and  more 
brilliant  harmonies.  He  was  a  master  of  light  and  shade,  and  his 
brush  work,  whether  in  his  more  finished  early  manner  or  in  his  later 
more  impressionistic  painting,  was  sure  and  sound.  In  all  his  works, 
his  incomparable  portraits  of  the  degenerate  and  melancholy  House 
of  Hapsburg,  his  scenes  of  religious  genre,  his  great  historical  picture 
of  the  Surrender  of  Breda,  his  lovely,  simple  Italian  landscapes,  he 
reveals  a  mastery  of  technique  which  has  been  the  model  and  wonder 
of  artists  ever  since. 


Jusepe  de 

Ribera 

1588-1656 


El  Greco 
1545/50-1625 


Diego 

Velazquez 

15Q9-1660 


244 


SPANISH  PAINTING 


Bartolomi 
EsUban 
Murillo 
1618-1682 

Francisco  de 

Zurbardn 

15Q8-1663 

Alonso  Cano 
1601-166J 
Juan  de 
V  aide's  Leal 
1630-16QI 


Juan  Bautisla 
del  Mazo 
1615-1667 
Juan  Carreno 
de  Miranda 
1614-1685 

Mateo  Cerezo 
1635-1685 

Claudio 

Coello 

i623{?)-i6q3 

Francisco 

Goya  y 

Lucientes 

1746-1828 


In  contrast  to  Velazquez  is  Murillo  of  Seville,  simple  and  devout, 
famous  for  his  series  of  Immaculate  Conceptions  and  other  religious 
paintings,  but  whose  best  work  is  perhaps  to  be  seen  in  his  pictures 
of  genre.  No  one  has  rendered  more  delightfully  than  he  the  charm 
of  light-hearted  Latin  childhood.  Zurbaran,  Murillo's  contempor- 
ary, was  primarily  a  monastic  painter,  at  his  best  in  the  rendering  of 
single  figures.  He  was  provincial,  but  honest  and  sincere,  and  re- 
presented a  restrained  and  sober  phase  of  Spanish  religious  feeling. 
Other  painters  of  the  school  of  Seville,  who  rank  only  a  little  below 
Murillo  and  Zurbaran,  were  Alonso  Cano  of  Granada,  and  Juan  de 
Valdes  Leal,  who  in  his  eagerness  to  represent  grace  and  beauty 
became  baroque. 

Followers  of  Velazquez  were  Juan  Bautista  del  Mazo,  who  closely 
reproduced  his  master's  style  and  who  holds  an  important  place  in 
the  history  of  Spanish  painting;  Juan  Carreno  de  Miranda,  who  was 
court  painter  to  Charles  rr,  and  whose  best  claim  to  recognition  is 
found  in  his  portraits,  in  which  he  shows  the  influence  of  Velazquez 
and  of  van  Dyck;  and  Mateo  Cerezo,  who  shows  a  more  pronounced 
influence  of  van  Dyck  in  his  religious  paintings,  but  whose  work  is 
obvious  and  artificial.  The  last  name  of  any  consequence  in  the 
school  is  that  of  Claudio  Coello,  who  succeeded  Carreno  as  court 
painter.  Decadence  had  already  set  in;  and  for  about  one  hundred 
years  the  art  of  the  peninsula  was  dead.  With  Goya,  however,  in  the 
second  half  of  the  xvni  century,  came  its  rebirth,  and  the  school 
entered  into  a  new  period  of  vitality.  M  E  q 

Spanish  painting  is  represented  in  the  Fogg  Museum  by  the  picture  num- 
bered 51  in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch  the  following  are  rep- 
resented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John 
L.  Gardner,  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Spanish  school,  end  or  xv  century,  Coro- 
nation of  the  Madonna.  (This  picture  has  been  attributed  to  Borrassa  but  is 
possibly  of  a  slightly  later  date.)  Ribera,  Saint  Sebastian,  Mocking  of  Christ, 
Philosopher;  El  Greco,  Portrait;  Velazquez,  Portrait  of  Don  Balthazar 
Carlos  and  his  Dwarf. 

Fenway  Court:  Attributed  to  Vermejo,  Santa  Engracia.  (By  some  critics 
attributed  to  Vermejo  himself,  by  others  to  an  Aragonese  pupil  of  his,  the 
Master  of  Santo  Domingo.)  School  of  the  Vergos,  Saint  Michael  overcom- 
ing Satan;  Alonso  Sanchez  Coello,  Portrait  of  Anne  of  Austria  and  her 
Mother;  Velazquez,  Portrait  of  Pope  Innocent  x;  Zurbaran,  Portrait  of  a 
Student  of  Salamanca. 


SPANISH  PAINTING 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 


24S 


Beruete  y  Moret,  A.  de.   The  school  of  Madrid.   New  York,  1909. 

Caffin,  C.  H.    The  story  of  Spanish  painting.    New  York,  1910. 

Dietjlafoy,  M.  Art  in  Spain  and  Portugal.  New  York,  1913.  (Ars  una; 
species  mille.) 

Justi,  C.  Miscellaneen  aus  drei  Jahrhunderten  spanischen  Kunstlebens.  Ber- 
lin, 1908.  2  v. 

Mayer,  A.  L.    Geschichte  der  spanischen  Malerei.    Leipsic,  1913.   2  v. 

Sanpere  y  Miqtjel,  S.  Los  Cuatrocentistas  Catalanes;  historia  de  la  pintura 
en  Catalufia  en  el  siglo  xv.    Barcelona,  1906.   2  v. 

Sentenach  y  Cabanas,  N.  The  painting  of  the  school  of  Seville.  New  York, 
191 1.     (Library  of  art.) 

Stirling-Maxwell,  W.   Annals  of  the  artists  of  Spain.    London,  1891.  4  v. 


JUAN  DE  BURGOS 

xv  century,  second  quarter 

Juan  de  Burgos  is  a  little-known  Spanish  painter,  active  probably 
in  the  second  quarter  of  the  xv  century.  No  other  pictures  by  his 
hand  can  be  identified.  Attributed  to  him  is  a  half-length  figure  of 
Saint  Blaise,  No.  13  in  the  Catalogue  of  Ancient  Paintings  sold  by 
the  Kleinberger  Galleries,  January  23,  1918. 

Si     THE  ANNUNCIATION 

Tempera  on  panel. 

Gabriel  panel,  H.  36  in.    W.  13^  in.     (91.5  X  33.9  cm.) 
Virgin  panel,  H.  36!  in.    W.  13A  in.     (91-8  X  33.9  cm.) 

The  same  blue  that  appears  in  the  Virgin's  mantle  is  used  in 
Gabriel's  wings  and  in  the  lining  of  his  olive  green  cloak.  It  is  possible 
that  the  present  blue  of  Mary's  mantle  is  painted  over  the  original, 
as  there  are  traces  of  a  rich  texture  of  brocade  showing  underneath 
the  blue.  The  green  of  the  Virgin's  gold  and  olive  green  gown  is 
similar  in  colour  to  Gabriel's  mantle,  and  the  vermilion  of  the  inside 
of  the  angel's  wing  is  similar  to  the  colour  in  the  decorative  gold  and 
red  brocade  over  the  prie-Dieu  at  which  the  Virgin  kneels.  Gabriel 
wears  a  bluish  white  robe  and  both  he  and  Mary  have  orange  yellow 
hair.  On  the  white  scroll  borne  by  the  angel  is  inscribed  in  blue 
letters  his  greeting:  Ave  Maria  Gratia  Plena. 

Both  panels  have  gold  backgrounds,  incised,  and  pavements  of 
violet  red  shading  into  neutral  red  orange.  The  Gabriel  panel  is 
signed:  maistre  ju  de  burgos  pitor. 

The  panels  are  in  their  original  richly  carved  Gothic  frames.  They 
were  acquired  by  the  late  Sir  Charles  Robinson  in  Madrid  about 
1870.  In  1916  they  were  purchased  by  a  member  of  the  Society  of 
Friends  of  the  Fogg  Museum,  who  has  placed  them  in  the  Museum 
as  a  permanent  loan. 

In  general,  representations  of  the  Annunciation  before  the  xn  cen- 
tury are  rare,  but  after  the  beginning  of  the  xm  century  they  become 
very  frequent,  appearing  somewhere  on  almost  every  altarpiece  —  in 
medallions  or  quatrefoils  above  the  main  panels,  in  the  pinnacles  or 
in  the  predella,  or  painted  or  carved  on  the  outside  of  the  shutters. 


HHUfl 


i!lmnlT&M!i 


51     JUAN   DE   BURGOS 


JUAN  DE  BURGOS  247 

The  subject  was  often  treated  as  a  mystery,  not  as  an  actual  scene. 
Generally  only  the  Virgin  and  angel  were  represented,  although  it 
was  not  unusual  to  find  other  figures.  From  the  end  of  the  xiv  until 
the  xvi  century  God  the  Father  is  often  seen  in  the  sky,  and  the  Dove 
of  the  Holy  Spirit  descends  from  Him  to  the  Virgin  on  rays  of  light. 
The  Virgin  was  represented  seated,  standing,  about  to  rise  at  the 
approach  of  the  angel,  or  kneeling.  Gabriel  was  pictured  standing  or 
kneeling  before  her,  or  just  alighting  on  the  earth,  his  feet  not  yet 
touching  the  ground.  In  the  xm  century  representations,  notably 
in  the  painted  glass  windows,  the  Virgin  and  the  angel  stand  face  to 
face;  later  the  Italian  artists  represented  the  scene  as  taking  place  in 
an  open  loggia,  while  the  Flemish  artists  painted  the  Virgin  in  medi- 
tation in  her  room  when  the  angel  appeared  to  her.  Before  the  xm 
century  Mary  was  often  represented  with  a  basket  of  wool  or  a  dis- 
taff as,  according  to  the  Protevangelion,  she  continued  to  spin  for  the 
temple  after  she  had  become  affianced  to  Joseph,  and  was  working 
when  the  angel  came.  Gabriel  bears  the  light  staff  or  sceptre  of  a 
herald,  a  scroll  on  which  is  inscribed  his  greeting,  an  olive  branch,  or 
a  stalk  of  lilies.  The  lily  probably  was  developed  from  a  flower  with 
a  long  stalk  which  was  introduced  during  the  xm  century,  appearing 
in  glass  painting  and  miniatures  and  signifying  springtime,  "  the 
time  of  flowers  "  when  the  Annunciation  took  place.  Later,  lilies 
were  used  to  symbolize  the  purity  of  the  Virgin,  and  were  placed  in  a 
jar  or  vase  near  her  or  were  carried  by  the  angel.  In  Spain  the  vase 
of  lilies  was  almost  essential  to  representations  of  the  Annunciation, 
and  became  the  special  and  distinguishing  attribute  of  the  Virgin. 
The  Spanish  order  of  the  Lily  of  Aragon,  established  by  Ferdinand  of 
Castile  in  commemoration  of  a  victory  over  the  Moors  in  1410,  had 
for  its  badge  "pots  filled  with  white  lilies  interlaced  with  griffins,  to 
which  was  pendent  a  medal  having  thereon  an  image  of  the  Virgin 
Mary."  In  Italy  neither  the  vase  of  lilies  nor  the  stalk  was  con- 
sidered essential  in  representations  of  the  Annunciation,  although 
they  are  of  frequent  occurrence.  Certain  of  the  Florentine  artists, 
notably  Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  represented  both.  Ghirlandaio,  in  his 
Annunciation  at  San  Gimignano,  placed  a  vase  beside  the  Virgin's 
desk  and  combined  other  flowers  —  roses,  daisies,  and  jasmine  — 
with  the  lilies.     The  angel  bears  the  lily  stalk. 


248  SPANISH  PAINTING 

There  are  five  representations  of  the  Annunciation  in  this  Gallery, 
and  a  fragment  of  a  sixth  (No.  11),  which  illustrate  the  various 
ways  of  treating  the  subject.  In  all  of  these  pictures  the  Virgin  is 
represented  with  a  book.  The  legend  is  that  she  was  studying  the 
book  of  the  prophet  Isaiah,  and  was  just  reading  the  verse,  "  Be- 
hold, a  Virgin  shall  conceive  and  bear  a  Son,"  when  the  angel  ap- 
peared to  her. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Athenaeum.    London,  Jan.  4,  1896.    No.  3558.    24. 

EXHIBITED 

Royal  Academy,  London.   1880.    No.  249. 

New  Gallery,  London.    Exhibition  of  Spanish  art,  1895-1896.    No.  4. 

Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club,  London.     1908.    No.  6. 

Grafton  Galleries,  London.    Exhibition  of  Spanish  old  masters,  Oct.,  1913,  to 

Jan.,  1914.    Catalogue,   p.  viii;  21-23,  No.  25.   Reproduction  (PI.  ix). 
Exhibition  of  primitive  pictures  at  the  galleries  of  Martin  Hofer,  New  York, 

Nov.,  1915.    Catalogue.    No.  5,  Reproduction  on  cover. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.   Jan.-March,  1918.   2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 
Bertaux,  E.    L'  exposition  espagnole  de  Londres.    Gazette  des  beaux-arts. 

Paris,  March,  1914.  40  per.,  xi  (681),  253,  note  1,  No.  25. 
Bertjete  y  Moret,  A.  de.    La  peinture  en  Espagne  et  en  Portugal.    L'art  et 

les  artistes.   Paris,  Sept.,  1912.    xv,  250. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Jan.  25,  1917.  328. 


GERMAN  PAINTING 


GERMAN  PAINTING 

PAINTING  in  Germany  was  of  the  highest  international  sig- 
nificance at  only  one  period  of  its  history,  namely  from  about 
1450  to  1550,  practically  from  the  birth  of  Schongauer  to  the  death 
of  Holbein  the  Younger.  In  this  it  contrasts  strongly  with  Italian 
painting,  which,  with  the  exception  of  a  short  period  after  the  death 
of  Giotto,  was  of  importance  from  its  beginning  in  the  xm  century, 
to  the  end  of  the  xvi  century,  and  made  its  influence  felt  even 
through  the  xvm  century.  But  as  in  Italy  there  were  a  number  of 
local  schools  varying  in  significance  and  development,  so  in  Germany 
from  1450  to  1500  there  were  various  independent  centres  of  art  held 
together  by  no  national  tie.  During  this  period,  foreign  influences, 
chiefly  Flemish,  were  at  work.  In  the  first  half  of  the  xvi  century, 
1 500-1 5  50,  painting  reached  its  high-water  mark,  and  local  traditions 
were  replaced  by  the  dominance  of  the  great  artistic  personalities  of 
Albrecht  Diirer  and  Hans  Holbein  the  Younger. 

In  contrast  to  Italy  —  as,  from  the  xm  century,  the  Gothic  archi- 
tecture of  the  north  did  not  admit  of  the  large  wall  spaces  necessary 
for  cycles  of  frescoes  —  in  Germany,  artists  were  concerned  chiefly 
with  altarpieces,  at  first  very  elaborate,  a  combination  of  painting 
and  sculpture  —  later,  after  about  1520,  of  simpler  form. 

The  conditions  which  surrounded  German  masters  were  different 
from  those  which  fostered  Italian  art.  Italian  painting  of  the  Renais- 
sance was  under  the  patronage  of  wealthy  court  nobles  and  princes; 
in  Germany,  the  bourgeois  class  was  in  the  ascendency.  In  the 
main,  therefore,  with  the  exception  of  commissions  executed  for  such 
princes  as  Frederick  the  Wise  of  Saxony,  Albrecht  of  Brandenburg, 
Emperor  Maximilian,  and  the  wealthy  merchants  of  Holbein's  day, 
German  artists  worked  for  the  middle  class  burgher,  who  cared  more 
for  the  story  a  picture  told  or  the  lesson  it  taught  than  for  its  intrinsic 
beauty.  Moreover,  in  Germany,  the  Reformation  exerted  an  in- 
fluence corresponding  to  that  of  the  Renaissance  in  Italy.  The 
Italians  discovered  everywhere  the  beauty  of  the  world  of  nature  and 
man  and  gave  expression  to  it.    The  Germans  were  concerned  with 


252 


GERMAN  PAINTING 


Master 

Wilkelm 

xiv  c,  2d  half 

Stephan 

Lochner 

active 

I430-I4SI 


the  inner  nature  of  man,  and  the  painter,  working  for  his  bourgeois 
patron,  aimed  to  express  the  character  and  feeling  of  man,  and  had 
little  regard  for  beauty  as  a  thing  to  be  sought  purely  in  itself.  "  The 
subtle  use  of  the  useless  "  had  no  place  in  the  German  scheme  of  life. 
So,  in  general,  the  art  which  developed  was  that  of  a  simple  people, 
lacking  the  Italian  feeling  for  beauty,  Italian  purity  of  taste  and 
sense  of  composition,  design,  and  colour.  German  painting  is  apt  to 
be  harsh  in  colour  and  crowded  and  restless  in  composition.  It  is 
didactic,  rugged,  somewhat  grim  and  gloomy,  but  always  sincere. 
It  is  imaginative,  and  in  some  instances  it  is  great. 

As  compared  with  Flemish  art,  painting  in  Germany  was,  with  the 
exception  of  the  work  of  Durer  and  Holbein,  less  minutely  beautiful 
in  workmanship,  although  similar  technical  methods  were  employed, 
and  —  save  for  that  of  the  early  school  of  Cologne  —  German  paint- 
ing was  less  spiritual,  less  mystic,  more  emotional  and  violent  than 
the  painting  of  Flanders. 

The  chief  schools  of  painting  in  Germany  were  the  school  of  Cologne 
in  the  north,  and  in  the  south  the  school  of  Nuremberg,  in  Franconia, 
and  the  Suabian  school,  the  chief  centres  of  which  were  Ulm  and  Augs- 
burg, and  in  the  upper  Rhine  district,  Colmar  and  Basle.  Cologne 
held  the  most  important  position  during  the  xrv  and  the  greater 
part  of  the  xv  century.  Up  to  about  1450  the  painting  of  the  school 
followed  the  Gothic  tradition  —  with  its  gold  backgrounds,  its  rich 
decoration,  its  supple,  flowing  line,  its  idealized  types  —  and  was 
really  International.  It  was  probably  a  development  of  Flemish 
miniature  painting,  and  kept  to  the  methods  and  technique  of  the 
illuminators  —  to  their  pure,  fresh  colour  and  delicacy  of  handling. 
The  influence  of  the  mystics  of  the  Rhine  provinces  is  seen  in  the 
early  painting.  A  certain  Master  Wilhelm —  a  generic  name  for  a 
group  of  painters  rather  than  the  name  of  an  individual —  and  later  a 
Suabian,  Stephan  Lochner,  who  came  to  Cologne  about  1430,  repre- 
sent this  idealistic  phase.  It  is  probable  that  Lochner  had  come  into 
contact  with  the  work  of  the  Flemish  masters,  but  this  influence  is 
only  superficially  apparent,  and  his  work,  in  its  naivete  of  feeling, 
,  its  delicacy,  and  its  poetic  spirit  belongs  to  an  earlier  age. 

After  Lochner  the  influence  of  the  Netherlands  dominated  the 
school  of  Cologne.  In  1450  Rogier  van  der  Weyden  went  to 
Italy  and  probably  visited  Cologne  on  his  way  home;  from  about 


GERMAN  PAINTING 


253 


this  time  Flemish  realism  made  slow  but  certain  progress.  To  this 
period  belong  various  anonymous  masters  called  after  the  names  of 
their  chief  works  or  of  the  churches  where  their  works  are  found. 
The  Master  of  the  Life  of  Mary  combined  Flemish  realism  with  some- 
thing of  the  idealism  of  the  school  of  Cologne,  and  from  his  pictures 
there  breathes  a  sincere  and  simple  religious  spirit  not  found  in  the 
later  works.  The  Master  of  the  Holy  Family  portrayed  the  every- 
day life  of  bourgeois  Germany  without  any  real  depth  of  feeling. 
Incidentally  he  was  the  first  painter  of  Cologne  to  whom  designs  for 
glass  painting  can  be  attributed;  three  windows  in  the  Cathedral 
were  executed  from  his  design,  and  show  him  to  have  had  fine  feeling 
for  colour  and  composition  and  decorative  effect.  The  Master  of 
Saint  Severin,  reacting  against  the  idealism  of  the  school  of  Cologne, 
carried  realism  almost  to  an  extreme.  The  Master  of  Saint  Bartholo- 
mew, of  Suabia,  was  an  original  and  vigorous  painter,  and  at  the 
same  time  simple  and  moving,  who  showed  a  close  connection  with 
the  Colmar  artist,  Martin  Schongauer.  Bartholomaus  Bruyn,  a 
Dutch  master  who  settled  in  Cologne,  came  under  Italian  influence 
which  in  general  had  an  unfortunate  effect  in  Germany.  Bruyn's 
best  works  were  his  able  portraits,  a  number  of  which  have  come 
down  to  us  dating  from  1520  to  1530.  The  painting  of  Cologne  was 
unimportant  after  the  second  half  of  the  xvi  century. 

In  Switzerland  towards  the  middle  of  the  xv  century  an  impetus 
was  given  to  the  arts  by  the  Council  of  Basle,  called  in  1431,  which 
attracted  numbers  of  artists  not  only  for  the  purpose  of  enriching  the 
churches  of  the  city  with  painted  glass,  tapestries,  and  altarpieces, 
but  with  the  hope  of  finding  patrons  among  the  civil  and  ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries  who  attended  the  council.  Among  the  painters  who 
settled  in  Basle  at  this  time  was  Conrad  Witz,  who  had  come  in  con- 
tact with  the  art  of  Flanders  and  Burgundy,  and  whose  work,  partic- 
ularly in  its  colour,  is  not  unrelated  to  that  of  Lochner.  Later  Witz 
moved  to  Geneva.  A  wing  of  an  altarpiece  representing  the  Draught 
of  Fishes,  painted  by  Witz  and  now  in  the  Geneva  Museum,  shows 
surprising  ability  in  the  rendering  of  landscape. 

The  preeminent  art  in  Germany  in  the  xv  and  xvi  centuries  was 
the  art  of  engraving  on  wood  and  copper.  Almost  all  the  artists  were 
both  engravers  and  painters;  and  in  many  cases  their  engraved  work 
was  finer  than  their  paintings.    The  art  of  engraving  had  an  impor- 


Masler  of  the 
Life  of  Mary 
active 
1460-1490 
Master  of  the 
Holy  Family 
active 
1484-1509 


Master  of  St. 

Severin,  active 

early  xvi  c. 

Master  of  St. 

Bartholomew 

active 

i485{?)-i5io 

Bartholomaus 

Bruyn 

1493-1555 


Conrad  Witz 
ab.  131)8-1447 


254 


GERMAN  PAINTING 


Master  E.  S. 
active  1466 


Martin 
Schongauer 
ah.  1445-1491 


Master  of  the 
Amsterdam 
Cabinet 
active  1480 


Master 
Berthold 
active 
1420-1430 


tant  bearing  on  painting,  as  the  engraver's  use  of  line  was  carried  into 
his  painting,  resulting  often  in  harsh,  exaggerated  contours  and  rigid 
draperies.  In  the  second  half  of  the  xv  century  marked  progress  in 
engraving  on  copper  was  made  by  the  Master  E.  S.  or  the  Master  of 
1466,  belonging  to  the  region  of  the  upper  Rhine,  who  gave  freedom 
and  scope  to  the  art.  His  technical  advances  were  further  developed 
by  the  far  greater  master,  Martin  Schongauer,  and  culminated  in  the 
perfection  attained  by  Diirer.  Originally  a  goldsmith,  Master  E.  S. 
carried  the  detailed  technique  of  this  craft  into  engraving.  He  was 
essentially  Gothic  —  in  his  types  and  drawing,  his  use  of  ornamenta- 
tion, and  his  feeling  for  the  grotesque.  One  of  the  rare  engravings  by 
this  master,  the  Tiburtine  Sibyl  and  Augustus,  is  in  the  Museum 
Print  Department. 

Martin  Schongauer,  the  first  painter  of  note  of  the  school  of  Col- 
mar,  was  of  greater  importance  as  an  engraver.  He  was  a  follower  of 
van  der  Weyden  and  may  possibly  have  visited  the  Netherlands. 
He  probably  received  his  early  training  in  engraving  in  the  workshop 
of  the  Master  E.  S.  In  general  his  harmonious,  well-balanced  com- 
positions and  dignified  figures  show  the  simplicity  of  the  early  Gothic. 
He  combined  a  keen  faculty  of  observation  with  a  delicate  imagina- 
tive power.  His  Christ  bearing  the  Cross  and  the  Temptation  of 
Saint  Anthony  are  perhaps  his  finest  engravings.  The  Museum  is 
fortunate  in  possessing  excellent  impressions  of  both  of  these  plates. 
Schongauer  exerted  an  important  influence  on  engraving  in  Germany 
and  even  in  Italy. 

The  Master  of  the  Amsterdam  Cabinet  (sometimes  called  the 
Master  of  the  Hausbuch),  probably  from  the  middle  Rhine  district, 
was  both  painter  and  engraver.  Although  his  paintings  are  in  the 
main  inferior  to  his  engravings,  his  double  portrait  of  Two  Lovers  in 
the  Museum  at  Gotha  is  one  of  the  most  pleasing  of  German  xv  cen- 
tury paintings.  His  work  as  an  engraver  is  characterized  by  its 
originality,  its  freedom  of  draughtsmanship,  and  its  vigour  of  expres- 
sion. His  subjects  were  chiefly  allegorical  and  genre  scenes:  he  was 
one  of  the  first  of  the  German  engravers  to  attempt  portraits  directly 
from  life. 

In  Nuremberg  in  the  early  part  of  the  xv  century  there  was  de- 
veloped a  local  school,  in  which  a  certain  Master  Berthold  was  the 
most  noteworthy  artist.    He  was  both  sculptor  and  painter,  and 


GERMAN  PAINTING 


255 


his  work  shows  the  charm  and  grace  of  the  earlier  painting.  The 
new  spirit  of  naturalism  which  was  to  predominate  in  the  second 
half  of  the  century  becomes  manifest  in  the  work  of  the  Master  of 
the  Tucher  Altar.  After  about  1450  the  Flemish  influence  of  van 
der  Weyden,  introduced  into  Nuremberg  by  Hans  Pleydenwurff, 
was  prominent.  Pleydenwurff's  pupil,  Michael  Wolgemut,  was  at 
the  head  of  a  large  and  well  patronized  workshop,  which  produced 
paintings,  sculpture,  and  wood-engravings,  showing  for  the  most 
part  no  originality  or  observation  of  nature.  It  is  possible  that  one 
of  the  painters  in  this  workshop  was  Rueland  Frueauf,  who  has  been 
suggested  as  the  author  of  the  Fogg  Museum  Visitation,  now  at- 
tributed to  Zeitblom. 

The  xv  century  school  of  Ulm  produced  no  great  master;  it  was 
characterized  in  the  main  by  its  quiet  provincialism.  Hans  Mult- 
scher,  the  founder,  was  unusually  realistic  for  the  period  in  which  he 
worked;  another  member  was  Hans  Schiichlin,  who  showed  the  in- 
fluence of  Schongauer.  The  most  able  master  of  the  school  was 
Bartholomaus  Zeitblom,  who  perhaps  best  gives  expression  to  the 
serene  life  of  a  provincial  town.  His  calm  types,  subdued  colour, 
simple  lines,  and  quiet  feeling  make  him  one  of  the  most  pleasing  of 
the  early  German  painters.  Martin  Schaffner  continued  the  tradi- 
tion of  Zeitblom  into  the  xvi  century. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  xv  century  Augsburg  became  the  most 
important  centre  of  painting,  owing  perhaps  to  the  increase  of  wealth 
among  the  merchant  classes  from  commerce  with  Italy  and  the 
Netherlands.  The  first  master  of  note  was  Holbein  the  Elder,  who 
was  influenced  by  Schongauer  and  by  the  Italian  painters.  His 
silver-point  portrait  drawings  are  remarkable  hot  only  for  their 
sound  technique,  but  for  their  character  portrayal,  and  show  him  not 
unworthy  of  comparison  with  his  more  famous  son.  Hans  Burgk- 
mair  visited  Italy;  and  in  his  work,  for  the  first  time  in  Germany,  we 
see  Renaissance  details  taking  the  place  of  Gothic  ornament.  Like 
so  many  of  the  German  artists,  Burgkmair  was  of  more  importance  in 
the  field  of  engraving.  He  drew  many  of  the  designs  for  the  Maxi- 
milian publications.  Editions  of  these  works  showing  prints  from 
Burgkmair's  designs  are  in  the  Fogg  Museum. 

In  Albrecht  Diirer  the  finer  elements  of  the  German  spirit  find  their 
fullest  expression.    Though  influenced  by  both  Italian  and  Flemish 


Master  of  the 

Tucher  Altar 

active 

1440-1450 

Hans 

Pleydenwurff 

d.  1472 

Michael 

Wolgemut 

ab.  1434-1510 

Rueland 

Frueauf 

active 

1450-1500 

Bans 

Mullscher 

active 

1427-1467 

Hans 

Schiichlin 

1440-1505 

Bartholomaus 

Zeitblom 

ab.  1450-1521 

Martin 

Schaffner 

active 

1499-1535 


Holbein  the 

Elder 

ab.  1470-1524 


Hans 

Burgkmair 

I473-I53I 


Albrecht 

Diirer 

1471-1528 


256 


GERMAN  PAINTING 


Little  Masters 


Hans  Sebald 

Beham 

1500-1550 

Heinrich 

Aldegrever 

1502-af.  1555 

Barthel 

Beham 

1502-1540 

Georg  Pencz 

1500-1550 

Albrecht 

Altdorfer 

1480-1538 


Holbein  the 

Younger 

1497-1543 


masters,  he  was  fundamentally  German.  A  thinker  and  scholar,  a 
keen  observer  and  investigator,  as  well  as  a  creative  artist,  he  has  only- 
one  peer  in  Germany,  Hans  Holbein  the  Younger.  As  a  painter, 
particularly  of  portraits,  Diirer  achieved  great  distinction,  but  the 
full  height  of  his  genius  was  reached  in  his  engravings  on  wood  and 
copper.  These  are  fully  represented  in  the  Museum  collection  in 
impressions  of  great  beauty.  Ranging  from  the  fantastic  visions  of 
the  Apocalypse  to  the  familiar  realism  of  the  scenes  from  the  Life  of 
the  Virgin,  and  the  symbolism  of  the  Melancholia,  and  the  Knight, 
Death,  and  the  Devil,  they  best  reveal  his  spiritual  insight,  his  great 
technical  ability,  and  his  powerful  artistic  individuality.  Like  the 
men  of  the  Renaissance,  Diirer  saw  beauty  everywhere.  He  was  a 
keen  student  of  nature  and  thus  on  the  boundary  of  the  new  world, 
yet  in  spiritual  content  many  of  his  finest  works  hark  back  to  the 
life  and  thought  of  the  Middle  Ages  in  Germany. 

In  the  second  quarter  of  the  xvi  century,  immediately  following 
Diirer  in  the  field  of  engraving,  came  the  Little  Masters,  so  called 
because  of  the  small  size  of  their  engraved  plates.  They  derived 
inspiration  both  from  Diirer  and  from  Italian  masters,  but  main- 
tained a  distinctive  style  of  their  own,  and  were,  many  of  them,  pos- 
sessed of  charm  and  unusual  technical  ability.  Although  known 
chiefly  for  their  engravings,  many  of  these  men  were  also  painters. 
Among  them  were  Hans  Sebald  Beham,  a  master  of  ornamental 
design,  whose  work  in  its  finest  impressions  has  something  of  a 
cameo-like  quality;  Heinrich  Aldegrever  of  Westphalia,  also  an  en- 
graver of  ornament;  Barthel  Beham,  whose  portraits  rank  among 
his  best  work;  and  Georg  Pencz,  essentially  German  in  spirit,  who 
aimed  at  Italian  classicism  without  success.  Albrecht  Altdorfer, 
usually  classed  with  the  Little  Masters  because  of  the  size  of  his  en- 
graved plates,  was  the  most  original  genius  of  the  group,  and  the 
least  dependent  upon  Diirer.  His  chief  distinction  was  his  feeling 
for  landscape  and  light  effects,  which  he  portrayed  with  charm  and 
delicacy.  More  than  any  other  xvi  century  artist  he  reflects  the 
fairy-tale  atmosphere  of  the  German  folk-lore. 

The  second  great  artistic  personality  of  the  xvi  century,  who  ranks 
even  above  Diirer  in  the  history  of  painting,  was  Hans  Holbein  the 
Younger.  Diirer,  although  strongly  influenced  by  the  Italian  Renais- 
sance, was  yet  typically  German  —  Holbein,  on  the  other  hand,  like 


GERMAN  PAINTING 


257 


his  contemporary  Erasmus,  was  a  cosmopolitan,  "  a  citizen  of  all  the 
world,"  bound  by  no  local  or  national  traditions.  His  appeal  is  uni- 
versal. Holbein  was  the  first  German  to  belong  wholly  to  the  Renais- 
sance, and,  in  contrast  to  Durer,  stands  out  preeminently  as  a 
realist  of  the  modern  world,  concerned  with  portraying  in  an  ob- 
jective, impersonal  manner  the  life  of  his  day,  the  life  of  cities  and 
merchants,  the  life  of  facts,  rather  than  the  life  of  ideals.  But  his  en- 
gravings, for  example  his  woodcuts  for  the  Dance  of  Death,  show 
that  he  was  not  lacking  in  imagination.  It  is,  however,  as  a  keen 
observer  and  portrayer  of  the  men  and  women  about  him  that  he  is 
best  known.  His  portraits  are  extraordinarily  vivid  interpretations 
of  character.  Especially  fine  is  his  series  of  portrait  drawings  at 
Windsor.  In  these  free,  preliminary  studies  may  be  seen  Holbein's 
mastery  of  draughtsmanship  and  design,  and  his  power  of  obtaining 
results  by  the  simplest  possible  methods.  No  other  artist  has  left 
so  complete  a  rendering  of  the  world  in  which  he  lived. 

Ranking  just  below  Durer  and  Holbein  was  Matthias  Griinewald, 
a  great  imaginative  artist  and  unequalled  in  Germany  for  his  mas- 
tery of  colour.  He  abandoned  the  accepted  scrupulous  technique  of 
the  school,  and  employed  the  methods  of  the  painter  who  feels  and 
models  in  colour,  light,  and  shade.  His  chief  work  was  the  great 
altarpiece  painted  for  the  abbey  of  Isenheim  in  1510,  and  now  be- 
longing to  the  Museum  of  Colmar.  This  altarpiece  is  one  of  the 
masterpieces  of  German  art,  remarkable  for  its  emotional  expression 
and  for  the  beauty  of  its  colour  and  light  effects. 

In  the  xvi  century  the  Saxon  school  came  into  prominence  under 
the  leadership  of  Lucas  Cranach  the  Elder.  Cranach  and  his  fol- 
lowers produced  a  vast  amount  of  work:  portraits,  religious,  myth- 
ological, and  allegorical  paintings  and  engravings.  Although  Cranach 
lackedDiirer's  imaginative  insightand  Holbein's  gifts  asa  portraitist, 
he  is  at  his  best  an  able  artist,  often  fantastic,  but  individual  and 
interesting.  His  finest  portraits  are  sincere  and  realistic;  his  colour 
is  often  clear  and  fine.  Another  artist  of  importance  in  the  first  half 
of  the  century  was  Hans  Baldung  Griin,  who  worked  at  Strasburg, 
a  surprisingly  individual  master  whose  originality  of  invention, 
particularly  in  his  woodcuts,  is  far  too  little  appreciated.  Griin's 
influence  is  seen  in  the  work  of  the  Swiss  artists  of  the  early  xvi 
century,  particularly  Urs  Graf  and  Nicolas  Manuel  Deutsch,  both 


Matthias 
Griinewald 
ab.  1483-1130 


Cranach  the 

Elder 

I47Z-I553 


Hans 

Baldung  Griin 
ab.  1476-1545 
Urs  Graf 
ab.  1487-152Q 
Nicolas 
Manuel 
Deutsch 
1484-1530 


Elsheimer 
1578-1620 


258  GERMAN  PAINTING 

of  whom  were  virile  painters  and  wood-engravers.    These  masters 

are  represented  by  woodcuts  in  the  Fogg  Museum  Print  collection. 

In  the  second  half  of  the  xvi  century  debilitating  foreign  influences 

and  the  imitation  of  foreign  models,  particularly  Italian,  superseded 

Adam  native  qualities.   One  artist  of  the  period,  however,  Adam  Elsheimer, 

deserves  mention  because  of  his  influence  on  Rembrandt  and  the 

Dutch  school.    In  the  early  part  of  the  xvn  century  the  Thirty 

Years'  War  completely  stifled  artistic  expression  in  Germany. 

M.  E.  G. 

The  German  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum  will  be  found  under  Nos.  52-58 
in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch  the  following  are  rep- 
resented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John 
L.  Gardner  at  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Master  of  the  Holy  Family,  Two  Saints; 
Master  of  Saint  Severin,  Triptych;  Wolgemut,  Death  of  the  Madonna; 
Cranach  the  Elder,  Portrait  of  a  Woman. 

Fenway  Court:  Schongatjer,  Madonna;  Durer,  Portrait  of  a  Man; 
Holbein  the  Younger,  Portraits  of  Sir  William  and  Lady  Butts. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Burger,  F.  Die  deutsche  Malerei  vom  ausgehenden  Mittelalter  bis  zum  Ende 
der  Renaissance.    Berlin,  1913.    (Handbuch  der  Kunstwissenschaft.) 

Conway,  W.  M.  Early  Flemish  artists  and  their  predecessors  on  the  lower 
Rhine.    London,  1887. 

Dickinson,  H.  A.    German  masters  of  art.    New  York,  1914. 

Ebe,  G.    Der  deutsche  Cicerone,    iii,  Malerei.  Leipsic,  1898. 

Heidrich,  E.  Die  alt-deutsche  Malerei,  200  Nachbildungen,  mit  geschicht- 
licher  Einfuhrung  und  Erlauterungen.  Jena,  1909.  (Die  Kunst  in 
Bildern.) 

Janitschek,  H.  Geschichte  der  deutschen  Malerei.  Berlin,  1890.  (Geschichte 
der  deutschen  Kunst,  iii.) 

Kugler,  F.  T.  The  German,  Flemish,  and  Dutch  schools  of  painting.  Re- 
modelled by  Dr.  Waagen  and  revised  and  in  part  rewritten  by  Sir 
Joseph  A.  Crowe,  3d  ed.    London,  1904.    2  parts. 

Reau,  L.    Les  primitifs  allemands.    Paris,  1910.    (Les  grands  artistes.) 


BARTHOLOMAUS  ZEITBLOM  (?) 

About  1450  to  about  1521 

Bartholomaus  Zeitblom  was  a  painter  of  Ulm  in  Suabia.  Our 
knowledge  about  him  and  particularly  about  his  youth  is  very  meagre 
and  indefinite.  He  was  probably  born  about  1450,  and  perhaps  even 
earlier,  and  died  between  1518  and  1521.  He  was  a  son-in-law  of 
Hans  Schiichlin,  and  possibly  his  pupil.  He  was  influenced  by  Hans 
Multscher.  We  find  his  name  in  the  records  of  Ulm  from  1484  to 
1518.  The  statement  sometimes  made,  that  he  was  a  pupil  of  Schon- 
gauer,  appears  to  be  without  foundation,  although  it  is  more  than 
likely  that  Schongauer's  work  influenced  him,  as  did  that  of  the 
schools  of  Franconia  and  Augsburg.  His  style  has  certain  peculiari- 
ties, such  as  the  slenderness  of  the  figures;  his  colour  scheme  is 
rich  and  harmonious,  and  his  draperies  well  drawn. 

His  best  pictures  are  to  be  found  in  Berlin,  Augsburg,  Munich,  and 
particularly  in  Carlsruhe  and  Stuttgart.  A  painting  of  his  school  is 
in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bach,  M.     Bartholomaus  Zeitblom  und  der  Kilchberger  Altar.     Repert.  f. 
Kunstw.    Berlin,  1889.   xii,  1 71-175. 
Studien  zur  Geschichte  der  Ulmer  Malerschule;  ii,  Bartholomaus  Zeit- 
blom.   Zeitschr.f.  Mid.  Kunst.   Leipsic,  1894.   N.  F.,  v  (9-10),  201-207, 
235-240. 

Badm,  J.  Zur  Rekonstruktion  des  Ulmer  Wengenaltars.  Monatshejtef.  Kunstw. 
Leipsic,  May,  1911.  iv  (5),  227-230. 

Haack,  F.    Zu  Zeitblom.    Repert.  f.  Kunstw.    Berlin,  1903.  xxvi,  33-34. 

Lange,  K.     Beitrage  zur  schwabischen  Kunstgeschichte.    Repert.  f.  Kunstw. 
Berlin,  1907.  xxx  (5-6),  421-440,  SM-SSS- 
Einige  Bilder  von  Bartholomaus  Zeitblom.  Repert.  f.  Kunstw.  Berlin,  1905. 

xxviii  (5-6),  486-494. 

52    THE  VISITATION 

Oil  on  panel.  H.  27^  in.  W.  14!  in.  (69.6  X  37-5  cm-) 
The  Virgin's  gown  is  of  dark  blue  green  with  a  yellow  white  border 
around  the  bottom  of  the  skirt.  About  her  throat  is  a  transparent 
white  scarf.  Her  mantle  is  of  rose  colour  bordered  with  a  narrow  line 
of  white.  Her  hair  is  yellow  brown.  Saint  Elizabeth  wears  a  gown 
of  olive  green  bordered  with  brown  fur  on  the  bottom  and  on  the 


26o  GERMAN  PAINTING 

sleeves.  Her  undersleeves  and  the  hood  under  her  kerchief  are  a  pale 
rose  colour.  Her  kerchief  and  cuffs  are  white.  Her  bag  is  red;  the 
knife  at  her  side  and  her  shoes  are  dark  brown.  The  architectural 
setting  and  the  rocky  cliffs  on  the  left  of  the  picture  are  gray;  the 
floor  is  neutral  orange  yellow.  The  space  seen  through  the  opening 
of  the  doorway  behind  Saint  Elizabeth  is  black.  The  space  between 
the  figures  is  of  gold,  perhaps  modern. 

The  panel,  bought  in  Munich,  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  1908. 
It  is  attractive  in  colour  and  pleasing  in  feeling.  The  calm  serenity 
of  the  two  figures  is  characteristic  of  Zeitblom. 

MENTIONED 

Bernath.   New  York  und  Boston.  59,  Reproduction.    (Attributed  to  Rueland 

Frueauf  ?) 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    28,  N0.23. 


52      BARTHOLOMAUS  ZEITBLOM    (?) 


SCHOOL  OF  BARTHOLOMAUS  ZEITBLOM 

53  SAINT  JOHN  THE  EVANGELIST  AND  SAINT  SEBALD 

Oil  on  panel.  H.  58!  in.  W.  30H  in.  (148.2  X  78.2  cm.) 
Saint  John  wears  a  blue  green  robe  with  a  band  of  neutral  yellow  at 
his  throat  and  a  dark  red  mantle.  His  hair  is  brown  and  his  chalice  a 
neutral  yellow.  Saint  Sebald,  the  patron  saint  of  Nuremberg,  is  clad 
in  a  robe  of  blue  green  over  which  is  a  tunic  of  neutral  gray  green, 
with  a  brown  collar.  He  wears  a  dark  green  hat  with  a  dull  yellow 
shell  on  the  brim.  His  hair  is  brown;  his  staff  is  neutral  yellow;  his 
rosary  and  boots  are  dark  brown,  and  his  wallet  dull  gray  green. 
Both  saints  have  halos  of  green  with  gold  borders.  The  background 
is  dark  red  brown,  probably  repainted,  with  a  decoration  of  neutral 
brown  in  the  upper  corners.  The  pavement  on  which  the  figures 
stand  is  of  slabs  of  yellowish  white  and  pink.  The  gray  green  slabs 
at  the  front  edge  of  the  pavement  are  held  together  with  black  cleats. 

54  SAINT  PETER  AND  SAINT  PAUL 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  58!  in.    W.  30!  in.    (148.2  X  77.7  cm.) 

Saint  Peter  wears  a  dull  blue  robe  over  which  is  an  orange  red 
mantle  lined  with  yellow.  His  cuff  is  gray  green,  and  his  keys  a  neu- 
tral yellow.  His  hair  and  beard  are  gray.  Saint  Paul  wears  a  robe 
similar  in  colour  to  the  famous  van  Eyck  green,  and  a  yellow  white 
mantle  lined  with  red.  His  hair  and  beard  are  black;  his  sword  is 
neutral  yellow.  The  halos,  background,  and  pavement  are  similar  to 
those  in  No.  53. 

These  two  panels  were  at  one  time  in  the  collection  of  Herr  von 
Biirkl,  a  painter  of  Munich.  They  were  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum 
in  iqio. 


GERMAN  SCHOOL  (?) 

xvi  century 

55     DESCENT  FROM  THE  CROSS 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  31!  in.    W.  185  in.  (81  X  46  cm.) 

The  panel  is  especially  beautiful  in  its  colour  design.  The  figure  on 
the  right,  Saint  Nicodemus,  wears  an  olive  green  doublet  with  bands 
of  brown  fur  around  the  sleeves  and  dark  green  blue  undersleeves, 
bright  vermilion  hose,  and  yellowish  brown  boots.  His  cap  is  of  a 
dark  rose  colour  approaching  to  violet,  trimmed  with  a  band  of  brown 
fur.  His  hair  is  very  dark  brown,  almost  black.  About  his  waist, 
over  his  arm,  and  held  in  his  left  hand,  is  a  pale  yellow  drapery.  The 
figure  on  the  left,  Saint  Joseph  of  Arimathea,  wears  a  mantle  of  dark 
violet  red —  similar  in  colour  to  the  cap  of  Nicodemus  —  bordered 
with  brown  fur;  over  his  shoulder  is  a  silvery  white  scarf.  His  sleeve 
is  a  dark  violet  red  and  his  boots  a  reddish  brown.  He  wears  a  metal 
belt.  The  flesh  of  these  two  figures  has  a  reddish  tint.  The  undulat- 
ing lines  of  the  body  of  Christ,  which  is  in  general  of  a  yellowish  flesh 
colour,  and  the  sweeping  curves  of  the  yellow  drapery  held  by 
Saint  Nicodemus  contrast  very  pleasantly  with  the  stiff,  straight 
yellows  and  browns  of  the  ladders  and  the  cross,  just  enough  of  which 
is  seen  to  emphasize  the  beauty  of  the  curves  and  not  enough  to  sug- 
gest stiffness  or  rigidity.  The  colour  of  the  sky  changes  from  a  deep 
green  blue  toward  the  zenith  to  a  pinkish  gray  at  the  horizon.  The 
general  tone  of  the  landscape  is  brown. 

The  picture  was  purchased  from  a  dealer  who  bought  it  in  Paris. 
Formerly  it  was  in  Spain.  It  was  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in 
1912. 

This  painting  has  been  supposed  to  be  by  a  master  of  the  German 
school,  though  various  suggestions  have  been  made  as  to  its  author- 
ship. Perhaps  the  most  plausible  suggestion  is  one  that  has  been 
made  recently,  namely,  that  it  is  a  Hungarian  primitive  painted  by  a 
master  who  was  influenced  by  the  Ferrarese  school.  There  are  said 
to  be  a  number  of  pictures  in  the  Gallery  at  Budapest  evidently  of  the 
same  school.  At  the  present  time  photographs  of  these  are  unob- 
tainable. At  all  events,  the  picture  is  a  fine  piece  of  colour  and  was 
painted  by  a  master  of  distinction. 


55     GERMAN  SCHOOL  (?) 


GERMAN  SCHOOL   (?)  263 

All  four  of  the  Gospels  relate  that  Joseph  of  Arimathea  went  to 
Pilate  and  begged  the  body  of  the  Saviour,  but  only  the  Gospel  of 
Saint  John  says  that  Nicodemus  brought  spices  with  which  to  em- 
balm the  body.  Nicodemus  is,  however,  almost  invariably  repre- 
sented in  pictures  of  the  Descent  from  the  Cross,  assisting  Joseph  of 
Arimathea.  Often  Saint  John  and  the  three  Marys  are  present  and 
some  of  the  disciples  who  had  fled  and  who  were  supposed  to  have 
returned.  In  the  early  Italian  form  of  representation  two  ladders 
were  placed  against  the  arms  of  the  cross,  one  on  either  side  of  the 
body  of  Christ.  Joseph  of  Arimathea  on  the  ladder  on  the  right  of 
the  Saviour  supported  Christ's  body  over  his  shoulders.  A  similar 
arrangement  is  followed  in  this  picture.  Later  representations 
tended  to  become  more  complicated  and  less  impressive. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan-March,  1914.    2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 

(Listed  in  error  as  by  Isenbrandt.) 
Boston.    Museum  or  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    39. 


LUCAS  CRANACH  THE  ELDER  (?) 

1472-1553 

Lucas  Cranach  the  Elder  was  the  first  painter  of  importance  of  the 
Saxon  school.  His  name,  Cranach,  is  taken  from  that  of  his  birth- 
place, Kronach,  in  upper  Franconia.  The  family  name  is  uncertain. 
Lucas  Cranach  was  the  pupil  of  his  father  and  was  well  known,  not 
only  as  a  painter,  but  as  an  engraver  on  copper  and  a  designer  of 
woodcuts  as  well.  He  did  his  principal  work  between  1506  and  1540. 
In  the  field  of  painting  his  chief  interest  was  in  portraiture,  and  he 
spent  much  time  in  depicting  the  features  of  all  the  German  re- 
formers and  their  patrons  and  followers.  From  1 502  to  1 504  Cranach 
was  in  Vienna;  in  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1504  he  took  up  his 
residence  in  Wittenberg,  where  later  in  1537  and  again  in  1540  he 
was  burgomaster;  in  1508  we  find  him  in  the  Netherlands;  and  in 
Augsburg  and  Innsbruck  from  1550  to  1552.  He  is  said  to  have  ac- 
companied the  Elector  Frederick  the  Wise  on  his  pilgrimage  to  the 
Holy  Land  in  1493,  and  it  was  the  Elector  who  granted  him  his 
"  kleinod  "  or  coat  of  arms  or  motto  representing  a  crowned  winged 
snake.  Until  1509  Cranach  signed  his  works  with  his  initials  L.  C. 
After  that  date  and  in  all  his  subsequent  works  he  used  as  a  signa- 
ture the  winged  snake  with  variations. 

Portraits  of  Luther,  either  by  the  master  or  his  pupils,  are  not 
infrequent,  since  Cranach  was  the  reformer's  intimate  friend.  In 
fact,  he  is  said  to  have  arranged  the  marriage  of  Luther  and  Cath- 
erine Bora.  There  are  at  least  fifteen  painted  portraits  of  Luther,  or 
portrait  groups  in  which  he  appears,  in  addition  to  woodcuts  and 
engravings,  known  to  be  the  work  of  Cranach  or  his  school.  Two  are 
in  this  country,  one  in  the  Johnson  collection  and  No.  56  in  this 
Catalogue.  Cranach's  most  convincing  pictures  are  to  be  seen  in  the 
galleries  of  Berlin,  Munich,  and  Vienna,  although  a  number  of  fine 
examples  have  found  their  way  into  American  museums  and  private 
collections,  notably  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  and  the 
Metropolitan  Museum. 


LUCAS  CRANACH  THE  ELDER  (?)  265 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ameseder,  R.    Ein  Parisurteil  Lukas  Cranachs  d.  A.  in  der  Landesgalerie  zu 

Graz.    Repert.  f.  Kunstw.    Berlin,  1910.   xxxiii  (1),  65-84. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    April,  1912.    x  (56),  10.    (A 

portrait  of  a  lady  by  Lucas  Cranach  the  Elder.) 
Cust,  L.    Notes  on  pictures  in  the  Royal  collections;  v,  A  triptych  by  Lucas 

Cranach.    Burlington  magazine.   London,  Dec,  1904.  vi  (21),  204-209. 
vi,  Paintings  by  Lucas  Cranach.     Burlington  magazine.    London,  Feb., 

1905.  vi  (23),  353-358. 
xii,  A  portrait  of  Martin  Luther  as  '  Junker  Jorg,'  by  Lucas  Cranach. 

Burlington  magazine.    London,  Jan.,  1909.   xiv  (70),  206-209. 
Dodgson,  C.    Lucas  Cranach.    Paris,  1900.    [Critical  bibliography.] 

A  picture  by  Cranach  at  Truro.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  Dec, 

1908.  xiv  (69),  133-134- 
The  Cranach  at  Truro  —  a  postscript.    Burlington  magazine.    London, 

March,  1909.  xiv  (72),  359. 
Flechsig,  E.    Tafelbilder  Lucas  Cranachs  d.  A.  und  seiner  Werkstatt.    129 

Tafeln  in  Lichtdruck  nebst  Text.   Leipsic,  1900.    (Saxony — K.  sach- 

sische  Kommission  fur  Geschichte.   Schriften,  5.) 
Friedlander,  M.    In  Thieme-Becker.    Kunstler-Lexikon.    1913.  viii,  55-58. 
Die  friihesten  Werke  Cranachs.  Jahrb.  d.  km.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.  Ber- 
lin, 1902.   xxiii  (3-4),  228-234. 
Heyck,  E.    Lukas  Cranach.    Bielefeld  and  Leipsic,  1908.    (Kiinstler-Mono- 

graphien,  95.) 
Meter,  K.  E.    Fortleben  der  religios-dogmatischen  Kompositionen  Cranachs 

in  der  Kunst  des  Protestantismus.    Repert.  f.  Kunstw.     Berlin,  1909. 

xxxii  (5),  4I5-435- 
Michaelson,  H.    Lukas  Cranach  der  Altere.  Leipsic,  1902.    (Beitrage  zur 

Kunstgeschichte.    N.  F.,  xxviii.) 
Vogel,  J.    Zur  Cranachforschung.    Zeitschr.  f.  bild.  Kunst.    Leipsic,  1907. 

N.  F.,  xviii  (9),  219-226. 
Woermann,  K.    Die  Dresdner  Cranach-Ausstellung.    Zeitschr.  f.  bild.  Kunst. 

Leipsic,  1900.    N.  F.,  xi  (2-4),  25-35,  55-66,  78-88. 
Worringer,  W.   Lukas  Cranach.    Munich,  1908.    (Klassische  IUustratoren.) 

56  PORTRAIT  OF  MARTIN  LUTHER* 

Oil  on  panel.  H.  26f  in.  W.  19^  in.  (68  X  50  cm.) 
Against  the  usual  Cranach  blue  is  set  the  flatly  painted  black  robe 
of  the  sitter,  relieved  by  a  bright  red  band  just  below  the  white  collar. 
The  brilliancy  of  these  two  colours  is  emphasized  by  a  black  cord. 
Luther's  hair  is  of  silver  gray  and  is  treated  in  a  masterly  way.  His 
eyes  are  brown;  the  flesh  tints,  in  the  reproduction,  appear  pasty  and 
unconvincing,  owing  to  clumsy  repainting  and  restoration.  This 
repaint  has  been  removed  recently  and  in  the  process  of  careful 


266  GERMAN  PAINTING 

cleaning  the  barely  distinguishable  letters  on  the  right-hand  side, 
close  to  the  face,  have  disappeared,  leaving  only  the  original  lettering 
above  the  head.  The  modelling  of  the  hands  is  not  satisfactory, 
owing  perhaps  to  over  cleaning  in  the  past.  On  the  whole,  the  pic- 
ture is  in  a  fairly  good  state  of  preservation,  though  it  may  have 
darkened  with  age.  It  is  signed  with  the  winged  snake  just  below 
the  date  1546,  on  the  left. 

This  portrait,  which  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  C.  Fairfax 
Murray  of  London,  was  first  lent  to  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1914. 

The  portrait  may  well  be  from  the  hand  of  the  master  himself. 
Like  many  of  Cranach's  later  works,  there  is  evidence  of  a  certain 
shallowness  in  characterization;  also  the  fiat  tones  which  as  a  rule 
Cranach  employed  may  be  observed. 


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GERMAN  SCHOOL 

xvi  century 

57    CHRIST  IN  THE  GARDEN  OF  GETHSEMANE* 
Oil  on  panel.    H.  49!  in.    W.  22J  in.     (125.8  X  56.5  cm.) 

Christ  in  a  neutral  blue  green  garment  is  praying.  A  design  painted 
in  dark  red  on  His  halo  indicates  the  cross.  Behind  Him,  Saint 
James,  dressed  in  a  blue  green  robe  of  the  same  colour  as  Christ's 
garment,  is  holding  his  forehead  in  his  hands,  in  a  vain  attempt  to 
keep  awake.  A  red  mantle  lies  over  his  knees.  Saint  John,  below 
Christ's  feet,  is  bowed  in  sleep.  His  red  mantle  is  the  same  colour  as 
the  mantle  which  Saint  James  wears.  Saint  Peter  is  in  a  dark  blue 
green  gown,  with  his  head  resting  on  one  hand  and  his  sword  at  his 
side.  A  white  mantle  falls  from  his  shoulder.  A  golden  chalice  with 
the  white  wafer  floating  just  over  it  is  on  the  mount  in  front  of  Christ. 
Judas  in  a  yellow  robe,  with  red  lake  appearing  faintly  in  the  deepest 
shadows,  approaches  with  a  stealthy  step  from  behind  the  mount. 
In  his  hand  is  a  gray  bag  containing  the  silver.  His  eyes,  like 
Christ's,  are  directed  towards  the  golden  chalice  that  soon  is  to  hold 
the  life  blood.  Behind  Judas  comes  the  horde  of  soldiers,  their  spears 
forming  a  dark  forest  against  the  sky,  the  light  gleaming  on  their 
helmets.  Another  band  of  soldiers  appears  from  the  left  side  of  the 
picture.  The  foreground  and  the  mount  are  of  an  olive  green.  The 
higher  peaks  of  the  mount  behind  are  of  a  paler  green  at  the  top, 
shading  into  a  brownish  yellow.  The  prevailing  tone  of  the  city  in 
the  background  is  neutral  gray.    The  sky  is  of  a  deep  blue. 

The  picture  is  said  to  have  come  from  Vienna.  Its  authorship  is 
difficult  to  determine. 

The  chalice  representing  the  cup  to  which  Christ  referred  in  His 
prayer,  "  O  my  Father,  if  it  be  possible,  let  this  cup  pass  from  me," 
stands  on  a  rock  in  front  of  Him.  This  is  unusual;  generally  an 
angel  bearing  the  cup  flies  down  from  the  upper  air  towards  the 
kneeling  figure  of  the  Saviour. 


SOUTH  GERMAN  SCHOOL 

xvi  century 

58    THE  WEIGHING  OF  A  SOUL 

Lent  by  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston. 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  76J  in.    W.  48I  in.    (193.2  X  123.3  cm-) 

Saint  Michael  holds  the  scales  and  pours  the  water  of  purity  on  the 
head  of  the  figure  representing  the  soul.  In  the  opposite  side  of  the 
scale  are  placed  the  things  of  this  world  —  a  tower,  land,  money, 
food.  The  devil  is  adding  his  whole  weight  and  the  force  of  his  dia- 
bolical strength  to  pull  down  the  scales,  in  vain.  On  the  right  side  of 
Saint  Michael  stands  Saint  George,  conquering  the  dragon,  and  on 
the  left  is  Saint  John  the  Baptist  holding  the  Lamb  of  God. 

The  figures  stand  on  a  grassy  meadow  of  dark  brown  green;  behind 
them  are  neutral  yellow  green  rocks.  The  background  is  blue,  prob- 
ably repainted,  with  a  gold  field  in  the  upper  left-hand  corner  in  low 
relief.  Saint  George  is  clad  in  steel  gray  armour,  over  which  is  a 
neutral  red  violet  cloak.  Saint  Michael  wears  a  white  robe  with 
greenish  shadows,  over  which  is  a  light  olive  green  cope  with  a  red 
fringe.  Saint  John  the  Baptist  wears  a  neutral  brownish  hairy  gar- 
ment and  a  cloak  which  is  pale  yellow  in  the  light  and  dark  red  in  the 
shadow.  His  banner  is  red  with  a  white  cross.  Various  shades  of 
yellow  and  brown  are  the  prevailing  tones  through  the  rest  of  the 
picture.  These  colours  appear  in  the  representations  of  the  devil 
and  the  dragon,  in  the  scales  and  contents,  the  flesh  tones,  staffs, 
and  hair.  The  cream  coloured  Lamb  has  a  cruciform  nimbus,  and 
the  three  saints  have  golden  halos  on  which  are  embossed  their 
names.  The  cross-piece  of  the  scales  and  the  tips  of  Saint  Michael's 
wings  are  black. 

The  picture  was  bought  in  Munich  in  1907,  and  given  to  the 
Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston.  It  was  at  one  time  in  the  collection 
of  the  Munich  sculptor  Ludwig  Schwanthaler  (1 802-1 848).  It  was 
placed  in  the  Fogg  Art  Museum  in  1 916,  having  been  previously  lent 
to  the  Museum  from  191 1  to  1913. 

The  painting  is  probably  the  work  of  a  south  German  artist.  At 
one  time  it  was  attributed  to  Hans  Baldung  Grim. 


58     SOUTH   GERMAN  SCHOOL 


SOUTH  GERMAN  SCHOOL  269 

The  Psychostasis  or  the  Weighing  of  the  Soul  in  the  balance  as  a 
symbol  of  judgment  was  employed  by  the  Egyptians  many  centuries 
before  the  Christian  era.  It  is  found  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  about 
1400  B.C.  Mohammedanism  also  made  use  of  the  symbol;  and  it  ap- 
pears in  certain  other  of  the  oriental  religions.  The  Weighing  of  the 
Soul  is  of  frequent  occurrence  in  Greek  literature  and  art.  There  is  in 
the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  a  Greek  v  century  marble  relief 
representing  a  weighing  scene,  in  which  a  winged  youth  weighs  two 
small  nude  figures  in  the  presence  of  two  seated  women.  This  is  per- 
haps the  Weighing  of  Adonis.  In  general,  Hermes,  the  messenger  of 
the  gods  and  the  conductor  of  shades  from  the  upper  to  the  lower 
world,  presides  over  the  scales,  except  in  certain  representations 
in  which  Justice  holds  the  balance.  Then  the  symbol  expresses  the 
divine  act  of  judgment.  The  duties  of  the  Greek  Hermes  descended 
to  the  archangel  Michael,  who  was  the  messenger  of  Heaven.  It  was 
his  office  to  conduct  souls  into  the  presence  of  the  Almighty  and  to 
weigh  them  in  the  balance  on  the  Judgment  Day.  Saint  Michael  was 
also  patron  saint  and  prince  of  the  Church  Militant  and  leader  of  the 
celestial  forces.  As  the  weigher  of  souls  he  is  usually  represented 
winged  and  clad  in  the  angel's  robe  as  in  this  picture,  or  in  full 
armour  in  his  character  of  the  champion  of  Heaven.  After  the  begin- 
ning of  the  xv  century  representations  of  Saint  Michael  in  armour 
became  more  frequent.  As  in  this  picture,  the  devil  is  usually  pres- 
ent at  the  weighing  of  the  soul.  The  good  was  generally  in  the  scale 
to  the  right  of  the  saint,  the  right  being  the  place  of  honour. 


FRENCH  PAINTING 


FRENCH   PAINTING 

THE  history  of  painting  in  France  is  not  the  history  of  a  strongly 
individual  native  school  showing  a  continuous  development, 
like  the  various  schools  of  painting  in  Italy.  On  the  contrary,  down 
to  the  xvin  century,  painting  in  France,  with  the  exception  of  the 
illumination  of  manuscripts,  was  rather  the  work  of  individuals  and 
schools  reacting  to  outside  influences,  chiefly  Flemish  and  Italian, 
and  was  not  marked  with  a  distinct  national  character,  except  in  so  far 
as  the  foreign  influences  were  moulded  somewhat  by  the  native  spirit. 
During  the  early  part  of  the  Gothic  period  and  even  through  the 
xiv  century  the  history  of  painting  must  be  followed  in  the  pages  of 
the  illuminated  manuscripts.  Mural  decoration  on  any  large  scale 
was  swept  away,  for  with  the  advent  of  Gothic  architecture  the 
cathedral  became  a  perfectly  balanced  structure  of  piers,  buttresses, 
and  arches,  and  the  necessity  of  supporting  walls  vanished.  The 
vast  spaces  between  the  piers  were  filled  with  the  brilliant  stained 
glass  windows  which  reached  the  height  of  their  beauty  in  the  great 
churches  of  the  xrr  and  xm  centuries.  Throughout  the  Romanesque 
period  the  art  of  miniature  painting  had  been  largely  monastic. 
With  the  beginning  of  the  xm  century,  however,  illumination  was 
no  longer  confined  to  monks  but  was  taken  up  by  laymen,  and  Paris 
became  the  centre  of  schools  of  miniaturists.  This  was  due  in  part 
to  royal  patronage,  in  part  to  the  importance  of  the  University  of 
Paris,  which  attracted  illuminators  and  copyists  not  only  from 
France  but  from  Flanders  as  well.  A  new  spirit  developed;  the 
austerity  of  the  Romanesque  illuminators  disappeared.  The  in- 
fluence of  glass  painting  made  itself  felt;  pure  reds  and  blues  pre- 
dominated, enhanced  by  gleaming  gold  backgrounds.  In  the  second 
half  of  the  xm  century  the  influence  of  the  architect  and  sculptor 
rather  than  that  of  the  glass  painter  prevailed;  architectural  details 
were  introduced  and  figures  became  more  graceful;  a  more  human 
element  appeared  in  gesture  and  facial  expression.  A  careful  ob- 
servation of  nature  became  apparent  in  the  representation  of  the 
plants  and  flowers,  and  of  the  little  animals  and  birds  in  the  decora- 


274 


FRENCH  PAINTING 


Jean  Pucette 
xiv  c,  2d 
quarter 


Andrt 

Beauneveu 

active 

1360-1403 

Jacquemart 

de  Hesdin 

active 

1384-1400 


Limbourg 
brothers 
active  xv  c. 
1st  quarter 


Jean  Fouquet 
ab.  1415- 
ab.  1480 
Jean 

Bourdichon 
active  1479- 


tive  borders.  The  movement  towards  a  freer,  more  life-like,  and  at 
the  same  time  a  more  delicate  art  continued  through  the  xiv  and 
the  early  xv  centuries.  Modelling  was  attempted,  a  lighter  colour 
scheme  was  adopted,  painting  in  grisaille1  often  appeared  and  a 
more  graceful,  supple  use  of  line.  Plain  gold  backgrounds  gradu- 
ally gave  way  to  fields  decorated  with  designs  in  various  colours, 
and  later  to  landscape  and  architecture.  Jean  Pucelle  was  the  most 
important  master  of  the  Parisian  school  in  the  second  quarter  of 
the  xiv  century.  After  the  middle  of  the  century  greater  stimulus 
to  realism  was  given  by  the  influx  of  artists  from  the  north,  from 
Holland,  Flanders,  the  Cologne  district,  and  the  duchies  of  Limbourg 
and  Guelders  between  the  Meuse  and  the  Rhine.  Leading  masters 
of  this  period  were  Andre  Beauneveu,  Jacquemart  de  Hesdin,  and 
the  three  brothers  Limbourg.  Italian  elements  spread  from  Avignon, 
and  something  of  the  Oriental  appeared  in  costumes  and  types. 
Miniature  painting,  in  short,  became  representative  of  the  Interna- 
tional movement  which  pervaded  European  painting  at  the  end  of 
the  xrv  and  the  beginning  of  the  xv  century.  Perhaps  the  loveliest 
product  of  this  delicate  and  fragile  yet  realistic  art  is  the  Tres  Riches 
Heures  of  the  Due  de  Berri,  at  Chantilly,  executed  in  part  by  the 
brothers  Limbourg  and  unfinished  at  the  time  of  the  Duke's  death 
in  1416.  The  miniatures  of  this  Book  of  Hours  represent  the  life  of 
the  people  of  the  day  with  a  vividness  and  charm,  a  beauty  and 
finish  of  workmanship  which  make  it  unsurpassed  in  its  field. 

In  the  first  quarter  of  the  xv  century,  with  the  invasion  of  France 
by  the  English,  Paris  as  the  capital  was  abandoned  by  the  French 
court.  Manuscript  illumination  was  still  practised  there,  however, 
and  very  beautiful  work  was  done  by  followers  and  pupils  of  the 
Limbourg  brothers  for  the  English  Duke  of  Bedford,  regent  of 
France.  The  art  of  illumination  flourished  throughout  the  century 
in  the  provinces  also  —  in  Anjou  and  Brittany,  at  Dijon  in  Bur- 
gundy, which  had  always  been  particularly  open  to  Flemish  im- 
migration and  influences,  and  at  Tours,  where  Italian  elements  were 
prominent.  This  is  seen  in  the  work  of  Jean  Fouquet,  who  was  both 
a  painter  and  an  illuminator,  and  Jean  Bourdichon,  the  illuminator 
of  the  Book  of  Hours  of  Anne  of  Brittany. 

1  Grisaille. — A  system  of  almost  monochromatic  painting  in  delicate  bluish  gray 
tints  with  high  lights  touched  in  with  white  or  fluid  gold. 


FRENCH  PAINTING 


275 


Panel  painting  was  practised  in  France  in  the  latter  part  of  the  xrv 
century.  At  the  court  of  Burgundy  Jean  Malouel,  Henri  Bellechose, 
and  Melchior  Broederlam  were  in  the  employ  of  the  dukes.  Belle- 
chose  is  the  probable  author  of  the  Martyrdom  of  Saint  Denis,  in  the 
Louvre,  and  there  are  two  shutters  of  a  reredos  by  Broederlam  in  the 
Museum  at  Dijon,  on  which  are  represented  the  Annunciation  and 
the  Visitation,  the  Purification  and  the  Flight  into  Egypt.  These 
pictures  are  really  only  miniature  paintings  on  a  large  scale,  showing 
the  graceful  figures,  delicate  detail,  and  fine  colour  of  the  contempor- 
ary manuscript  illuminations. 

In  general,  after  the  English  invasion  and  the  loss  of  the  prestige  of 
Paris,  distinct  centres  of  painting  were  formed,  in  which  both  Flemish 
and  Italian  elements  may  be  seen.  Since  the  establishment  of  the 
papal  court  at  Avignon  in  the  early  xrv  century  this  city  had  been  the 
gateway  through  which  Italian  influence,  particularly  of  the  Sienese 
master  Simone  Martini  and  his  school,  entered  France.  In  the  xv 
century  Flemish  artists  passing  through  Avignon,  on  their  way  to 
and  from  Italy,  brought  northern  characteristics  with  them.  Nicolas 
Froment,  a  French  painter  at  the  court  of  King  Rene  at  Aix,  was 
close  to  the  Flemish  artists.  The  Burning  Bush,  the  central  panel  of 
a  triptych  by  Froment  in  the  Cathedral  at  Aix,  shows  Flemish 
naturalism  and  splendour  of  colour. 

South  of  the  Loire,  painting  centred  at  Tours,  Bourges,  and  Mou- 
lins.  Jean  Fouquet  of  Tours,  who  has  already  been  mentioned  as  an 
illuminator,  was  also  a  portraitist.  Fouquet's  portraits  are  admirable 
characterizations,  although  technically  weak.  His  miniatures,  in 
their  broad  technique,  reveal  the  hand  of  the  painter  rather  than  of 
the  illuminator.  They  are  delightful  renderings  of  the  life  of  xv  cen- 
tury France,  and  in  their  feeling  for  landscape  are  akin  to  Flemish 
work.  Fouquet  was  one  of  the  first  of  the  French  masters  to  go  to 
Italy,  where  he  acquired  the  use  of  Italian  Renaissance  decorative 
elements.  Italian  influence  is  seen  also  in  the  work  of  the  so-called 
Maitre  de  Moulins,  whose  pictures  show  a  delicate  feeling  for  ele- 
gance and  beauty,  for  clear  and  harmonious  colour,  and  pleasant 
landscape,  but  are  lacking  in  strength.  One  of  the  finest  works  of 
French  xv  century  painting  is  an  anonymous  Pieta  from  Villeneuve- 
les-Avignon,  which  in  breadth  and  simplicity  of  drawing  and  com- 
position and  in  depth  of  feeling  contrasts  strongly  with  the  more 


Jean  Malouel 

active 

1396-1415 

Henri 

Bellechose 

active  xv  c. 

1st  half 

Melchior 

Broederlam 

active 

1381-1409/10 


Nicolas 
Froment 
active  1476 


Jean  Fouquet 
ab.  1415- 
ab.  1480 


Maitre  de 
Moulins 
active  late 
xv  c. 


276  FRENCH  PAINTING 

miniature-like  panels  of  the  period.  In  spite  of  its  archaic  gold  back- 
ground the  picture  probably  dates  from  the  late  xv  century.  In 
composition  and  in  certain  other  features  the  painting  resembles  the 
Deposition,  in  the  Frick  collection,  New  York,  attributed  to  Antonello 
da  Messina,  but  more  probably  by  a  French  primitive  master.  A 
popular  and  vigorous  phase  of  xv  century  painting  appears  in  many 
representations  of  the  Virgin  of  Pity  in  village  churches,  and  in  a  few 
remains  of  frescoes,  many  of  which  represent  the  Dance  of  Death,  a 
subject  to  which  the  engravers  of  the  period  were  particularly  partial. 

In  the  xvi  century  the  classical  spirit  predominated  all  over 
Europe.  This  influence  pervaded  France  through  the  French  and 
Flemish  artists  who  went  south  and  returned  filled  with  enthusiasm 
for  Italy,  and  through  the  French  monarchs  and  princes  who  made 
periodical  descents  upon  Italy  and  brought  back  with  them  Italian 
artists.  The  first  step  of  importance  in  the  history  of  Italian  in- 
fluence in  French  painting  was  the  decoration  of  the  Chateau  de 
Gaillon  by  Andrea  Solario,  who  was  employed  from  1507  to  1509 
by  the  cardinal,  Georges  d'Amboise.  Other  artists  from  across  the 
Alps  came  north,  but  it  was  Francis  1  who  gave  the  great  stimulus  to 
Italianism.  He  was  the  first  monarch  to  interest  himself  particularly 
in  painting;  and  his  enthusiasm  for  the  achievements  of  Italian  art 
was  boundless.  Through  his  influence  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and  Andrea 
del  Sarto  came  to  France  about  15 16;  but  Leonardo  lived  only  three 
years  after  his  arrival,  and  Andrea's  stay  was  short.  Italianism  did 
not  prevail  to  any  great  extent  until  about  1531,  when  Francis  sum- 
moned II  Rosso  and  Primaticcio  to  decorate  his  chateau  of  Fontaine- 
bleau.  With  these  masters  came  many  of  their  compatriots,  who, 
with  French  artists  working  in  the  Italian  style,  formed  the  so-called 
School  of  school  of  Fontainebleau.   Benvenuto  Cellini,  the  Florentine  sculptor 

and  goldsmith,  also  played  an  important  part  in  the  spread  of  the 
new  manner.  By  the  end  of  the  century  France,  the  country  which 
had  evolved  the  Gothic,  was  dominated  by  the  classical  ideal. 

The  invention  of  printing  lessened  the  demand  for  illuminated 
manuscripts;  but  although  the  art  had  practically  run  its  course  by 
the  end  of  the  xv  century,  miniature  painting  was  continued  through 
the  xvi  century.  The  work  of  the  period  shows  a  perfection  of  tech- 
nique in  the  rendering  of  figures,  landscape,  and  detail,  but  tends  to 
become  more  conventional  and  lacks  the  charm  of  the  earlier  illum- 


Fontainebleau 


FRENCH  PAINTING 


277 


inations.  The  most  pleasing  side  of  painting  in  France  at  this  time 
is  seen  in  portraiture,  particularly  in  the  work  of  Flemish  masters,  of 
whom  Jean  and  Francois  Clouet  and  Corneille  de  Lyon  were  the 
most  famous.  In  them  the  realism  of  the  north  was  tempered  by 
French  graciousness.  The  numerous  portraits,  both  paintings  and 
chalk  drawings,  executed  by  these  men  or  in  their  manner,  date  from 
the  reign  of  Francis  1  down  to  the  time  of  Louis  xm.  In  the  sim- 
plicity and  delicate  beauty  of  their  technique  and  in  their  subtle, 
vivid  interpretations  of  the  elegant,  languid  aristocracy  of  the  day, 
these  portraits  are  among  the  most  delightful  products  of  French  art. 
In  the  early  xvn  century  painting  assumed  a  more  important  posi- 
tion and  was  largely  patronized  by  the  Church  and  by  laymen.  Ital- 
ian influence  continued,  through  the  French  artists  who  journeyed 
south  and  drew  inspiration  from  the  various  schools  of  the  peninsula. 
The  painting  of  these  men  was  technically  correct,  but  lacked  life  and 
originality.  Simon  Vouet  imitated  the  Carracci.  Le  Sueur,  a  pupil 
of  Vouet,  based  his  art  largely  on  that  of  Raphael.  Nicolas  Poussin 
spent  most  of  his  life  in  Rome  and  gave  complete  expression  to  the 
contemporary  feeling  for  antiquity.  He  was  a  master  of  technique 
and  design  and  his  work  stands  above  and  apart  from  that  of  the 
other  artists  of  the  day.  Claude  Lorrain,  who  also  lived  in  Italy,  was 
chiefly  interested  in  landscape.  His  idealized  out-of-door  scenes 
are  significant  in  their  feeling  for  space  and  light.  Flemish  artists 
continued  to  paint  in  France,  among  them  Philippe  de  Champaigne, 
a  Brussels  master  influenced  largely  by  Poussin,  who  painted  reli- 
gious subjects  and  able  portraits.  Under  Louis  xrv  the  Academy 
of  Painting  and  Sculpture  was  founded  (1648),  and  all  art  became 
largely  official  and  grandiose,  dedicated  to  the  glorification  of  the 
monarch.  Original,  vital  feeling  was  stifled.  To  this  age  belong 
Charles  Le  Brun,  the  decorator  of  the  Gallery  of  Apollo  in  the  Louvre, 
and  director  of  the  Gobelins  factory,  and  Pierre  Mignard,  decorator 
and  portrait  painter.  Hyacinthe  Rigaud  and  Nicolas  Largilliere, 
portrait  painters  who  were  influenced  by  the  Flemings,  Rubens  and 
van  Dyck,  also  represented  this  monarchical  art.  After  the  death  of 
Louis  xrv  the  true  French  genius  blossomed  anew  in  the  freer 

atmosphere  of  the  xvm  century. 

M.  E.  G. 


Jean  Clouet 

active 

1518-1540 

Francois 

Clouet 

ab.  1516-1572 

Corneille  de 

Lyon,  active 

xvi  c,  2d  half 


Simon  Vouet 

1500-1640 

Eustache 

Le  Sueur 

1616-1655 

Nicolas 

Poussin 

1594-1665 

Claude 

Lorrain 

1600-1682 

Philippe  de 

Champaigne 

1602-1674 

Charles  Le 

Brun 

i6io-i6go 

Pierre 

Mignard 

1610-1695 

Hyacinthe 

Rigaud 

1659-1743 

Nicolas 

Largilliere 

1656-1746 


278  FRENCH  PAINTING 

French  painting  is  represented  in  the  Fogg  Museum  by  the  picture  num- 
bered 59  in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch  the  following  are  rep- 
resented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs. 
John  L.  Gardner  at  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Claude  Lorrain,  Parnassus;  Philippe  de 
Champaigne,  Portrait  of  Arnauld  d'Andilly. 

Fenway  Court:  Francois  Clotjet,  Portrait  of  a  Brother  of  Charles  ix. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bouchot,  H.    L'exposition  des  primitifs  francais;  La  peinture  sous  les  Valois, 

Paris,  n.d. 
Caffin,  C.  H.    Story  of  French  painting.    New  York,  191 1. 
Dimier,  L.    French  painting  in  the  sixteenth  century.    New  York,  1911. 

Les  primitifs  francais.    Paris,  1910.    (Les  grands  artistes.) 
Gtjiffrey,  J.,  and  Marcel,  P.    La  peinture  francaise;  Les  primitifs.    Paris, 

1911. 
Hourticq,  L.    Art  in  France.    New  York,  191 1.    (Ars  una;  species  mille.) 
Lafenestre,  G.   L'exposition  des  primitifs  francais.    Paris,  1904. 
Mantz,  P.    La  peinture  francaise  du  ix8  siecle  a  la  fin  du  xvie.    Paris,  1897. 


FRENCH  SCHOOL 

About  1500 

59A    ANNUNCIATION  TO  THE  MADONNA  OF  HER  APPROACH- 
ING DEATH 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  37!  in.    W.  38!  in.    (96.2  X  98.4  cm.) 

The  reds  are  the  strongest  note,  as  is  usually  the  case  in  these  early 
religious  pictures.  The  archangel  Michael's  short  tunic  is  of  a  rose 
red  bordered  with  blue  and  gold.  This  is  balanced  by  a  similar 
colour  in  the  mantle  of  the  woman  with  her  back  turned  to  the 
Madonna  in  the  group  standing  in  the  street;  between  the  two  a  pale 
rose  pink  occurs  in  the  mantle  of  the  woman  in  the  middle  distance 
seen  in  profile.  The  same  colour  appears  in  the  tunic  of  the  angel  seen 
against  the  sky  and  in  the  wings  of  the  left  of  the  two  angels  over  the 
archangel's  head;  while  it  occurs  in  a  still  paler  form  in  the  steps 
in  the  foreground,  the  columns,  capitals,  and  other  architectural 
members.  The  Madonna  is  kneeling  in  front  of  a  desk.  She  wears 
a  dark  blue  mantle;  the  red  sleeves  of  her  gown  are  visible  at  her 
wrists.  Her  pale  face  is  relieved  against  the  dark  grayish  brown 
architecture.  The  fluttering  drapery  of  the  archangel  Michael  is 
white.  The  pavement,  of  a  warm  cream  colour,  carries  the  eye  off 
down  the  village  street  towards  the  distant  river  and  mountains,  over 
which  is  a  peaceful  blue  sky.  The  woman  on  the  extreme  left  wears 
an  olive  green  garment  bordered  with  gold  over  a  gown  of  bluish 
white.  Her  tight  undersleeve  is  of  golden  brown  touched  with  gold. 
Her  cap  is  pale  red  and  her  hair  reddish  brown.  Next  to  her  is  a 
woman  clad  in  dark  green,  with  reddish  brown  hair.  The  woman  and 
the  child  in  the  distance  are  dressed  in  a  grayish  white  and  thewoman 
just  this  side  of  them  wears  a  neutral  violet  gown.  The  angel  with  the 
red  wings  in  the  arch  is  dressed  in  a  pale  blue  mantle  and  the  other 
angel  on  the  right  in  a  white  mantle  with  a  dark  brown  tunic.  The 
palm  leaf  is  of  green  and  gold  and  the  desk  of  yellowish  brown. 
Certain  parts  of  the  architecture  are  of  a  neutral  olive  green.  On  the 
gold  border  of  the  Madonna's  mantle  is  an  inscription  difficult  to 
discern.  The  word  Christus  appears  in  the  lower  part  and  the  word 
Mater  may  be  deciphered  on  the  neck  band. 

The  picture  was  bought  and  placed  in  the  Fogg  Museum  in  1910. 
It  is  said  that  it  came  originally  from  Flanders. 


28o  FRENCH  PAINTING 

It  is  singularly  difficult  to  determine  the  author  of  the  painting. 
Many  suggestions  have  been  made,  covering  most  of  the  countries  of 
Europe  from  Portugal  and  Spain  through  France,  Flanders,  Switzer- 
land, Germany,  and  Austria-Hungary;  but  in  the  Museum  it  is  still 
attributed  to  the  French  school.  It  seems  close  in  style  to  an  altar- 
piece  in  the  Cathedral  of  Aix,  portraying  scenes  from  the  life  and 
death  of  Saint  Mitrius,  which  was  shown  in  the  Exhibition  of  French 
Primitives,  Paris,  1904,  and  attributed  to  Nicolas  Froment.  The 
architectural  treatment  and  the  mannered  attitudes  and  gestures  of 
the  figures  are  much  the  same  in  the  two  paintings.  A  picture 
similar  in  style,  representing  Esther  and  King  Ahasuerus  and  attrib- 
uted to  the  Flemish  school,  was  formerly  in  the  George  A.  Hearn 
collection  (No.  328  in  the  sale  catalogue).  More  than  one  critic  has 
suggested  that  the  Fogg  Museum  picture  is  by  a  follower  of  Conrad 
Witz,  and  that  it  was  painted  about  the  year  1500  in  Basle.  It 
appears  to  be  eclectic.  The  nationality  of  the  types  is  hard  to 
determine.  The  picture  is  fine  in  colour  and  interesting  in  its  design 
and  feeling. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1914.   2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 
Archvo  f.  Kunstgeschichte.    Leipsic,  1913.  ii,  No.  33,  Reproduction. 
Berkath.    New  York  und  Boston.     60-61. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Akts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    39. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.    703,  704. 

59B     BEARING  OF  THE  BODY  OF  THE  MADONNA  TO  THE 
SEPULCHRE 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  37!  in.    W.  17!  in.     (96  x45  cm.) 

On  the  back  of  the  Annunciation  to  the  Madonna  of  her  approach- 
ing Death  was  another  picture,  only  half  of  which  has  been  preserved; 
and  that  fragment  has  been  much  repainted.  It  represents  the 
Bearing  of  the  Body  of  the  Madonna  to  the  Sepulchre.  The  apostles 
and  attendant  women  are  dressed  in  white  and  gray.  The  palm 
carried  by  Saint  John  is  white.  The  foliage  and  the  foreground  are 
a  greenish  brown.  In  the  background  is  a  green  hill  with  a  yellow 
castle.  The  sky  is  blue  green  verging  towards  pink  at  the  horizon. 
In  spite  of  the  bad  condition  of  the  picture  a  queer,  wild,  somewhat 
fantastic  impression  is  given,  as  Saint  John,  carrying  his  large  palm 


S9A     FRENCH  SCHOOL 


FRENCH  SCHOOL  28 1 

branch,  and  the  bearers  of  the  bier  stride  forward  against  the  back- 
ground of  hills  and  a  dark  sky. 

All  that  remains  of  the  other  half  of  this  panel  is  a  small  fragment, 
a  wreck  of  what  it  once  was,  but  instructive  as  showing  how  much 
more  attractive  and  how  much  finer  in  quality  an  old,  faded  frag- 
ment is  than  a  picture  repainted  by  modern  hands. 

The  Death  and  Assumption  of  the  Madonna  were  often  treated  by 
artists,  but  the  Annunciation  to  the  Madonna  of  her  approaching 
Death  was  one  of  the  less  frequently  represented  scenes.  Gabriel 
announced  to  the  Madonna  the  coming  of  her  Son;  Michael  was  the 
angel  of  death,  and  in  accordance  with  the  legend  he  bore  a  palm. 
"  I  bring  thee  here  a  branch  of  palm  gathered  in  Paradise;  command 
that  it  be  carried  before  thy  bier  in  the  day  of  thy  death."  The 
legend  further  relates  that  after  the  Madonna's  death,  "  the  apostles 
took  her  up  reverently  and  placed  her  upon  a  bier,  and  John,  carrying 
the  celestial  palm,  went  before." 

MENTIONED 

Archk  f.  Kunstgesckichte.    Leipsic,  1913.  ii,  No.  33. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.    703. 


FLEMISH  PAINTING 


FLEMISH  PAINTING 


AT  the  end  of  the  xrv  and  the  beginning  of  the  xv  century  a  new 
school  of  painting  grew  up  in  Flanders.  The  school  was  the  out- 
growth of  northern  mediaeval  miniature  and  panel  painting.  Flam- 
boyant Gothic  sculpture  had  emphasized  the  value  of  realism,  and 
painters  like  Malouel  and  Bellechose,  miniaturists  like  Jacquemart  de 
Hesdin  and  Pol.de  Limbourg  established  canons  of  naturalism  which 
made  Flemish  art  possible.  The  rise  of  the  school  was  also  aided  by 
the  xiv  century  art  of.  Cologne,  best  shown  in  the  work  of  Meister 
Wilhelm.  The  art  of  the  movement  was,  for  its  period,  strongly 
realistic.  Natural  objects  were  painted  with  the  utmost  fidelity, 
interest  in  still  life  and  genre  began  to  appear,  and  details  of  archi- 
tecture and  landscape  were  rendered  as  carefully  as  the  heads  of  the 
most  sacred  personages  in  the  compositions.  So  pronounced  was 
this  tendency  that  superficial  observers  are  led  to  consider  Flemish 
painting  fundamentally  material,  but  a  thoughtful  analysis  will 
reveal  a  spirituality  in  the  art  quite  as  sincere,  if  not  so  obvious,  as  in 
the  painting  of  contemporary  Italy.  In  the  early  school  the  painting 
was  almost  wholly  religious  and  scenes  and  actors  were  handled  with 
reverence  and  deep  feeling. 

The  Flemings,  however,  inherited  from  earlier  art  a  religious  type 
to  which  they  clung  with  great  tenacity  and  which  to  the  modern  eye 
is  ugly.  The  exaggeratedly  domed  forehead  of  the  Madonna,  a 
symbol  of  intellect  to  the  Fleming,  is  to  the  modern  a  distortion. 
Similarly  the  tiny  mouth,  the  eyes  almost  without  brows,  and  the 
other  features  which  Flemish  symbolism  demanded,  are  now  some- 
what disturbing  to  the  eye.  When  native  realism  and  symbolism 
were  coupled,  as  in  the  over  realistic  rendering  of  the  ascetic  Christ 
Child,  the  effect  is  sometimes  startling  to  the  layman,  and  the  begin- 
ner in  the  study  of  Flemish  art  should  beware  of  mistaking  accidents 
of  convention  for  artistic  defects.  If  the  conventions  of  Flemish  art 
make  it  at  first  difficult  to  appreciate,  the  technical  perfection  of  the 
work  must  appeal  to  any  one.  Oil  painting,  perfected  if  not  neces- 
sarily invented  in  Flanders,  gave  a  richness  of  colour  and  a  lustre  of 


Jean  Malouel 
active 
1396-1415 
Henri 
Bellechose 
active  xv  c. 
1st  half 
Jacquemart  de 
Hesdin,  active 
1384-1400 
Polde 
Limbourg 
active  xv  c. 
1st  quarter 


286 


FLEMISH  PAINTING 


Hubert  van 

Eyck 

1370/80Q)- 

1426 

Jan  van 

Eyck 

ab.  1385-1441 


Rogier  van 
der  Weyden 
I397/I400- 
1464 


Matlre  de 

FUmatte 

active 

1406-1444 

Petrus 

Christus 

ab.  1410-1473 

Dierick  Bouts 

ab.  1410-147$ 


surface  which  specially  distinguished  the  style.  The  play  and  deli- 
cate gradation  of  light  over  richly  coloured  surfaces  was  rendered  so 
skilfully  that  the  artists  approached  the  expression  of  a  complete 
visual  effect,  finally  reached,  in  xvn  century  Holland,  in  the  work  of 
Vermeer. 

The  first  great  Flemish  masters  were  Hubert  and  Jan  van  Eyck, 
who  painted  the  Adoration  of  the  Lamb  for  the  cathedral  of  Saint 
Bavon  at  Ghent.  This  cosmic  composition  may  be  regarded  as  the 
first  complete  declaration  of  the  Flemish  school,  and  it  reveals  both 
the  new  naturalism  and  the  old  mediaeval  spirituality  which  proves 
it  to  be  essentially  still  a  mediaeval  work.  Though  in  common 
terminology  xv  century  Flemish  art  is  spoken  of  as  belonging  to  the 
Renaissance,  properly  speaking  the  Middle  Ages  did  not  come  to  an 
end  in  Flanders  till  the  close  of  the  century.  The  Ghent  polyptych 
is  painted  in  a  rich  oil  technique,  which  makes  it  easy  to  understand 
the  attribution  to  the  van  Eycks  of  the  invention  of  this  method. 
Besides  his  share  of  the  great  polyptych,  Jan  painted  many  fine 
panels,  such  as  the  Madonna  of  the  Canon  van  der  Paelen,  in  Bruges, 
and  the  Virgin  of  the  Chancellor  Rolin,  in  Paris.  He  was  also  a 
portraitist  of  astonishing  ability  and  sincerity,  as  one  may  judge  from 
the  portraits  of  Arnolfini  and  his  wife,  in  the  National  Gallery,  or  the 
Man  with  the  Pink,  in  Berlin. 

The  van  Eycks,  though  the  inaugurators  and  probably  the  most 
important  artists  of  the  mediaeval  school,  were  surpassed  in  religious 
mysticism  and  equalled  in  technique  by  their  slightly  younger  con- 
temporary, Rogier  van  der  Weyden  of  Tournai.  This  master,  in  his 
most  characteristic  works,  abandoned  much  of  the  realism  of  the  van 
Eycks  to  obtain  effects  of  more  exalted  religious  fervour  and  tragic 
grief.  He  was  also  a  sensitive  portraitist.  It  is  interesting  to  note 
that  Rogier  was  one  of  the  first  of  the  many  Flemings  to  make  the 
journey  to  Italy.  Meanwhile  two  artists  of  only  slightly  less  im- 
portance, the  Maitre  de  Flemalle  (Robert  Campin  ?)  and  Petrus 
Christus,  were  contributing  important  elements  to  Flemish  art.  The 
former  and  older  added  to  his  native  delicate  aristocracy  and  reli- 
gious feeling  an  interest  in  still  life  which  alone  would  give  him  an 
important  place  in  the  school.  The  latter  made  religious  painting  an 
excuse  for  genre  scenes,  and  he  might  almost  be  called  the  father  of 
Flemish  genre.   Another  contemporary,  the  bourgeois  Dierick  Bouts, 


FLEMISH  PAINTING 


287 


became  one  of  the  most  finished  technicians  in  Flanders,  and  raised 
the  school  of  Louvain,  his  native  city,  to  a  high  position. 

The  two  chief  figures  in  the  second  generation  of  Flemish  painters 
were  Hugo  van  der  Goes  and  Hans  Memlinc.  Van  der  Goes,  a 
powerful  master,  is  best  known  for  his  altarpiece,  painted  in  1476 
for  Tommaso  Portinari,  and  placed  on  view  in  the  church  of  Santa 
Maria  Nuova  in  Florence  in  1482.  It  had  a  profound  influence  on 
contemporary  Florentine  painting,  especially  on  the  art  of  Ghir- 
landaio  and  Pier  di  Cosimo.  Hugo  was  also  a  portraitist  of  force  and 
delicacy.  Memlinc  was  the  most  charming  of  the  xv  century  Flem- 
ings. In  his  art  realism  is  softened,  the  distorted  types  imposed  by 
Flemish  religious  convention  are  modified,  and  an  almost  Italian 
sense  of  beauty  appears.  Born  in  Germany,  his  style  partakes  some- 
what of  the  character  of  the  school  of  Cologne.  A  serene,  untroubled 
artist,  he  sacrificed  power  to  delicate  beauty,  and  is  often  called,  not 
without  reason,  the  Flemish  Fra  Angelico.  A  contemporary  of  van 
der  Goes  and  Memlinc,  Justus  of  Ghent,  deserves  mention.  He  is 
especially  important  since  he  migrated  to  Italy  in  1474  and  in  the 
court  of  Urbino  taught  Flemish  technique  to  the  Italian  masters, 
most  notably  to  Melozzo  da  Forli,  while  his  own  style  underwent  a 
partial  Italianization. 

At  the  turn  of  the  century,  heralded  by  the  work  of  Memlinc,  a 
change  came  over  Flemish  art.  The  mediaeval  quality  began  to  dis- 
appear and  painting  in  the  true  spirit  of  the  Renaissance  commenced. 
The  Renaissance  in  the  north  took  the  form,  in  all  arts,  of  an  imita- 
tion of  Italian  pseudo-classical  forms,  rather  than  of  a  direct  rever- 
sion to  classical  models.  This  sort  of  imitation  appears  clearly  in  the 
paintings  of  Memlinc's  pupil,  Gerard  David,  who  incorporated 
Lombard  architectural  detail,  festoons,  and  Cupids,  with  his  back- 
grounds. This  imitative  Italianism  was  carried  still  further  by  the 
brilliant  Quentin  Metsys;  and  with  his  appearance  the  centre  of 
interest  of  Flemish  art  shifted  from  Ghent  and  Bruges  to  Antwerp, 
where  it  remained  while  the  school  had  vitality.  Metsys  travelled 
in  Italy,  and  became  the  first  whole-heartedly  Italianate  Fleming. 
He  combined  minute  finish  with  breadth  of  effect,  his  colour  is  more 
uniform  and  fused  than  that  of  his  predecessors,  and  his  figures  begin 
to  be  modelled  rather  than  drawn.  His  artistic  tendencies  were 
further  developed  by  Jan  Gossaert,  called  Mabuse  from  the  town  of 


Hugo  van 

der  Goes 

ab.  1440-1482 


Hans 

Memlinc 

ab.  1430-1494 


Justus  of 

Ghent 

active 

1460-after 

1474 


Gerard  David 
1450/60-1523 


Quentin 

Metsys 

1466^-1530 


Jan  Gossaert 
ab.  1472- 
ab.  1535 


288 


FLEMISH  PAINTING 


Bernard  van 

Orley 

ab.  1493-1542 


Jan  van 

Scorel 

1496-1562 

The  van 

Coninxloos 

active  xvi  c. 

1st  half 

Lancelot 

Blondeel 

1496-1561 

Adrien 

Ysenbrant 

ab.  1485-1551 

Antonio  Mora 

ab.  1519-1576 


Jerom  Bosch 
ab.  1460-1516 


Joachim 

Patinir 

ab.  1485-1524 

Herri  met  de 

Bles 

ab.  1485- 

afler  1550 

Bruegel  the 

Elder 

ab.  1528-1569 


his  birth,  Maubeuge.  Finally,  Bernard  van  Orley  became  the  most 
completely  Italianate  of  the  great  painters  of  the  century,  so  that  his 
works  are  frequently  confused  with  those  of  contemporary  Lom- 
bards. While  travelling  in  Italy  he  visited  Rome,  and  was  strongly 
influenced  by  Raphael  as  well  as  by  the  North  Italians. 

Meanwhile  men  of  only  lesser  ability  painted  in  the  Italianate 
manner,  among  whom  we  may  mention  Jan  van  Scorel,  who  twice 
visited  Italy,  the  van  Coninxloos,  and  Lancelot  Blondeel,  painters  of 
delicate  and  fanciful  architectural  backgrounds,  and  Adrien  Ysen- 
brant, to  whose  delicacy,  care,  and  feeling  for  life  van  Mander  pays 
a  tribute.  Later  than  any  of  these  came  Antonis  Mor,  called  also 
Ser  Antonio  Moro  and  Sir  Anthony  More  in  the  countries  he  visited! 
A  pupil  of  Scorel,  he  was  a  true  cosmopolitan,  who  painted  portraits 
of  prominent  persons  with  a  finished  technique  and  a  wonderful 
grasp  of  the  psychology  of  the  sitter.  His  work  marks  a  transition 
from  the  early  formal  portrait  to  the  mature  work  of  Rubens  and  van 
Dyck.  On  the  whole,  the  xvi  century  in  artistic  Flanders  was  the 
age  of  Italian  imitation.  Nevertheless,  there  were  Flemings  in  the 
period  who  continued  the  native  mediaeval  tradition.  Such  a  one 
was  Jerom  Bosch,  a  preacher  in  art,  whose  half-mad  and  diseased 
allegories,  painted  in  a  clear,  fluid  technique,  won  him  great  popu- 
larity in  the  Spanish  court.  The  bits  of  landscape  painted  by  Bosch 
were  charming,  but  he  was  surpassed  in  this  genre  by  Joachim 
Patinir,  the  most  lyric  painter  of  the  school.  His  successor,  Herri 
met  de  Bles,  combined  Patinir' s  landscape  art  with  a  delicate  Italian- 
ism.  The  native  flavour  of  Flemish  art  was  renewed  by  Pieter 
Bruegel  the  Elder  and  his  sons.  This  master  not  only  designed 
fantastic  allegories  in  the  vein  of  Jerom  Bosch,  but,  what  is  more 
important,  painted  many  delicate  landscapes  with  an  unstudied 
naturalism  quite  modern,  and  village  scenes  which,  without  Dutch 
coarseness,  anticipated  the  developments  of  Dutch  genre. 

If  the  xvi  century  in  Flanders  was  the  age  of  imitation,  the  xvn 
was  the  age  of  adaptation.  The  great  artists  of  the  xvn  century, 
studied  Italian  painting  as  carefully  as  their  predecessors,  but  in  a 
more  thinking  way.  They  sought  not  to  imitate,  but  to  discover  the 
secrets  of  colour  and  composition  which  underlay  the  greatness  of 
Italian  art.  The  result  was  an  Italianate  art  which  nevertheless 
retained  its  native  Flemish  quality.    It  was  the  studied,  somewhat 


FLEMISH  PAINTING  289 

eclectic,  but  vigorous  art  of  the  Flemish  Counter-Reformation.  Its 
greatest  exponent  and  controlling  genius  was  Peter  Paul  Rubens,  an 
artist,  scholar,  courtier,  and  diplomat,  who  studied  eight  years  in  Italy 
and  returned  to  become  practically  artistic  dictator  of  Flanders.  All 
the  tendencies  of  xvn  century  Flemish  art  might  be  illustrated  in  the 
vital,  coarse,  resplendent  work  of  this  artist.  His  range  of  subject 
was  as  extraordinary  as  his  breadth  of  genius,  and  he  is  noted  for 
religious  subjects,  allegories,  hunting  scenes,  portraits,  mythological 
scenes,  genre,  and  still  life.  A  contemporary  of  Rubens,  Jacob 
Jordaens,  at  times  out-rivalled  Rubens  in  coarseness,  at  times 
painted  with  a  suavity  unusual  in  an  artist  who  never  left  Flanders. 
Nevertheless,  he  always  showed  dynamic  power.  "  Rubens  dipped 
his  brush  in  blood;  Jordaens  dipped  his  in  fire,"  is  a  shrewd  char- 
acterization of  the  styles  of  the  two  men. 

Antoon  van  Dyck  formed  the  third  member  of  what  we  may  call 
the  great  Flemish  trinity  of  the  xvn  century.  Beginning  as  a  pupil  of 
the  smooth  classicist  Hendrik  van  Balen,  he  was  apprenticed  for  a 
time  to  Rubens,  but  in  152 1  he  went  to  Italy,  where  he  remained  five 
years.  On  his  return  he  worked  in  Flanders  till  1632,  when  he  was 
called  to  England,  and  for  the  rest  of  his  life  he  was  associated  with 
the  court  of  Charles  1.  Van  Dyck  was  the  least  Flemish  and  most 
cosmopolitan  of  all  Flemings.  He  worshipped  at  the  shrine  of  Titian, 
and  obtained  an  almost  Venetian  richness  of  colour.  Moreover,  he 
was  as  delicate  in  thought  as  in  touch,  and  he  became  the  most  re- 
fined, one  might  almost  say  the  only  refined,  xvn  century  Flemish 
artist.  As  a  religious  painter,  he  belongs  clearly  to  the  Jesuitical 
group  of  the  Counter-Reformation.  His  mythological  scenes  are 
almost  Venetian  in  quality,  but  he  is  best  known  for  his  many 
aristocratic  portraits. 

Rubens,  Jordaens,  and  van  Dyck  best  sum  up  the  tendencies  of  the 
age,  but  there  were  hosts  of  other  artists,  among  whom  perhaps 
Frans  Snyders,  animal  and  still  life  painter,  deserves  special  mention. 
Meanwhile,  native  bourgeois  and  genre  tradition  was  continued  by 
the  Teniers  family,  the  most  important  member  of  which  was  David 
Teniers  the  Younger,  who  painted  scenes  of  the  inn  and  village 
street  in  the  smooth  technique  of  earlier  Flanders,  but  with  a  homely 
coarseness  rivalling  the  art  of  some  of  the  later  Dutch  Little  Masters. 
After  1700,  although  painting  continued  in  Flanders,  the  importance 


Peter  Paul 

Rubens 

1577-1640 


Jacob 

Jordaens 

1593-1678 


Antoon  van 

Dyck 

1599-1641 

Hendrik  van 

Balen 

1575-1632 


Frans  Snyders 

1579-1657 
Teniers  the 
Younger 
i6io-i6go 


290  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

of  the  school  declined,  and  for  progressive  painting  in  the  Nether- 
lands we  must  look  to  Holland  rather  than  to  the  Catholic  southern 

country. 

George  Harold  Edgell. 

The  Flemish  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum  will  be  found  under  Nos.  60-65 
in  this  Catalogue. 

Among  the  artists  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  sketch  the  following  are  rep- 
resented in  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  and  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John 
L.  Gardner  at  Fenway  Court. 

Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts:  Van  der  Weyden,  Saint  Luke  drawing  the 
Portrait  of  the  Madonna;  van  Dyck,  Portrait  of  Anna  Maria  de  Schodt  and 
other  paintings  by  van  Dyck  and  his  school. 

Fenway  Court:  Jan  van  Scorel,  Portrait  of  a  Woman;  Antonio  Moro, 
Portrait  of  Mary  Tudor;  Rubens,  Portrait  of  the  Earl  of  Arundel;  van  Dyck, 
Portrait. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Conway,  W.  M.    Early  Flemish  artists  and  their  predecessors  on  the  lower 

Rhine.    London,  1887. 
Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.  The  early  Flemish  painters,  2d  ed.  London,  1872. 
Fierens-Gevaert,  H.    Les  primitifs  flamands.    Brussels,  1909-1912.    4  v. 
Fromentin,  E.    The  masters  of  past  time;  or,  Criticism  on  the  old  Flemish 

and  Dutch  painters.    New  York,  1913. 
Heidrich,  E.  Alt-niederlandische  Malerei;  200  Nachbildungen  mit  geschicht- 

licher  Einfuhrung  und  Erlauterungen.     Jena,  1910.     (Die  Kunst  in 

Bildern.) 
Vlaemische  Malerei  .  .  .  Jena,  1913.    (Die  Kunst  in  Bildern.) 
Kugler,  F.  T.    The  German,  Flemish,  and  Dutch  schools  of  painting.    Re- 
modelled by  Dr.  Waagen  and  revised  and  in  part  rewritten  by  Sir 

Joseph  A.  Crowe,  3d  ed.    London,  1904.   2  parts. 
Rooses,  M.    Art  in  Flanders.    New  York,  1914.    (Ars  una;  species  mille.) 
Wauters,  A.  J.    The  Flemish  school  of  painting.    Tr.  by  Mrs.  Henry  Rossel. 

London,  1885. 


R0G1ER  VAN  DER  WEYDEN  (?)  AND  GERARD  DAVID  (?) 

ROGIER  VAN  DER  WEYDEN  (?) 

1397/1400-1464 

Rogier  de  la  Pasture,  or  Rogier  van  der  Weyden,  as  he  was  called 
after  he  settled  in  Flanders,  was  born  at  Tournai  between  1397  and 
1400.  The  register  of  the  Tournai  Guild  of  Painters  shows  that  he 
was  apprenticed  to  Robert  Campin  in  1427.  In  1432  he  was  re- 
ceived as  a  master  painter  in  the  Guild,  although  he  had  already 
made  a  name  for  himself  as  a  painter  by  his  Mirafiores  triptych, 
which  dates  from  before  1431.  Records  of  1435  show  that  he  was  at 
that  time  official  painter  to  the  city  of  Brussels.  Among  his  works 
executed  between  1435  and  1450  are  the  Descent  from  the  Cross,  in 
the  Escorial,  and  the  polyp tych  of  the  Last  Judgment,  at  Beaune.  In 
1450,  the  year  of  the  jubilee,  he  went  to  Rome,  also  visiting  Florence, 
Ferrara,  and  probably  Milan  and  Venice.  It  is  thought  that  he  went 
to  Cologne  on  his  way  home.  His  pictures  painted  after  this  date  — 
among  them  his  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  at  Munich,  and  the  triptych 
of  the  Seven  Sacraments,  in  Antwerp  —  show  traces  of  Italian  in- 
fluence, and  his  own  work  left  its  impress  on  the  Italian  artists.  He 
died  at  Brussels  in  June,  1464,  and  was  buried  in  Sainte  Gudule.  Van 
der  Weyden  and  Memlinc  rank  among  the  greatest  figures  in  early 
Flemish  art  and  all  but  reach  the  high  level  of  the  van  Eycks. 

Van  der  Weyden  is  represented  in  this  country  by  the  panel  of  the 
Mirafiores  triptych,  Christ  appearing  to  His  Mother,  in  the  collection 
of  Michael  Dreicer,  New  York;  by  a  Portrait  in  the  collection  of 
Michael  Friedsam,  New  York;  by  panels  in  the  John  G.  Johnson 
collection,  Philadelphia;  and  by  a  picture  in  the  Metropolitan 
Museum  belonging  to  the  J.  Pierpont  Morgan  collection.  In  the 
Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  is  a  picture  of  Saint  Luke  drawing  the 
Portrait  of  the  Madonna,  probably  by  van  der  Weyden,  although  it 
has  been  attributed  to  Gerard  David. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Fry,  R.  E.  A  portrait  of  Leonello  d'  Este  by  Roger  van  der  Weyden.  Burlington 
magazine.    London,  Jan.,  1911.  xviii  (94),  200-202. 

Gomez-Moreno,  M.  Un  tresor  de  peintures  inedites  du  xv°  siecle.  Gazette 
des  beaux-arts.    Paris,  Oct.,  1908.  30  per.,  xl  (616),  301-302. 


292  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

Hasse,  C.    Roger  van  der  Weyden  und  Roger  van  Brugge  mit  ihren  Schulen. 
Strasburg,  1905.    (Zur  Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  30.) 

Hymans,  H;  L'  exposition  des  primitifs  flamands  a.  Bruges.    Gazette  des  beaux- 
arts.   Paris,  Sept.,  1902.  30  per.,  xxviii  (543),  192-196. 

Lafond,  P.    Roger  van  der  Weyden.    Paris,  1912.    (Collection  des  grands 
artistes  des  Pays-Bas.) 

Leprieur,  P.    Un  triptyque  de  Roger  de  la  Pasture  au  Musee  du  Louvre. 
Gazette  des  beaux-arts.   Paris,  Oct.,  1913.  4"  per.,  x  (676),  257-280. 

Loga,  V.  von.    Zum  Altar  von  Miraflores.    Jakrb.  d.  kon.  preuss.  Kunstsamml. 
Berlin,  1910.  xxxi  (1),  47-56. 

Maeterlinck,  L.    Roger  van  der  Weyden,  sculpteur.    Gazette  des  beaux-arts. 
Paris,  Oct.-Nov.,  1901.  3°  per.,  xxvi  (532-533),  265-284,  399-411. 

Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.    Christ  appearing  to  His  mother  by  Rogier  de  la  Pasture. 
Art  in  America.    New  York,  April,  1917.  v  (3),  143-149. 

Ricci,  S.  de.    Un  groupe  d'oeuvres  de  Roger  van  der  Weyden.    Gazette  des 
beaux-arts.    Paris,  Sept.,  1907.   3"  per.,  xxxviii  (603),  177-198. 

Wauters,  A.  J.    Roger  van  der  Weyden.    Burlington  magazine.    London, 
Nov.,  1912,  Jan.,  1913.   xxii  (116,  118),  75-82,  230-232. 

Weale,  W.  H.  J.    The  Annunciation  by  Roger  de  la  Pasture.    Burlington 
magazine.    London,  May,  1905.   vii  (26),  141. 
The  risen  Saviour  appearing  to  His  mother.  Burlington  magazine.  London, 
Dec,  1909.  xvi  (81),  159-160. 

Winkler,  F.   Der  Meister  von  Flemalle  und  Rogier  van  der  Weyden.    Stras- 
burg, 1913.    (Zur  Kunstgeschichte  des  Auslandes,  103.) 


GERARD  DAVID  (?) 

1450/1460-1523 

Gerard  David,  the  last  great  painter  of  the  school  of  Bruges,  was 
born  at  Oudewater  in  Holland  some  time  between  1450  and  1460. 
His  first  training  was  probably  received  at  Haarlem.  He  came  to 
Bruges  toward  the  end  of  1483  and  in  1484  was  admitted  as  master 
painter  into  the  Guild  of  Saint  Luke  and  Saint  Eligius.  The  works 
of  the  van  Eycks,  van  der  Weyden,  van  der  Goes,  and  Memlinc,  in 
Bruges,  made  a  profound  impression  on  David.  He  was  a  councillor 
of  the  Guild  in  1488,  in  1495-1496,  and  in  1498-1499,  and  dean  from 
1 501  to  1502.  From  1488  to  1498  David  was  at  work  on  two  panels 
—  the  Judgment  of  Cambyses  and  the  Flaying  of  Sisamnes — for  the 
decoration  of  the  Justice  room  of  the  Town  Hall  at  Bruges.  Between 
the  years  1502  and  1508  David  painted  for  Jean  des  Trompes,  trea- 
surer of  Bruges,  the  triptych  of  the  Baptism  of  Christ,  of  the  Bruges 
Gallery.  In  1509  he  gave  to  the  church  of  the  Carmelite  nuns  at 
Bruges  the  picture  now  considered  his  masterpiece —  the  Madonna 
and  Saints,  of  the  Rouen  Museum.  In  1 51 5  he  went  to  Antwerp,  where 
he  came  under  the  influence  of  Quentin  Metsys,  and  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Guild  of  Saint  Luke.  He  died  in  1 523.  David  was  an 
illuminator  as  well  as  a  painter.  Two  miniatures  by  him  were  (1914) 
in  the  Academy  at  Bruges.  The  famous  Grimani  Breviary  and  other 
books  probably  by  the  same  hand  —  some  of  which  are  in  America  in 
the  collections  of  William  Augustus  White  and  Alfred  Tredway 
White,  of  Brooklyn,  and  in  the  J.  Pierpont  Morgan  library  —  have 
been  associated  with  his  name. 

Paintings  in  this  country  by  David  are  in  the  Metropolitan 
Museum;  the  collection  of  the  New  York  Historical  Society;  and  in 
private  collections,  among  them  the  P.  A.  B.  Widener  and  the  John 
G.  Johnson  collections,  Philadelphia;  and  the  collections  of  Henry 
Clay  Frick,  and  Henry  Goldman,  New  York. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Amaudry,  L.  The  collection  of  Dr.  Carvallo  at  Paris;  iii,  Early  pictures  of 
various  schools.   Burlington  magazine.   London,  Jan.,  1905.  vi(22),  294. 

Benoit,  F.  Un  Gerard  David  inconnu.  Gazette  des  beaux-arts.  Paris,  Oct., 
1904.  30  per.,  xxxii  (568),  311-325. 


294  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

Bodenhattsen,  E.  von.    Gerard  David  und  seine  Schule.    Munich,  1905. 
Conway,  W.  M.    Gerard  David's  "  Descent  from  the  Cross."    Burlington 

magazine.    London,  Nov.,  1916.   xxix  (164),  309-310. 
Friedlander,  M.  J.    Ein  Madonnenbild  Gerard  Davids  im  Kaiser  Friedrich 

Museum.    Jahrb.  d.  kSn.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.    Berlin,  1906.   xxvii  (3), 

143-148. 
Weale,  W.  H.  J.    Gerard  David;  painter  and  illuminator.    London,  1895. 

(Portfolio  artistic  monographs,  24.) 
Netherlandish  art  at  the  Guildhall.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  July, 

1906.  ix  (40),  239. 
Painting  by  Gerard  David  in  the  collection  of  Don  Pablo  Bosch  at  Madrid. 

Burlington  magazine.    London,  Sept.,  1905.  vii  (30),  469-470. 
Shutters  of  a  triptych  by  Gerard  David.    Burlington  magazine.   London, 

June,  1905.  vii  (27),  234-237. 
Winkler,  F.     In  Thieme-Becker.    Riinstler-Lexikon.     Leipsic,  1913.    viii, 

452-455- 
Gerard  David  und  die  Brugger  Miniaturmalerei  seiner  Zeit.    Monatshefte 

f.  Kunstw.    Leipsic,  July,  1913.    vi  (7),  271-280. 

60    DIPTYCH 

A  MADONNA   AND   CHILD  — VAN   DER  WEYDEN  (?) 
B  BISHOP  AND  DONOR  — DAVID  (?) 

Oil  on  panel. 
Madonna  panel,  H.  2i|  in.    W.  14^  in.    (55.5  X  35.7  cm.) 
Donor  panel,  H.  22^  in.    W.  14  in.    (56.3  X  35.5  cm.) 

The  reds  in  this  picture  make  a  sort  of  V-shaped  composition, 
running  from  the  rose  red  and  pink  brocade  behind  the  Madonna's 
head  through  the  red  robe  with  the  green  lining  which  extends  from 
her  left  shoulder  down  toward  the  centre  of  the  picture.  In  the 
other  panel  the  gown  of  the  donor  is  a  V-shaped  mass  of  red,  which 
carries  the  eye  up  to  the  pink  lining  of  the  lappets  of  the  bishop's 
mitre  and  his  pink  cap.  The  Madonna  wears  a  gown  of  green  and 
gold  brocade.  Over  this  is  her  robe;  her  mantle  which  comes  down 
over  her  head  and  falls  over  her  shoulders  is  a  very  dark  blue.  Her 
kerchief  is  white,  as  is  the  cloth  on  which  the  Child  is  seated.  The 
Madonna  and  Child  both  have  rich  orange  red  hair.  A  wall  of  pale 
olive  green  similar  to  the  lining  of  the  robe  is  seen  on  either  side 
of  the  textile  behind  the  Madonna's  head.  Through  the  window 
may  be  seen  a  delicately  painted  landscape  with  a  pale  orange  red 
wall  with  green  trees  in  front.  A  horseman  is  farther  off  and  two 
figures  stand  near  the  entrance  to  the  yellowish  castle  with  a  pink 


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VAN  DER  WEYDEN  (?)  —  DAVID  (?)  295 

roof  and  blue  turret  in  the  distance.  Far  away  a  pale  bluish  moun- 
tain is  seen  against  the  sky,  which  is  pale  orange  red  near  the  horizon 
and  changes  gradually  into  blue.  On  the  other  panel  the  window 
does  not  quite  match  the  first  one  in  size  or  in  placing,  and  the  colour 
scheme  of  the  landscape  is  also  different.  The  sky  descends  to  a 
yellow  green  near  the  horizon  instead  of  to  an  orange  pink,  and  the 
general  tonality  of  the  distance  is  a  cooler  blue.  The  donor  wears 
over  his  red  gown  a  black  mantle  lined  with  gray  fur.  He  wears  a 
gold  ring,  and  in  his  hands  is  a  scroll  which  reads:  Me  culpis 
solutum  mitem  fac  et  cafstum].  (Make  me  free  from  sins,  gentle 
and  pure.)  The  bishop,  Saint  Jodoc,  wears  a  vestment  of  green 
brocade,  with  a  narrow  band  of  rose  at  the  neck,  and  a  cope  of  dark 
green  blue  bordered  and  clasped  with  gold  and  lined  with  rose  colour. 
His  gloves  are  light  blue;  on  the  back  of  his  left  glove  is  a  dark  blue 
jewel  set  in  gold.  There  are  faint  traces  of  gold  embroidery  around 
the  setting.  His  three  rings  are  gold  set  with  dark  blue  stones.  His 
mitre  is  gold  and  jewelled,  lined  with  green.  His  cap  is  of  rose  colour 
and  the  lappets  to  his  mitre  are  lined  with  rose.  His  scarf  is  bluish 
white.  There  is  no  gold  used  in  the  picture,  but  the  effect  is  pro- 
duced by  yellow  paint.  On  the  right  is  a  patch  of  greenish  blue  sky. 
Through  the  window  the  Crucifixion  is  seen  on  the  hill  in  the  middle 
distance,  with  numerous  footmen  and  horsemen  in  evidence.  This 
right-hand  panel  is  not  in  perfect  condition  and  has  probably  suffered 
in  the  past. 

The  diptych  offers  an  interesting  problem.  A  number  of  critics 
have  felt  that  the  two  wings  were  painted  by  different  hands.  Pro- 
fessor Frank  J.  Mather,  Jr.,  of  Princeton,  has  discussed  the  question 
in  an  able  and  interesting  article  in  Art  in  America  for  October,  1915. 
The  Madonna  appears  to  be  of  the  van  der  Weyden  type.  Most 
critics  have  thought  that  it  was  probably  a  contemporary  copy  by 
one  of  Rogier's  assistants,  but  Professor  Mather  is  bolder,  and  sug- 
gests that  it  may  be  by  the  master  himself.  The  beautiful  quality 
and  exquisite  finish  of  the  picture  and  the  fact  that  it  has  in  the  past 
held  its  own  well  on  the  same  wall  with  other  van  der  Weydens 
justifies  this  belief. 

The  other  panel  was  painted  by  a  different  hand.  The  style  is 
more  powerful  and  vigorous.    It  has  been  suggested  that  Gerard 


296  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

David  or  somebody  akin  to  him  may  have  executed  this  picture.  On 
the  back  of  the  right-hand  wing  is  painted  a  coat  of  arms  with  a 
monogram  and  inscription,  which  reads  thus: 

Hier  voren  ligghe  begrave  joos  vader 
burch  wil6  raed  houyer  vade  romsch 
rycke  en  zyns  zoons  phs  erdshertoge 
va  oostrycke  hertoge  va  bourgne  grave 
va  vlandere  etc  en  ghe  (com)  miteerd  ont 
fanghere  va  vuernabocht  xxix  iare 
die  starf  d6  vierde  dach  va  sporkele 
int  iarr  m  cccc  zesenentneghentic  (h) 

(Impaled  arms      ~\ 
Van  der  Burg       I  J.  K. 
Van  der  Mersch  J 
en  ioncvrouwe  katheline  va  der 
mersch  zyn  eerste  wyf  die  starf  d£ 
xx  dach  va  maye  int  iarr  M  cccc. 
[zesenent  ?]  neghentich  bedt  ver  de  zielen 

This  has  been  translated  by  Professor  Mather  with  the  help  of  his 
friends  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bye  as  follows: 

Before  this  lie  buried  Joos  Van  der  Burch,  formerly  counsellor  of  the 
Roman  Empire  [used  for  Emperor]  and  of  his  son  Princely  Highness1 
Archduke  of  Austria,  Duke  of  Burgundy,  Count  of  Flanders,  etc.,  com- 
missioned as  Receiver  of  Furnes  for  twenty-nine  years,  who  died  the 
fourth  day  of  February,  1496.  And  Miss  Kathleen  Van  der  Mersch,  his 
first  wife,  who  died  the  twentieth  day  of  May  in  the  year  149-. 

The  inscription  has  suffered  and  is  in  some  places  hard  to  read,  but 
it  appears  to  be  substantially  as  above.  The  monogram  J.  K. 
doubtless  represents  the  names  of  Joos  and  his  wife  Kathleen. 

In  regard  to  the  relation  between  the  two  panels,  Professor  Mather 
presents  an  interesting  hypothesis :  "  Both  were  made  for  the  van  der 
Burg  family,  as  the  arms  in  the  windows  attest,  but  there  is  much 
reason  for  supposing  that  the  two  pictures  were  painted  independ- 
ently, perhaps  at  widely  differing  times,  by  different  artists,  and  later 
arbitrarily  assembled  as  a  diptych.    The  panel  containing  the  por- 

1  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  letters  phs  stand  for  Philip,  the  son  of  the  Emperor 
Maximilian  1. 


VAN  DER  WEYDEN  (?)  —  DAVID  (?)  297 

traits  was  originally  at  least  two  inches  larger  in  every  dimension, 
and  later  cut  down.  This  is  shown  by  the  awkward  way  in  which  the 
frame  cuts  the  donor's  fingers,  as  well  as  Saint  Jodoc's  mitre  and 
crook.  Then  the  window  shows  only  two  rows  of  bullseyes  on  the 
sinister  side  of  the  central  panel,  as  against  three  rows  at  the  dexter 
side.  Aside  from  this,  the  window  by  no  means  fits  its  pendant  in 
the  panel  of  the  Madonna.  It  is  larger  in  every  dimension,  the  sill 
and  crossbar  do  not  fit,  the  perspective  is  slightly  different,  revealing 
more  of  the  sill  in  the  panel  with  the  donor.  Examining  the  reverse 
of  this  panel,  the  story  is  equally  plain.  At  all  points  the  flourishes 
have  been  cut  off,  at  the  right-hand  side  one  or  two  lines  of  text  have 
lost  a  letter  in  part." 

Mr.  Mather  further  points  out  that  the  most  natural  explanation 
of  this  cutting  down  of  the  portraits  of  the  donors  is  that  this  panel 
was  the  newer  and  less  valued  of  the  two.  The  simplest  way  to  fit 
the  panels  together  would  have  been  to  build  out  the  Madonna 
panel.  Since  this  was  not  done,  it  is  probable  that  the  Madonna 
was  too  highly  valued  to  be  tampered  with. 

The  prototype  of  the  Madonna  panel  is  doubtless  the  Madonna 
and  Child  of  van  der  Weyden's  Saint  Luke  drawing  the  Portrait  of 
the  Madonna,  of  which  there  are  versions  in  Munich,  in  Petrograd, 
in  the  Wilczeck  collection,  Vienna,  and  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts, 
Boston.  It  is  uncertain  which  of  these  is  the  original.  There  are 
numerous  half-length  Madonnas  from  this  design  in  the  galleries  and 
private  collections  of  Europe.  In  the  Brussels  Gallery  are  two 
Madonnas,  one  of  which  is  very  close  to  the  Fogg  Museum  panel, 
with  a  window  on  the  right  through  which  is  seen  a  similar  landscape, 
and  the  Madonna  and  Child  undoubtedly  from  the  same  design. 
Almost  the  only  difference  is  that  in  the  Brussels  picture  there  is  no 
brocade  behind  the  Madonna,  and  there  are  golden  rays  emanating 
from  the  heads  of  Madonna  and  Child.  Other  similar  Madonnas  are 
in  the  Rijks  Museum,  Amsterdam;  the  Antwerp  Gallery;  the  Meyer 
van  der  Bergh  collection,  Antwerp;  the  Kaiser  Friedrich  Museum, 
Berlin;  the  Matthys  collection,  Brussels;  the  Cassel  Gallery;  the 
Staedel  Institute,  Frankfort;  the  National  Gallery,  London;  the  Trau- 
mann  collection,  Madrid;  the  Germanic  Museum,  Nuremberg;  the 
collection  of  Baron  Chiaramonte  Bordonaro,  Palermo;  the  Strasburg 
Gallery;  in  the  collection  of  M.  Michel  van  Gelder  (No.  10  in  the 


298  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

Catalogue  of  the  Exhibition  of  Works  by  the  early  Flemish  Painters 
at  the  Guildhall  Gallery,  London,  1906) ;  and  in  the  Metropolitan 
Museum,  New  York.  There  is  also  a  similar  Madonna  on  a  much 
smaller  scale  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston.  A  tondo 
formerly  in  the  Kann  collection  (Catalogue,  No.  113),  the  full-length 
Madonna  and  Child  in  the  central  panel  of  a  triptych  attributed 
to  Ambrosius  Benson  (No.  71  in  the  Catalogue  of  Ancient  Paint- 
ings sold  by  the  Kleinberger  Galleries,  January  23,  1918),  the 
Madonna  and  Child  in  Berlin  by  Gerard  David  (No.  573A),  and 
the  Madonna  and  Child  by  Memlinc  in  the  Royal  Chapel, 
Granada,  are  variants  from  this  design;  and  there  are  many  others 
in  various  collections.  It  is  uncertain  which  of  the  half-length 
Madonnas  of  this  type  is  the  original  van  der  Weyden,  or  whether 
perhaps  more  than  one  of  them  was  executed  by  the  master's  hand. 
The  panels  have  been  variously  attributed  to  van  der  Weyden, 
Bouts,  Memlinc,  David,  or  Ysenbrant.  As  we  have  already  stated, 
Mr.  Mather  thinks  that  the  Fogg  Museum  Madonna  may  be  the 
work  of  van  der  Weyden  himself. 

Dr.  Victor  van  der  Haegen,  Archivist  of  the  city  of  Ghent,  in  a 
letter  dated  December,  191 1,  said  that  the  picture  is  known  and 
comes  from  the  church  of  Sainte  Walburge  at  Furnes,  near  Ostend. 
It  appears  by  the  inscription  that  J  00s  van  der  Burg  died  in  1496, 
and  that  he  was  counsellor  for  the  Emperor  Maximilian  (1459-1519) 
and  for  his  son  Philip  (1478-1506).  In  that  case  the  portrait 
could  not  have  been  painted  by  Rogier  van  der  Weyden  who  died  in 
1464.  Gerard  David  was  born  between  1450  and  1460,  and  died  in 
1523,  which  makes  it  possible  that  the  portrait  was  painted  by  him. 

The  picture  was  bought  by  George  W.  Harris  of  Boston,  probably 
some  time  between  1870  and  1880,  from  an  American  collector,  who 
had  gathered  together  some  works  of  art  in  Europe.  Mr.  Harris  on 
his  death  in  1906  bequeathed  the  picture  to  Harvard  University. 


VAN  DER  WEYDEN  (?)  —  DAVID  (?)  299 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bernath.    New  York  und  Boston.    54,  Reproduction. 
Harvard  alumni  bulletin.    Oct.  25,  1911.   54,  Reproduction  (53). 
KunstgeschichtlicheGesellschaft.    Sitzungsbericht.    Dec.  11,  1908.   viii, 

39,  and  same  in  Deutsche  Literaturzeitung.    Feb.  27,  1909.    551-552. 
Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.   Three  early  Flemish  tomb  pictures.   Art  in  America.   New 

York,  Oct.,  1915.   iii  (6),  261-267,  Reproduction. 
Winkler.    63;  113,  note  2. 

MENTIONED 

American  art  annual.    New  York,  1908.    vi,  143. 

Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    June,  1909.    28,  Reproduction. 

Burlington  magazine.    London,  Dec,  1915.  xxviii  (153),  125. 

Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    Boston,  Dec,  1906.    xv  (58),  286;  Dec,  1912. 

xxi  (82),  290. 
McMahan,  U.    Une  exposition  documentaire  en  Pensylvanie.     Gazette  des 

beaux-arts.   Paris,  Feb.,  1909.    4»  per.,  i  (620),  183,  Reproduction. 
Nation.    Nov.  23,  1916,  492. 
For  brief  discussion  of  similar  pictures,  see  also: 
FriedlXnder,  M.  J.    Ein  Madonnenbild  Gerard  Davids  im  Kaiser  Friedrich 

Museum.    Jahrb.  d.  kbn.  preuss.  Kunstsamml.    Berlin,  1906.   xxvii  (3), 

143-148. 


SCHOOL  OF  QUENTIN  METSYS 
xvi  century,  first  half 

Quentin  Metsys  (1466  ?-i53o)  was  a  painter  of  the  school  of  Ant- 
werp and  the  last  master  to  express  with  sincerity  the  old  tradition  of 
the  Netherlands.  He  was  influenced  by  Gerard  David  and  Dierick 
Bouts  and  also  by  Italian  masters. 

Among  paintings  by  Metsys  in  this  country  are  those  in  the 
Metropolitan  Museum,  and  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection, 
Philadelphia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bosschere,  J.  D.    Quinten  Metsys.    Brussels,  1907.    (Collection  des  grands 

artistes  des  Pays-Bas.) 
Cohen,  W.    Studien  zu  Quinten  Metsys.    Munich,  1904. 

61     SAINT   LUKE  PAINTING   THE   PORTRAIT   OF   THE 

MADONNA 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  17A  in.    W.  i2f  in.     (43.3  X  32.3  cm.) 

This  picture  is  perhaps  more  lacking  than  most  of  those  in  the  Gal- 
lery in  subtle  harmonies.  Saint  Luke  is  in  a  gown  of  strong  red  and 
the  Madonna  in  a  rich  blue  green  mantle,  which  is  similar  to  the 
head-dress  of  Saint  Luke.  Both  have  white  kerchiefs.  The  pre- 
vailing tones  of  the  background  are  grays  and  browns.  Reminiscent 
of  van  Eyck's  Arnolfmi  portrait  in  the  National  Gallery  is  the 
mirror  hanging  on  the  wall  behind  the  saint,  in  which  his  back  and 
easel  are  reflected. 

The  picture  was  bought  in  1910  of  Ulrich  Jaeger,  who  had  pur- 
chased it  the  previous  year  from  a  Spanish  collection  in  which  it 
was  attributed  to  Mabuse. 

There  is  no  reason  for  thinking  that  the  picture  is  by  Quentin 
Metsys  himself,  but  it  resembles  his  style  more  closely  than  that  of 
other  masters,  though  it  is  slightly  reminiscent  of  certain  character- 
istics of  Mabuse. 

The  subject  of  Saint  Luke  painting  the  portrait  of  the  Madonna 
was  frequently  treated  in  the  Middle  Ages  and  in  the  Renaissance. 
The  earliest  representation  that  we  know  is  a  drawing  supposed  to  be 
of  the  rx  century,  which  is  published  in  Ottley's  Italian  School  of 


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SCHOOL  OF  QUENTIN  METSYS  301 

Design.  The  artist  holds  a  brush  in  one  hand  and  a  small  shell  in  the 
other,  which  is  an  interesting  illustration  of  the  mediaeval  habit  of 
mixing  the  colours  in  shells.  Attributed  to  van  der  Weyden  are  the 
pictures  of  this  subject,  perhaps  all  replicas  of  a  lost  original,  in  Petro- 
grad,  in  Munich,  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  and  in  the 
Wilczeck  collection,  Vienna.  All  represent  Saint  Luke,  pencil  in 
hand,  drawing  in  a  book.  A  picture  by  Dierick  Bouts  belonging  to 
Lord  Penrhyn  (No.  22  in  the  Exhibition  of  works  by  the  early 
Flemish  Painters  at  the  Guildhall,  London,  1906)  treats  the  subject  in 
a  very  similar  vein.  In  the  Print  Room,  Brussels,  is  an  engraving 
from  a  lost  painting  by  Quentin  Metsys  of  the  same  subject.  This 
design  appears  to  have  a  bigness  and  boldness  that  the  Fogg  Museum 
picture  lacks,  and  the  composition  is  dissimilar.  In  this  one  also 
Saint  Luke  is  represented  as  drawing,  but  here  with  his  left  hand,  on 
a  paper  resting  on  a  book,  as  the  composition  was  doubtless  reversed 
in  the  process  of  printing.  In  addition  there  are  other  versions,  some 
of  them  later,  in  which  Saint  Luke  is  represented  painting  instead  of 
drawing  the  Madonna.  One  of  the  early  examples  of  this  type  may 
be  seen  in  the  Germanic  Museum,  Nuremberg.  It  is  by  the  Master 
of  the  Peringsdorf  Altar  and  is  said  to  have  been  painted  in  1487.  In 
this  Saint  Luke  is  represented  with  his  panel  on  an  easel,  holding  a 
palette  of  the  modern  type  and  with  his  hand  resting  against  a  mahl- 
stick.  There  is  also  an  engraving  from  the  hand  of  Dierick  Jacobszoon 
Vellert  (active,  1511-1544)  which  represents  the  same  subject  —  and 
here  too  the  saint  has  a  palette.  In  the  Hortulus  Anime,  printed 
in  Lyons  in  1516,  the  saint  holds  a  palette,  very  diminutive  in  size. 
Indeed  the  noticeable  thing  in  almost  every  case  is  the  small  size  of 
the  palette,  perhaps  indicating,  as  Eastlake  suggests,  that  the  artist 
finished  one  part  of  a  picture  at  a  time  and  that  he  used  several 
small  palettes  instead  of  one  large  one.  Associated  with  these  is 
the  panel  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  probably  dating  from  1520.  As  this 
was  formerly  attributed  to  Mabuse,  we  might  compare  it  with  two 
representations  of  the  same  subject  by  him — one  in  Prague,  the 
other  in  the  Gallery  at  Vienna.  Both  are  highly  ornate  and  elaborate 
and  so  different  from  the  painting  in  the  Fogg  Museum  that  it  is  un- 
thinkable that  they  should  be  by  the  same  hand.  In  both  cases 
Mabuse  represents  Saint  Luke  as  drawing  and  not  painting  the 
Madonna,  and  in  the  Vienna  picture  an  angel  guides  his  hand. 


302  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

The  legend  which  makes  Saint  Luke  a  painter  was  of  eastern  origin 
and  was  introduced  into  the  West  at  the  time  of  the  First  Crusade. 
There  may  have  been  a  Greek  painter  of  Madonnas  named  Luca 
whom  the  Western  Church  confused  with  the  Evangelist,  but  the 
Evangelist  was  always  regarded  an  authority  on  the  characteristics 
of  the  Madonna.    His  Gospel  gives  the  fullest  account  of  her. 

Further  information  as  to  the  influences  which  formed  the  man 
who  painted  the  Fogg  Museum  panel  may  be  gained  from  a  study  of 
the  background.  The  putti  standing  on  the  capitals  and  holding 
garlands  show  that  this  master,  like  Quentin  Metsys  and  Mabuse 
and  other  Flemish  painters  of  that  day,  was  influenced  by  Donatello 
and  the  school  of  Squarcione.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  Memlinc 
in  his  Madonna  with  a  Donor,  at  Vienna,  and  in  his  Madonna  with 
Angels,  in  the  Uffizi,  has  used  this  motive  in  almost  exactly  the  same 
way.  The  austere  van  Eyck  had  contented  himself  in  his  architec- 
tural backgrounds  with  representing  saints  in  niches  in  a  true  Gothic 
spirit.  This  later  development  of  putti  holding  garlands  is  distinctly 
a  product  of  the  Renaissance.  It  was  used  by  Jacopo  della  Quercia 
in  1413,  by  Donatello  in  1435,  and  by  Mantegna  about  1455.  We  may 
note  various  modifications  of  this  same  general  idea  in  Michelozzo's 
work,  in  the  Berlin  Crivelli,  and  in  the  work  of  numerous  other 
Italian  artists,  among  them  the  master  who  painted  the  Madonna, 
Child  and  Angels,  No.  30  in  this  Gallery. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.   Jan.-March,  1914.  2d  ser.,  xviii  (i),  124. 
Beenath.    New  York  und  Boston.    55-56,  Reproduction. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    39. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.     703. 
Nation.  Nov.  23,  1916.  492. 


ADRIEN  YSENBRANT 

About  1485  to  1551 

Adrien  Ysenbrant  was  a  disciple  and  probably  an  assistant  of 
Gerard  David.  He  came  to  Bruges  from  Haarlem  about  1509  or 
1 5 10.  His  name  appears  in  the  registers  of  the  Painters'  Guild  at 
Bruges  from  1510  to  1537.  In  1526  and  again  in  1537  he  was  a  gover- 
nor of  the  Guild.    He  died  in  Bruges  in  1551. 

No  painting  can  with  certainty  be  attributed  to  Ysenbrant,  but  he 
is  thought  to  be  the  author  of  the  Madonna  of  the  Seven  Sorrows, 
originally  in  the  church  of  Notre  Dame  at  Bruges,  and  of  various 
other  pictures  in  European  and  American  collections. 

In  this  country  paintings  attributed  to  Ysenbrant  are  in  the  Met- 
ropolitan Museum;  in  the  John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia; 
in  the  Philip  Lehman  collection,  New  York;  and  in  other  private 
collections. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bodenhausen,  E.  von.    Gerard  David  und  seine  Schule.  Munich,  1905.  207- 

219. 
J.,  F.  J.  M.    A  panel  probably  by  Isenbrant.    Burlington  magazine.    London, 

Sept.,  1905.   vii  (30),  480-485. 
New  York.    Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.    Bulletin.    April,  1913.    viii 

(4),  67-68.     (A  triptych  by  Adriaen  Isenbrant.) 
Weale,  W.  H.  J.    Early  painters  of  the  Netherlands  as  illustrated  by  the 

Bruges  exhibition  of  1902.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  Aug.,  1903. 

ii  (6),  326-331. 

62    SAINT  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST* 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  15!  in.    W.  5  in.    (39.7  X  12.7  cm.) 

Saint  John  wears  a  neutral  dark  violet  mantle  over  a  rich  sombre 
orange  brown  shirt.  The  somewhat  hot  reddish  flesh  tones  contrast 
with  the  cold  gray  of  the  Lamb.  The  picture,  like  most  Flemish 
paintings  of  the  period,  has  a  cool  gray  green  landscape  which 
changes  from  an  almost  warm  yellow  green  in  the  foreground  to  a 
blue  green  in  the  distance.  The  sky  becomes  paler  and  yellower 
near  the  horizon. 

The  picture  was  bought  of  a  dealer  who  purchased  it  in  London 
some  years  ago.    It  was  first  lent  to  the  Fogg  Museum  in  191 2.    It 


304  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

shows  the  delicacy  of  Ysenbrant's  touch  and  the  high  finish  to  which 
he  carried  his  pictures. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1914.    2d  ser.,  xviii  (1),  124. 

(Listed  in  error  as  Descent  from  the  Cross) ;  Jan.-March,  1918.  2d  ser., 

xxii  (1),  97. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts.    Bulletin.    Aug.,  1913.    39. 
Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    Boston,  Dec,  1912.    xxi  (82),  290. 
Nation.    Nov.  23,  1916.  492. 


FLEMISH  SCHOOL 

xvi  century 

The  picture  numbered  63  was  undoubtedly  painted  by  one  of 
the  numerous  Flemish  masters  who  went  to  Italy  in  the  xvi  cen- 
tury and  studied  the  works  of  the  great  Italian  painters.  It  is  a 
copy  of  the  Doni  Holy  Family,  now  in  the  Uffizi  —  one  of  the  two 
existing  panel  pictures  which  is  surely  by  Michelangelo,  painted 
about  1 503.  It  is  possible  that  some  day  we  may  be  able  to  establish 
with  certainty  the  identity  of  the  northern  master  who  made  this 
copy.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  picture  was  executed  by  Jan 
van  Scorel  on  one  of  his  visits  to  Italy.  Scorel  (1496-1 562)  was  one  of 
the  cosmopolitan  artists  of  the  Netherlands  in  the  early  xvi  century 
who  came  under  Italian  influence,  particularly  that  of  the  Roman 
and  the  Lombard  schools.  He  had  a  fine  feeling  for  landscape  and 
painted  many  portraits.  Antonio  Moro,  who  painted  the  portrait 
numbered  64  in  this  Catalogue,  was  one  of  his  pupils. 

63     COPY  OF  MICHELANGELO'S  HOLY  FAMILY 

Lent  by  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston. 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  54!  in.    W.  42^  in.     (138.1  X  107.5  cm.) 

The  Madonna  wears  a  rose  red  gown  and  blue  green  mantle  lined 
with  yellow  green.  Saint  Joseph  has  a  gray  robe  with  a  mantle  over 
his  knees  which  is  yellow  in  the  light  and  orange  red  in  the  shade. 
The  foreground  is  brown  and  the  parapet  a  cool  gray. 

It  may  be  interesting  to  note  certain  differences  between  the  copy 
and  the  original.  Michelangelo  painted  a  pale  blue  sky  of  tender 
quality  above  a  simple  and  suggestive  setting  of  fields  and  hills;  the 
Madonna's  mantle  also  is  of  a  similar  blue.  In  the  Flemish  picture 
the  colour  of  the  landscape  is  a  neutral  bluish  green,  characteristic 
of  the  Flemings,  and  the  Madonna's  mantle  is  a  heavier,  deeper 
shade  of  the  same  colour.  Michelangelo's  picture  is  a  tondo  and  the 
nude  figures  are  skilfully  grouped  so  as  to  fill  up  the  composition 
and  carry  out  the  motive  of  the  curve.  The  Flemish  artist  who 
copied  it  apparently  did  not  realize  the  compositional  significance  of 
these  figures  and  changed  his  picture  to  a  rectangular  shape.  He  put 
in  an  interesting  and  delightful  Flemish  landscape  with  a  convincing 
sense  of  distance,  and  a  clear,  luminous  sky,  and  in  the  lower  part  of 


3o6  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

the  picture  he  put  cucumbers  and  vegetation  to  fill  in  the  blank  space 
in  the  curves.  In  so  doing  he  illustrated  admirably  Michelangelo's 
criticism  of  the  Flemish  painters  in  the  famous  conversation  reported 
by  Francesco  d'  Ollanda:  "  The  Netherland  painting  suits  old  wo- 
men and  young  girls,  ecclesiastics,  nuns,  and  people  of  quality,  who 
have  no  feeling  for  the  true  harmony  of  a  work  of  art.  The  Nether- 
landers  endeavour  to  attract  the  eye.  They  represent  favourite  and 
agreeable  subjects  —  saints  and  prophets,  of  whom  no  ill  can  be  said. 
They  use  drapery,  woodwork,  landscapes  with  trees  and  figures, 
whatever  strikes  as  pretty,  but  which  possesses  in  truth  nothing  of 
genuine  art  in  itself,  and  where  neither  inward  symmetry  nor  careful 
selection  and  true  greatness  is  involved.  In  short,  it  is  a  painting 
without  meaning  and  power.  But  I  will  not  say  that  they  paint 
worse  than  elsewhere.  What  I  blame  in  the  Netherland  painting 
is,  that  in  one  picture  a  multitude  of  things  are  brought  together, 
one  of  which  would  be  important  enough  to  fill  an  entire  picture. 
None,  however,  can  thus  be  completed  in  a  satisfactory  manner. 
The  works  that  come  from  Italy  can  alone  be  called  genuine  works 
of  art."  1 

The  painting  was  formerly  in  the  Rinuccini  collection,  Florence, 
and  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  in  1907.  It 
was  lent  to  the  Fogg  Museum  for  short  periods  of  time  previous  to 
1915.  In  that  year  the  picture  was  placed  in  the  Museum  as  an 
indefinite  loan. 

MENTIONED 

Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    June,  1910.    702. 

1  Herman  Grimm.    Life  of  Michael  Angeb.    Boston,  1898.  ii,  302-303. 


63     FLEMISH  SCHOOL  —  COPY   OF    MICHELANGELO'S    HOLY   FAMILY 


ANTONIO  MORO  (ANTONIS  MOR) 
About  1519  to  1576 

Little  is  known  of  the  early  life  of  Antonio  Moro.  He  was  born  at 
Utrecht  about  1519  and  was  a  pupil  of  Jan  van  Scorel  after  Scorel  had 
become  Italianized.  In  1547  he  was  received  into  the  Guild  of  Saint 
Luke  at  Antwerp.  His  first  great  patron  was  Cardinal  Granvelle, 
who  came  to  the  Netherlands  with  the  Emperor  Charles  v  in  1548, 
and  through  whose  influence  Moro  was  made  official  painter  to  the 
court  at  Brussels.  At  this  time  he  had  two  pupils  assisting  him.  In 
1550  he  was  in  Rome;  and  in  the  same  year  he  went  to  Portugal  in  the 
service  of  Mary  of  Hungary.  Among  his  other  noble  patrons  were 
Philip  n  of  Spain  and  Margaret  of  Parma.  He  worked  in  the  Neth- 
erlands, in  Italy,  Portugal,  Spain,  and  in  England,  where  according 
to  tradition  he  was  knighted  by  Queen  Mary.  The  last  years  of  his 
life  were  spent  in  Antwerp  where  he  died  in  1576. 

Moro  painted  representations  of  mythological  and  sacred  subjects, 
but  is  best  known  as  a  portrait  painter.  His  portraits  of  princes  and 
court  nobles  and  their  buffoons  are  able  characterizations.  Among 
his  many  fine  portraits  are  the  Jester  of  Cardinal  Granvelle,  in  the 
Louvre;  Margaret  of  Parma,  in  Berlin;  Mary  Tudor,  in  the  Prado; 
Anne  of  Austria,  in  Vienna;  and  the  Duke  of  Alva,  in  the  Gallery  of 
the  Hispanic  Society,  New  York.  In  this  country,  in  addition  to  the 
portrait  belonging  to  the  Hispanic  Society,  there  are  portraits  by 
Moro  in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  John  L.  Gardner,  Boston;  and  in  the 
John  G.  Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cust,  L.    Notes  on  pictures  in  the  Royal  collections;  xviii,  On  some  portraits 
attributed  to  Antonio  Moro  and  on  a  life  of  the  painter  by  Henri 
Hymans.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  Oct.,  1910.  xviii  (91),  5-12. 
A  portrait  by  Antonio  Moro.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  April,  191 2. 

xxi  (119),  53. 
Hymans,  H.    Antonio  Moro;  son  oeuvreet  son  temps.    Brussels,  1910. 
Loga,  V.  von.    Antonis  Mor  als  Hofmaler  Karls  v  und  Philipps  11.    Jahrb.  d. 

kunsthist.  Samml.  d.  allerh.  Kaiserh.     Vienna,  1908.  xxvii  (3),  91-123. 


3o8  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

64    PORTRAIT  OF  A  SPANISH  NOBLEMAN,  PROBABLY 

SENOR  ANTONIO  DEL  RIO 

Lent  by  Samuel  Sachs. 

Oil  on  panel.    H.  33I  in.    W.  26^  in.     (84.4  X  67.2  cm.) 

The  sitter  wears  a  black  cap  and  black  clothes,  with  white  at  his 
neck  and  wrists.  His  beard  is  brownish  black  and  his  eyes  grayish 
brown.  In  his  left  hand  he  holds  a  pair  of  gloves  and  his  right  hand 
rests  on  a  skull.  The  flesh  tones  are  beautifully  managed.  The 
background  is  of  a  dark  neutral  colour. 

The  portrait  is  said  to  have  belonged  at  one  time  to  Baron  van  der 
Graecht  of  Bruges,  a  descendant  of  the  del  Rio  family.  Later  it  was 
in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  Philip  Lydig,  which  was  spld  in  New  York  in 
1913.  It  was  No.  132  in  the  sale  catalogue,  in  which  the  following 
comment  appears:  "About  1560-70.  The  portrait  seems  to  repre- 
sent a  Spanish  nobleman,  and  was  very  likely  painted  by  Moro  dur- 
ing his  stay  in  Madrid."  The  picture  is  now  owned  by  Samuel 
Sachs  of  New  York,  who  lends  it  to  the  Museum  for  a  certain  num- 
ber of  months  each  year. 

The  portrait  is  a  sympathetic  characterization.  Here,  as  in  the 
portrait  by  van  Dyck,  the  face  and  hands  of  the  sitter  tell  the  story. 
The  treatment,  perhaps  owing  to  the  influence  of  Titian's  portraits 
which  Moro  saw  in  Spain,  is  broad  and  free,  in  contrast  to  the 
"  hard  "  handling  which  Moro  usually  employed. 

The  portrait  has  been  said  to  represent  Sefior  Martinus  Antonio 
del  Rio,  the  theologian  and  mystic,  who  is  supposed  to  have  been  born 
in  Antwerp  in  155 1  and  to  have  died  at  Louvain  in  1608.  As  An- 
tonio Moro  died  in  1576,  Sefior  Martinus  del  Rio  was  only  about 
twenty-five  at  the  time  of  the  artist's  death.  The  portrait  in  the 
Fogg  Museum  is  that  of  a  man  apparently  about  forty  years  old, 
and  would  seem  rather  to  be  that  of  the  father,  Antonio  del  Rio,  who 
was  a  member  of  the  so-called  Council  of  Troubles  or  "  Court  of 
Blood,"  established  by  Alva  in  the  Netherlands  in  1567.  This 
supposition  is  borne  out  by  the  marked  resemblance  of  the  Fogg  Mu- 
seum portrait  to  the  portrait  of  Sefior  Antonio  del  Rio1  in  the  Louvre. 
A  portrait  of  the  Sefiora  del  Rio,  a  companion  to  the  Fogg  Museum 
portrait  of  Antonio  del  Rio,  was  shown  with  the  latter,  in  the  Exhibi- 
tion of  Flemish  Painting  held  in  the  Museum  in  the  fall  of  1916. 

1  Hymans.  146-147. 


64     ANTONIO    MORO 


ANTONIO  MORO  309 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Nation.    Nov.  23,  1916.  492. 

Valentiner,  W.  R.,  and  Friedley,  D.  Illustrated  catalogue  of  the  Rita 
Lydig  collection.  New  York,  1913.  Introduction  [4-5];  No.  132,  Re- 
production. 

Valentiner,  W.  R.  Mrs.  Lydig's  library.  Art  in  America.  'New  York, 
April,  1913.  i  (2),  74-75,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 
American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1918.   2d  ser.,  xxii  (1),  97. 


ANTOON  VAN  DYCK 
i 599-1641 

Antoon  van  Dyck,  more  commonly  known  as  Sir  Anthony  van 
Dyck,  was  born  in  Antwerp,  in  March,  1599.  At  the  age  of  ten  he 
was  apprenticed  to  Hendrik  van  Balen,  an  artist  who  copied  the 
suaver  side  of  Italian  classicism,  and  from  whom  van  Dyck  may  have 
got  the  refinement  which  differentiates  him  from  his  great  fellow- 
townsman,  Rubens.  By  1615  van  Dyck  was  living  and  working 
independently,  and  in  16 18  he  was  admitted  to  the  Guild  of  Saint 
Luke.  Though  van  Dyck  was  never,  strictly  speaking,  a  pupil  of 
Rubens,  we  find  him  employed  in  that  artist's  studio  in  1620,  and  he 
learned  much  from  his  elder  contemporary.  In  1620,  he  paid  his  first 
visit  to  England,  where  he  was  given  a  pension  of  one  hundred 
pounds  by  the  King,  but  within  a  year  he  returned  to  Antwerp. 

In  162 1  van  Dyck  went  to  Italy,  going  first  to  Genoa.  Thence  in 
1622  he  went  to  Rome,  and  from  there  to  Florence,  Bologna,  Venice, 
Mantua,  and  back  to  Rome  again,  ever  studying  the  works  of  the 
Italian  masters,  especially  the  Venetians.  The  Flemish  colony  in 
Rome,  however,  was  jealous  of  the  "  pittor  cavalleresco,"  with  his 
refined  habits  and  his  dislike  of  the  coarse  carousals  of  his  fellow 
artists ;  and  van  Dyck  withdrew  to  Genoa,  where  he  stayed  until  1626, 
the  date  of  his  return  to  Antwerp.  From  1628  to  1632  he  remained, 
except  for  a  short  visit  to  Holland,  in  Antwerp.  The  absence  of 
Rubens  at  that  time  left  him  supreme  in  Flanders.  In  1632  van 
Dyck  was  called  to  England  by  Charles  1.  He  was  lavishly  aided  by 
the  King,  given  a  house  in  town  and  one  in  the  country,  and  knighted 
the  year  of  his  arrival.  From  this  time  on  he  was  constantly  asso- 
ciated with  the  brilliant  fife  of  the  English  court,  painting  most  of  the 
nobility  of  the  day,  including  many  pictures  of  the  King  and  Queen, 
entertaining  sumptuously,  and  carrying  on  a  number  of  intrigues,  the 
most  enduring  being  with  the  famous  beauty,  Margaret  Lemon.  In 
1639,  however,  he  married  Mary  Ruthven.  The  following  year 
Rubens  died  and  van  Dyck  decided  to  return  to  Antwerp.  This  he 
did  in  1640,  but  in  1641  he  returned  again  to  England,  where  he  had  a 
house  at  Blackfriars.  On  December  first  of  that  year  a  child  was 
born  to  him.   Meanwhile,  however,  the  painter's  health,  undermined 


VAN  DYCK  311 

alike  by  dissipation  and  hard  work,  had  been  failing  rapidly,  and  on 
December  ninth  he  died,  and  was  buried  in  Saint  Paul's. 

Among  portraits  by  van  Dyck  in  this  country  are  those  in  the  Met- 
ropolitan Museum ;  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston ;  in  the  col- 
lection of  Mrs.  John  L.  Gardner,  Boston;  in  the  P.  A.  B.  Widener 
collection,  Philadelphia;  in  the  Frick  collection,  New  York;  and  in 
the  Fogg  Museum. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cust,L.    Anthony  Van  Dyck.    London,  1900. 

Same,  "  Condensed  version."    London,  1908.    (Great  masters  in  painting 

and  sculpture.) 
A  description  of  the  sketch-book  by  Sir  Anthony  Van  Dyck,  used  by  him 
in  Italy,  1621-1627,  and  preserved  in  the  collection  of  the  Duke  of 
Devonshire,  K.  G.  at  Chatsworth.    London,  1902. 
The  new  Van  Dyck  in  the  National  Gallery.    Burlington  magazine.   Lon- 
don, Aug.,  1907.   xi  (53),  325-326. 
Notes  on  pictures  in  the  Royal  collections;  xvi,  xx.The  equestrian  portraits 
of  Charles  1  by  Van  Dyck.    Burlington  magazine.   London,  June,  1910. 
xvii  (87),  159-160;  Jan.,  1911.  xviii  (94),  202-209. 

Fieeens-Gevaert,  H.    Van  Dyck.    Paris,  1903.    (Les  grands  artistes.) 

Guiffrey,  J.    Antoine  van  Dyck.     Paris,  1882. 

Haberditzl,  F.  M.  In  Thieme-Becker.  Kiinstler-Lexikon.  Leipsic,  1914. 
x,  263-270. 

Hymans,  H.  Antoine  van  Dyck  et  Pexposition  de  ses  oeuvres  a  Anvers.  Ga- 
zette des  beaux-arts.  Paris,  Sept.-Oct.,  1899.  30  per.,  xxii  (507-508), 
226-240,  320-332. 

Jacobsen,  E.  Un  chef-d'oeuvre  inconnu  d'  Antoine  van  Dyck.  Ckronique  des 
arts  et  de  la  curiosite.    Paris.  Dec.  30,  1911.  No.  39,  308-309. 

Knackfuss,  H.  Van  Dyck.  Tr.  by  Campbell  Dodgson.  Bielefeld  and  Leip- 
sic, 1899.    (Monographs  on  artists,  iv.) 

Rooses,  M.  Le  portrait  de  la  comtesse  de  Worcester  par  van  Dyck.  Gazette 
des  beaux-arts.    Paris,  Feb.,  1913.  4"  per.,  ix  (668),  128-131. 

Schaeffer,  E.  Ein  unbekanntes  Jugendwerk  van  Dycks.  Jahrb.  d.  kon. 
preuss.  Kunstsamml.    Berlin,  1910.  xxxi  (3),  164-169. 

Valentiner,  W.  R.    Fruhwerke  des  Anton  van  Dyck  in  Amerika.    Zeitschr. 
f.  Mid.  Kunst.   Leipsic,  1910.   N.  F.,  xxi  (9),  225-230. 
Rubens  and  Van  Dyck  in  Mr.  P.  A.  B.  Widener's  collection.    Art  in 
America.    New  York,  July,  1913.   i  (3),  158-170. 

Van  de  Put,  A.  The  prince  of  Oneglia  by  Van  Dyck.  Burlington  magazine. 
London,  Sept.,  1912.   xxi  (114),  3II_3I4- 

Van  Dyck:  des  Meisters  Gemalde  in  537  Abbildungen.     Herausgegeben  von 
Emil  Schaeffer.    Stuttgart,  1909.     (Klassiker  der  Kunst.) 

Walton,  W.,  and  Cust,  L.  Exhibition  in  New  York  of  portraits  by  Van 
Dyck.    Burlington  magazine.    London,  Feb.,  1910.  xvi  (83),  296-302. 


3i2  FLEMISH  PAINTING 

65    PORTRAIT  OF  NICOLAS  TRIEST,  LORD  OF  AUWEGHEM 

Oil  on  canvas.    H.  48^  in.    W.  37!  in.     (122.3  X  95.5  cm.) 

The  figure  of  Nicolas  Triest  is  three-quarters  length,  and  is  clad 
in  black,  with  a  simple  ruffed  collar  and  cuffs.  He  wears  a  sword  the 
hilt  of  which  is  wound  with  gold  wire.  His  hair  is  dark  'brown;  his 
moustache  and  thin  pointed  beard  are  of  a  lighter  brown.  In  the 
upper  left-hand  corner  is  the  coat  of  arms  of  the  Triest  family:  "  De 
sable,  a  deux  cors-de-chasse  d'or,  lies  et  viroles  d'  argent,  en  chef,  et 
un  levrier  courant  d'argent,  collete  de  gueules,  borde  et  boucl6  d'or, 
en  pointe.  Cimier:  la  tete  et  col  du  16vrier  entre  un  vol-banneret 
d'or;  ou,  un  vol  a  l'antique  de  sable  et  d'or."  Below  the  coat  of  arms, 
beneath  the  varnish,  and  invisible  except  under  powerful  light  is  the 
inscription:  Aeta  Sua  48  An0  1620.  The  background  is  very  dark, 
relieved  by  a  greenish  gleam  over  the  left  shoulder  of  the  figure  and 
to  a  lesser  extent  over  the  right. 

The  painting  was  formerly  in  the  Rodolphe  Kann  collection  in 
Paris.  It  was  bought  by  M.  Kann  in  1896  from  a  Paris  dealer  — 
previous  to  that  time  its  history  is  not  known.  The  catalogue  of  the 
Kann  collection  published  in  1907  states  that  the  portrait  was 
formerly  in  the  collection  of  the  late  Lord  Carlisle.  This  is  not  so, 
nor  was  the  portrait  ever  in  the  collection  of  the  late  J.  Pierpont 
Morgan,  as  is  stated  in  the  volume  on  van  Dyck  in  the  Klassiker  der 
Kunst  series.  In  the  fall  of  1914,  while  this  picture,  with  others,  was 
on  the  steamship  Mississippi  en  route  for  America,  a  fire  damaged 
several  of  the  paintings.  The  injuries  to  this  picture,  however,  were 
very  slight.    In  191 5  the  portrait  was  given  to  the  Fogg  Museum. 

This  portrait  was  painted  when  van  Dyck  was  but  twenty-one 
years  old.  It  has  frequently  been  called  the  portrait  of  Alexander 
Triest,  but  the  coat  of  arms  proves  the  sitter  to  have  been  the  head  of 
the  Triest  family,  Nicolas,  who  was  lord  of  Auweghem  in  1620.  Van 
Dyck  had  painted  other  members  of  the  family,  among  them  Antoon 
Triest,  bishop  of  Ghent.  Simplicity  was  the  keynote  of  the  artist's 
style  at  this  period,  as  may  be  seen  by  comparing  the  Fogg  Museum 
portrait  with  other  works  painted  by  van  Dyck  during  the  years 
between  his  admission  to  the  Painters'  Guild  and  the  year  of  his 
departure  for  Italy.  Closest  to  the  Fogg  Museum  painting  are  the 
portraits  of  M.  and  Mme.  Witte  in  the  collection  of  M.  Arnold  de 


6s     ANTOON   VAN   DYCK 


VAN  DYCK  313 

Pret  Roose  de  Calesberg.  An  almost  equal  simplicity  of  technique 
and  expression  may  be  observed  in  the  portrait  of  Cornelius  van  der 
Geest  in  the  National  Gallery,  in  several  portraits  of  the  artist  by 
himself,  and  in  other  early  works. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bode,  W.  Gemaldesammlung  des  Herm  Rodolphe  Kann.  Vienna,  1900.  22. 
Catalogue  of  a  number  of  very  important  paintings  by  the  great  masters, 

which  were  in  an  outbreak  of  fire  that  took  place  on  board  the  steamship 

Mississippi  in  November,  1914.    Sale  by  direction  of  Messrs.  Duveen 

Brothers,  New  York,  1915.    No.  14. 
Edgeix,  G.  H.    A  youthful  portrait  by  Van  Dyck  in  the  Fogg  Museum.    Art 

in  America.    New  York,  Aug.,  1916.  iv  (5),  268-276,  Reproduction. 
Kann,  R.    Catalogue  de  la  collection  Rodolphe  Kann  (by  W.  Bode).    Paris, 

1907.  v.  i,  xviii;  12,  No.  10,  Reproduction.    English  ed.  v.  i,  xvi;  12, 

No.  10,  Reproduction. 

MENTIONED 

American  journal  of  archaeology.    Jan.-March,  1917.   2d  ser.,  xxi  (1),  109. 

Gluck,  G.  Die  Gemaldesammlung  des  Herrn  Rudolf  Kann  in  Paris.  Die 
graphischen  Kunste.    Vienna,  1900.    xxiii,  92. 

Harvard  graduates'  magazine.    March,  1916.  422,  Reproduction. 

Michel,  E.  La  galerie  de  M.  Rodolphe  Kann.  Gazette  des  beaux-arts.  Paris, 
June,  1901.    3e  per.,  xxv  (528),  502. 

Nation.    Nov.  23,  1916.  492. 

Nicolle,  M.  La  collection  Rodolphe  Kann.  Revue  de  I'art  ancien  et  moderne. 
Paris,  1908.    xxiii,  200. 

Sedelmeyer  Gallery.  Illustrated  catalogue  of  the  second  hundred  of  paint- 
ings by  old  masters.    Paris,  1895.    12,  No.  9,  Reproduction. 

Valentiner,  W.  R.    Zeitsckr.  f.  biid.  Kunst.    N.  F.,  xxi  (9),  230. 

Reproduced  in  Van  Dyck  (Klassiker  der  Kunst),  164. 


ENGLISH  PAINTING 


ENGLISH  PAINTING 

THE  genius  of  the  people  of  the  British  Isles  is  ordinarily  thought 
of  as  finding  its  fullest  expression  in  literature  rather  than  in 
the  pictorial  or  plastic  arts.     Yet  one  branch  of  the  art  of  painting, 
namely  that  of  manuscript  illumination,  had  in  these  islands  a  long 
and  uninterrupted  history,  dating  from  about  the  v  until  the  first 
quarter  of  the  xv  century,  and  in  its  earliest  period  produced  illu- 
minations unique  in  their  field  and  remarkable  for  their  beauty  of 
conception  and  execution.    This  first  period  was  that  of  the  Celtic 
school  of  monastic  illumination,  which  arose  probably  soon  after 
the  introduction  of  Christianity  into  Ireland  in  the  v  century,  and 
reached  the  height  of  its  development  in  the  vm  or  early  ix  century. 
Celtic  illumination  stands  apart  from  the  miniature  painting  of 
other  schools  in  that  it  was  essentially  an  art  of  conventional  orna- 
ment, its  design  based  on  the  native  handicrafts  of  the  day,  plaiting, 
weaving,  and  particularly  goldsmith's  work  and  its  various  processes 
of  enamelling,  inlay,  and  relief.   Such  figures  as  were  introduced  were 
subordinated  to  the  decorative  design  and  treated  as  part  of  the  pat- 
tern.   Plant  forms  were  of  rare  occurrence.    Spirals,  ribands,  intri- 
cate interlacings,  together  with  motives  based  on  the  forms  of  birds, 
serpents,  and  fanciful  monsters  —  these  latter  perhaps  derived  from 
Moslem  stuffs  imported  for  ecclesiastical  vestments  —  picked  out 
with  bits  of  brilliant  colour,  were  combined  into  designs  of  great 
beauty,  executed  with  marvellous  skill.    In  the  finest  of  the  early 
Irish  manuscripts  no  gold  or  silver  was  employed,  but  when  the  Celtic 
style  was  transferred  to  England  the  use  of  gold  was  introduced. 
The  masterpiece  of  Celtic  illumination  is  the  Book  of  Kells,  dating 
it  is  thought  from  the  vm  or  early  rx  century,  and  now  in  the  Li- 
brary of  Trinity  College,  Dublin.    The  manuscript  was  probably 
executed  in  the  Columban  monastery  of  Kells,  and  is  remarkable  for 
its  extraordinary  elaboration  and  delicacy  of  handling.    Middleton 
in  his  Illuminated  Manuscripts  (p.  83)  says  that  in  the  space  of  one 
inch  there  are  "  no  less  than  158  interlacements  of  bands  or  ribands, 
each  composed  of  a  strip  of  white  bordered  on  both  sides  with  a 


3i8  ENGLISH  PAINTING 

black  line."  In  beauty  and  minuteness  of  design  and  technique  no 
other  work  of  the  school  can  be  compared  with  it. 

Manuscript  illumination  was  practised  in  Ireland  down  to  the  xni 
century,  but  after  its  period  of  greatness  the  decline  of  the  school  was 
rapid.  Celtic  elements  were,  however,  carried  from  Ireland  by  the 
Irish  missionaries  as  early  as  the  vi  century,  and  were  spread  into 
western  Europe  and  to  the  neighbouring  coasts  of  Scotland  and 
Northumbria.  The  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  executed  in  Northumbria 
probably  towards  the  close  of  the  vn  century,  show  Celtic  elements 
combined  with  Byzantine  influence,  derived  perhaps  from  the 
manuscript  from  which  the  text  was  copied,  and  apparent  in  the 
treatment  of  the  human  figure  as  seen  in  the  portraits  of  the  Evan- 
gelists. 

From  the  vii  to  the  xn  century  various  influences  were  at  work  on 
the  art  of  illumination  in  England.  Through  contact  with  the 
Church  of  Rome,  classical  elements  were  introduced  and  combined 
with  Celtic.  After  the  Danish  invasions  a  current  of  influence  from 
the  Carolingian  school,  which  had  drawn  something  of  its  original 
inspiration  from  Northumbria,  made  itself  felt.  This  Carolingian 
influence  is  to  be  seen  in  the  painted  miniatures  produced  by  the 
x  century  school  of  Winchester.  A  contemporary  method  of  illumi- 
nation was  the  use  of  pen  drawing  in  red,  blue,  or  brown,  with 
occasional  washes  of  colour.  This  line  drawing  had  long  been  prac- 
tised in  western  Europe,  and  attained  great  perfection  in  England 
in  the  x  and  xi  centuries.  The  Winchester  school  excelled  in  line 
illustration,  as  well  as  in  painting,  and  produced  beautiful  miniatures 
executed  in  this  manner,  which  show  almost  the  purity  of  line  of  the 
finest  Greek  vase  paintings. 

Throughout  the  xn  and  xni  centuries  the  English  school  of  illu- 
mination developed  rapidly,  and  culminated  in  the  Anglo-Norman 
style  of  the  late  xin  and  early  xrv  centuries,  which  had  a  similar 
development  on  both  sides  of  the  channel.  From  about  1250  to 
1300  or  1320  England  occupied  perhaps  the  foremost  position  in  the 
art  of  manuscript  illumination.  This  Anglo-Norman  school  com- 
bined Celtic,  Anglo-Saxon,  and  Norman  traditions,  although  the  last 
named  were  the  strongest,  and  a  satisfying  harmony  was  attained 
between  the  various  elements  of  book  decoration:  realism,  imag- 
ination, illustration,  and  ornament.    The  Anglo-Norman  and  French 


ENGLISH  PAINTING  319 

manuscripts  of  the  Apocalypse  are  beautiful  examples  of  the  work  of 
the  school,  characterized  by  their  splendour  of  burnished  gold  and 
rich  colour,  their  graceful  figures  and  lovely  detail,  and  by  the 
freedom  and  sureness  of  their  drawing.  The  Windmill  Psalter,  in  the 
collection  of  John  Pierpont  Morgan,  New  York,  is  a  fine  example  of 
late  xrn  century  work.  Fourteenth  century  illumination  is  seen  at 
its  best  in  the  famous  Queen  Mary's  Psalter,  which  contains  del- 
icately tinted  line  drawings  as  well  as  illuminations  in  which  brilliant 
pigments  and  gold  were  employed  with  skill  and  beauty.  English 
illumination  of  the  xm,  xrv,  and  xv  centuries  is  illustrated  in  Har- 
vard University  by  the  collection  of  early  manuscripts  and  printed 
books  relating  to  English  law  belonging  to  the  Harvard  Law  Library. 

The  ravages  of  the  Black  Death,  1348-1349,  put  all  art  in  the 
background  for  a  time;  but  good  illumination  was  done  towards  the 
close  of  the  xrv  century.  Certain  Bohemian  influences  appeared, 
introduced  doubtless  by  Rhenish  and  Bohemian  painters  who  came 
to  England  in  the  train  of  Anne  of  Bohemia,  who  was  married  to 
Richard  n  in  1382.  During  the  first  quarter  of  the  xv  century  fine 
examples  of  the  art  were  produced;  but  English  illumination  was 
already  on  the  decline,  and  was  soon  stifled  by  the  preference  shown 
for  French  and  Flemish  work,  and  by  the  introduction  of  printing. 

Painting  properly  so  called  was  practised  by  the  local  schools  in 
the  Middle  Ages.  The  Statutes  of  the  English  Painters'  Guild  were 
formulated  in  1283.  A  series  of  accounts  relating  to  the  painting  at 
Westminster  and  at  Ely  Cathedral  in  the  xni  and  xrv  centuries 
bears  witness  to  the  fact  that  some  form  of  oil  painting  was  com- 
monly practised  in  England  at  that  time.  Probably  a  method  partly 
tempera  and  partly  oil  was  used.  Important  monuments  of  this 
early  period,  now  preserved  only  in  copies  and  fragments,  were  the 
decoration  of  the  Painted  Chamber  and  the  paintings  of  Saint 
Stephen's  Chapel,  Westminister. 

Portrait  painting  also  seems  to  have  been  practised  from  an  early 
date.  Similar  in  style  to  the  frescoes  of  Saint  Stephen's  Chapel  are 
two  important  portraits  of  King  Richard  n,  one  at  Westminster,  and 
the  other  in  a  diptych,  at  Wilton  House,  which  represents  the  King 
accompanied  by  three  saints  kneeling  before  the  Madonna  sur- 
rounded by  angels.  From  their  kinship  with  the  French  and 
Flemish  miniature  painting  of  the  time,  it  is  probable  that  the  artist 


320 


ENGLISH  PAINTING 


Nicolas 

Billiard 

1547-161Q 

Isaac  Oliver 

(?)-i6i7 

Peter  Oliver 

ab.  1594-1648 

Samuel 

Cooper 

1609-1672 


or  artists  who  painted  the  frescoes  and  portraits,  if  English,  had  been 
trained  under  foreign  masters.  The  portraits  indeed  have  been  at- 
tributed to  the  French  master  Andre  Beauneveu.  Probably  from 
about  the  same  time  dates  a  full-length  portrait  of  Geoffrey  Chaucer, 
in  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  perhaps  an  early  copy  from  a 
miniature  painting  in  the  British  Museum.  Other  portraits  of  the 
xrv  and  xv  centuries  are  preserved  in  the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

In  the  xvi  century  the  history  of  painting  in  England  has  to  do 
chiefly  with  the  work  of  foreign  masters.  And  for  the  most  part,  save 
for  the  decoration  of  civic  buildings,  there  was  little  mural  painting. 
Henry  vni  was  a  patron  of  the  arts,  but  a  dearth  of  national  talent 
forced  him  to  import  foreign  artists.  It  is  said  that  he  tried  in  vain 
to  persuade  Raphael,  Primaticcio,  and  Titian  to  come  to  England. 
With  Holbein,  however,  he  had  better  success.  The  Augsburg  master 
spent  some  years  in  London,  1526-1528,  1532-1543,  and  dominated 
English  painting  for  about  a  century,  giving  the  needed  stimulus  to 
portrait  painting  on  a  large  scale  and  to  portrait  miniatures.  Numer- 
ous able  portraits  exist,  founded  on  Holbein's  style,  but  few  of  them 
can  be  ascribed  to  any  known  artist,  and  Holbein  left  no  definite 
school.  Antonio  Moro,  the  Flemish  portraitist,  came  to  England 
from  Spain  in  1553  to  paint  the  portrait  of  Queen  Mary  Tudor,  and 
remained  in  London  for  some  time.  Italian  masters  also  found 
favour  at  the  Tudor  court,  among  them  Federigo  Zucchero,  who 
came  to  London  about  1 574.  Portraits  painted  by  him  of  the  Earl  of 
Leicester,  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  and  Queen  Elizabeth  are  in  the 
National  Portrait  Gallery. 

A  more  national  art  is  seen  in  the  miniature  portrait  painting  by 
native  "  limners  "  which  was  a  survival  of  the  old  tradition  of  illu- 
mination. This  art  was  stimulated  and  raised  to  a  high  level  by 
Holbein  and  was  continued  by  Nicolas  HiUiard,  who  painted  many 
miniatures  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  by  his  contemporaries,  Isaac  and 
Peter  Oliver,  and  Samuel  Cooper,  who  was  the  ablest  member  of 
the  school.  His  portraits  are  intimate  character  portrayals,  distin- 
guished by  excellence  of  drawing,  design,  and  colour.  With  the 
death  of  Cooper  the  first  period  of  portrait  miniature  painting  came 
to  an  end. 

The  most  important  influence  felt  in  portrait  painting  on  a  large 
scale  during  the  xvn  century  was  that  of  van  Dyck,  who  settled  in 


ENGLISH  PAINTING  321 

England  in  1632,  and  from  whom  the  modern  English  school  of 
portraiture  may  be  said  to  take  its  rise.  Puritanism  and  the  Civil 
War,  however,  checked  the  development  of  his  school.    Another 

foreigner,  Sir  Peter  Lely,  came  to  England  and  enjoyed  extensive  sir  Peter 

patronage  under  the  Restoration.    After  Lely,  Sir  Godfrey  Kneller  Lely 

and  a  number  of  French  painters  dominated  the  school  until  the  i6*8-l6f° 

Sir  Godfrey 

beginning  of  the  xvni  century,  when  Hogarth  freed  painting  in     Kneller 
England  from  foreign  dominion.  1646-1723 

M.  E.  G. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Armstrong,  W.    Art  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.    New  York,  1909.    (Ars 

una;  species  mille.) 
Herbert,  J.  A.    Illuminated  manuscripts.    New  York,  191 1. 
Middleton,  J.  H.    Illuminated  manuscripts.    Cambridge,  1892. 
Walpole,  H.   Anecdotes  of  painting  in  England.    Collected  by  George  Vertue 

with  additions  by  James  Dallaway.    New  ed.  rev.  with  additional  notes 

by  R.  N.  Wornum.    London,  1849.  3  v. 


ENGLISH  SCHOOL  (?) 

xiv  century  (?) 

66    PORTRAIT  OF  GEOFFREY  CHAUCER 

In  the  Treasure  Room  of  the  Harvard  College  Library. 
Oil  on  panel.    H.  17H  in.    W.  14!  in.    (45.3  X  36.8  cm.) 

Chaucer  is  represented  in  a  brown  hood  and  gown  against  a  black 
background.  In  his  left  hand  he  holds  some  black  and  red  beads. 
His  beard  is  yellow  brown,  his  hair  is  a  darker  and  more  orange 
brown.  His  eyes  are  light  yellowish  gray.  In  the  left-hand  upper 
part  of  the  picture  are  the  Chaucer  arms:  Per  pale  argent  and  gules, 
a  bend  counterchanged.    Below  the  coat  of  arms  is  the  date  1400. 

The  portrait,  known  in  recent  years  as  the  Seddon  portrait,  was 
bought  after  Mr.  Seddon's  death  by  C.  Fairfax  Murray,  who  later 
sold  it  to  James  Loeb.  Mr.  Loeb  presented  it  to  Professor  Charles 
Eliot  Norton,  who  bequeathed  it  to  the  Harvard  College  Library 
in  1908  in  memory  of  two  lovers  of  Chaucer  —  Francis  James  Child 
and  James  Russell  Lowell. 

The  Harvard  University  Gazette  for  December  18,  1908,  printed 
the  following  notice  in  regard  to  the  portrait:  "  By  bequest  of  the 
late  Professor  Charles  Eliot  Norton,  the  College  Library  received  a 
very  precious  and  interesting  early  portrait  of  Chaucer,  painted  in  oil 
on  an  oak  panel.  An  inscription  on  the  back  of  the  panel,  formerly 
legible,  but  now  too  faint  to  read,  states:  '  This  picture  was  pre- 
sented by  Miss  Frances  Lambert  to  Benjamin  Dyke  on  the  6th 
September,  1803,  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  her  late  invaluable 
relation,  Thomas  Stokes,  Esq.,  of  Llanshaw  Court,  in  the  county  of 
Gloucester,  where  it  was  preserved  for  more  than  three  centuries,  as 
appears  from  the  inventory  of  pictures  in  the  possession  of  that 
ancient  and  respectable  family.  .  .  The  picture  is  to  the  possessor 
invaluable,  owing  to  the  purity  of  friendship  which  existed  between 
the  living  and  the  dead.  Reader,  may  thy  friendship  with  whoso- 
ever it  may  be  formed  be  as  sincere,  and  may  no  rude  or  careless 
hand  destroy  this  ancient  relick.  Time  perhaps  may  perish  it  when 
thou  and  I  are  lost.' 

"  Nothing  more  is  known  of  the  origin  or  early  history  of  the  por- 
trait, but  it  shows  a  close  resemblance  to  the  only  known  authentic 


66     ENGLISH  SCHOOL  (?) 


ENGLISH  SCHOOL  323 

portrait  of  Chaucer,  the  miniature  in  Occleve's  '  De  regimine  prin- 
cipum'  (Harleian  ms.  4866),  written  in  1411-12,  and  to  a  later 
full-length  portrait  in  another  British  Museum  manuscript  (Addi- 
tional ms.  5141)."  It  also  resembles  the  full-length  Sloane  portrait 
in  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  —  perhaps  based  on  the  manuscript 
portrait  just  mentioned  —  and  a  miniature  in  the  Bodleian  Library. 
In  an  article  on  Portraits  of  Geoffrey  Chaucer  in  the  Magazine 
of  Art,  1900,  M.  H.  Spielmann  says  in  regard  to  the  picture:  "  There 
is,  perhaps,  just  the  bare  possibility  that,  apart  from  the  Occleve 
illumination,  one  of  the  portraits  I  am  about  to  mention  —  the  Sed- 
don,  or  Fairfax  Murray  portrait  —  may  have  been  executed  by  a 
limner  who  had  seen  Chaucer  in  the  flesh.  Although  nearly  every 
student  of  Chaucer  and  of  the  history  of  art  would  reject  the  sup- 
position, this  view  has  been  supported  by  at  least  one  distinguished 
painter  [Holman  Hunt] ;  but  it  is,  of  course,  impossible  to  do  more 
than  speculate  upon  the  point.  The  Occleve  portrait,  it  must  be 
remembered,  is  admittedly  a  memory  painting,  being,  however,  the 
only  one  which  is  universally  accepted  as  trustworthy." 

EXHIBITED 

London.  South  Kensington  Museum.  First  special  exhibition  of  national 
portraits  ending  with  the  reign  of  King  James  the  Second,  April,  1866. 
Catalogue.  3,  No.  9. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Spielmann,  M.  H.  The  portraits  of  Geoffrey  Chaucer.  Magazine  of  art. 
London,  1900.   xxiv,  395-400,  441-445,  494-499. 


ADDENDUM 

Since  the  Catalogue  was  written  a  bequest  has  been  re- 
ceived from  Hervey  Edward  Wetzel  of  the  class  of  191 1, 
who  died  in  France,  October  15,  19 18,  while  serving  with 
the  American  Red  Cross. 

A  beautiful  little  panel  representing  Christ  on  the  Cross, 
by  Simone  Martini,  formerly  in  the  collection  of  M.  Leon 
Bonnat,  of  Paris,  has  been  bought  from  the  Hervey  E. 
Wetzel  fund.  The  picture  was  acquired  too  late  to  appear 
in  the  Catalogue  with  the  other  paintings  of  the  Sienese 
school,  but  is  reproduced  as  the  frontispiece  of  this  book. 


INDEX 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Abruzzi,  The,  146,  233. 

Academy  of  painting  and  sculpture  (in 
France),  277. 

Achiardi,  P.  d',  162. 

Adonis,  Weighing  of,  269. 

Adoration  of  the  kings,  5,  100-101. 

Adoration  of  the  magi,  see  Adoration  of 
the  kings. 

Aix  in  Provence.  Cathedral. 
Nicolas  Froment,  275,  280. 

Alb,  128. 

Albrecht  of  Brandenburg,  251. 

Aldobrandini  collection,  Rome,  87. 

Alexander  in,  pope,  235. 

Alexander  vi,  pope,  157,  166. 

Alexander  the  Great,  4. 

Alexandria,  3,  4,  6,  8. 

Allen,  Mrs.  F.,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 
Pintoricchio,  166. 

AUerton,  W.,  12,  134. 

Altarpiece,  xix-xx. 

Altissena  Chapel,  see  Rome,  Sta.  Maria 
della  Pace. 

Altman  collection,  see  N.  Y.  Metropoli- 
tan Museum. 

Alva,  Duke  of,  308. 

Amatito,  129,  130. 

Amboise,  Cardinal  Georges  d',  196,  276. 

American  paintings  in  the  Fogg  Museum, 
xii. 

American  portrait  and  landscape  paint- 
ers, 212. 

Amis  du  Louvre,  xiv. 

Amsterdam.    Rijks  Museum. 

Madonna   after  van  der  Weyden, 
297. 

Anastasis  (Christ  in  Limbo),  9,  14-15, 
1 1 9-1 20. 

Anchor,  5. 

Andalusia,  240,  241. 

Andre1  collection,  Paris,  240. 

Angel  musicians,  155. 

Angels,  5,  106, 116. 


Anjou,  274. 
Anne  of  Bohemia,  319. 
Annunciation,  113,  246-247,  281. 
Annunciation  to  the   Madonna  of  her 

death,  113,  281. 
Annunciations,  Umbrian,  163. 
Antioch,  3,  6. 

Antwerp,  287,  293,  300,  307,  310. 
Museum. 

Van  der  Weyden,  291. 

Madonna  after  van  der  Weyden,  297. 
Apocalypse,  9. 
Apollo,  9. 
Apostles,  5,  9. 
Apple,  152,  179,  217. 
Aragon,  240. 
Arezzo,  44. 

Armenian  bole,  xviii,  103. 
Arretine  pottery,  xii. 
Art,  Sources  of,  4. 
Arte  de'  medici  e  speziali,  37-38. 
Arte  de'  pittori,  38. 
Asciano.     Collegiata. 

Sassetta,  118. 
Ashburton,  Lady,  202. 
Asia,  3. 

Aspergillum,  48,  49. 
Ass,  109. 
Assisi.    San  Francesco. 

Pietro  Lorenzetti,  104. 

Simone  Martini,  97. 
Athena,  Worship  of,  6. 
Athos,  Mt,  .7. 
Augsburg,  252,  255,  259. 
Avignon,  26,  96,  m,  240,  274,  275. 
Aynard  collection,  Lyons,  71,  121. 
Azurite  (azzuro  della  magna),  v. 

Baldanzi,  Canon,  60. 
Barcelona,  240. 
Baseggio,  Enrico,  87. 
Basil  1,  emperor,  4. 
Basle,  252,  Council  of,  253. 


33° 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Bassano,  235. 
Battersea,  Lord,  London. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  73. 
Beaune,  291. 
Bedford,  Duke  of,  274. 
Beebe,  Mrs.  T.  C. 

Girolamo  di  Benvenuto,  137,  138. 

Master  of  the  Innocenti  Coronation, 

55.  56. 
Bell,  C.  F.,  si. 
Benedict  xn,  pope,  164. 
Benson,  Robert  and  Evelyn,  London. 

Cosimo  Tura,  190. 

Umbrian    school   (Antonio   da   Vi- 
terbo  ?),  170. 
Berenson,  Bernhard,  iii,  58,  60,  63,  67, 
69,  76,  78,  108,  159,  162,  193,  222, 
224,  225. 

Collection,  118,  155. 
Berenson,  M.  L.,  63. 
Bergamo,  212,  226. 
Carrara  Gallery. 

Francesco  di  Simone  da  Sta.  Croce, 
224. 

Bartolommeo  Vivarini,  218. 
Bergh,  Meyer  van  der,  Antwerp,  297. 
Berlin.    Kaiser  Friedrich  Museum. 

Cranach,  264. 

Crivelli,  177,  302. 

Gerard  David,  298. 

Jan  van  Eyck,  286. 

Fogolino,  198. 

Taddeo  Gaddi,  107. 

Antonio  Moro,  307. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino  ?,  72. 

Attributed  to  Raffaellino  del  Garbo, 
78. 

Francesco  da  Sta.  Croce,  225. 

Sassetta,  118. 

Van  der  Weyden  ?,  297. 

Zeitblom,  259. 
Berri,  Due  de,  274. 
Berti,  Signor  Grissato,  60. 
Bethlehem,  5. 
Bettens,  E.  D.,  xii. 
Bettens,  Mrs.  L.  E.,  xii. 
Bibliography,  see  French  painting.    Bib- 
liography; Painting.  Bibliography, 
etc. 
Bird,  68. 
Biretta,  89,  90. 
Black,  no,  139. 
Blakeslee,  T.  J.,  202. 


Blakeslee  Galleries,  New  York,  201,  202. 
Bliss,  E.  P.,  xii. 
Blue,  109,  116. 

Blumenthal,  George  and  Florence,  New 
York. 

Antoniazzo  Romano,  157. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  34,  37. 

Francesco  di  Giorgio,  124. 

Giovanni  di  Paolo,  121. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino  ?,  70. 

Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  114. 
Bodegones,  242. 
Bole,  xviii,  103,  112. 
Bologna,  178,  185,  186,  193,  310. 

Gallery,  218. 
Boniface  vrn,  pope,  129,  164. 
Bonnal,'Dr.,  Nice,  109. 
Book  (carried  by  apostles),  36. 
Bordeaux,  96. 

Bordonaro  collection,  Palermo,  297. 
Borenius,  Tancred,  52,  159,  162. 
Borgia  family,  167. 
Borgo  San  Sepolcro,  118,  126. 
Boston.     Fenway    Court,  see    Fenway 

Court,  Boston. 
Boston.    Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  xi,  268, 
305,  306. 

Fra  Angelico,  32. 

Bartolo  di  Fredi,  101. 

Attributed  to  Boccatis,  147. 

Bramantino,  186,  187. 

Carpaccio,  214. 

Claude  Lorrain,  278. 

Cozzarelli,  101. 

Cranach  the  Elder,  258,  264. 

Crivelli,  209,  214. 

Attributed  to  Gerard  David,  291. 

Van  Dyck,  290,  311. 

Fayoum  portrait,  8. 

El  Greco,  244. 

Greek  v  century  relief,  269. 

Master  of  St.  Severin,  258. 

Master  of  the  Holy  Family,  258. 

Attributed  to  Lippo  Memmi,  101. 

Moroni,  187. 

School  of  Perugino,  147. 

Philippe  de  Champaigne,  278. 

Ribera,  244. 

Sano  di  Pietro,  101. 

Segna,  101. 

Andrea  Solario,  187,  196. 

Spanish  school  (Borrassa  ?),  244. 

Timoteo  della  Vite,  147. 


GENERAL  INDEX 


331 


Boston.  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  (contin'd). 

Ugolino  da  Siena,  101. 

Velazquez,  244. 

Bartolommeo   Vivarini   or    School, 
214,  218. 

Van  der  Weyden,  290,  291,  297,  301. 

Madonna  after  van   der  Weyden, 
298. 

Wolgemut,  258. 
Bourges,  275. 
Bracht,  Herr,  Berlin,  73. 
Brasses,  Rubbings  from,  xii. 
Brescia,  186. 

Bridal  chests,  see  Cassoni. 
Brittany,  274. 
Brown,  A.  V.  V.,  159. 
Brown  ochre,  v. 
Browning,  R.,  60. 

Brownlow,  Lord,  Ashridge  Park,  128. 
Bruges,  286,  287,  293,  303. 
Brussels,  291,  307. 

Gallery,  297. 

Print  Room,  301. 
Budapest.   Gallery,  262. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino  ?,  73. 

Spinello  Aretino,  47,  52. 

Umbrian  school,  170. 
Buddha,  9. 

Biirkl,  Herr  von,  Munich,  261. 
Bullard,  F.,  xi. 
Burg,  J.  van  der,  296,  298. 
Burgundy,  253,  274,  275. 
Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club,  London,  248. 
Bye,  Mr.  and  Mrs.,  296. 
Butler,  Charles,  London,  81. 
Byzantine  ideal,  10,  93. 
Byzantine  painting,  1-17,  93,  94. 

Bibliography,  n. 

History,  3-10. 
Byzantine-Gothic   painting,    184,    207, 

215- 

Byzantium,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7. 

Cabot,  Louis,  Boston,  78. 

Cabot,  W.  M.,  xi. 

Caccialupi,   Count  Augusto,  Macerata, 

177. 
Calabria,  Duke  of,  124. 
Calf  bearer,  5. 

Camerino,  144,  145,  151,  154- 
Cappa,  128,  129. 
Cardinal,  129-130. 
Carlisle,  Lord,  312. 


Carlsruhe.    Museum. 

Zeitblom,  259. 
Carmelite  order.    Habit,  no. 
Carnation,  79. 

Cary,  Mrs.  E.  M.,  ix,  xii,  xiv. 
Cassel.     Gallery,  297. 
Cassoni  (Bridal  chests),  25,  81-82. 
Castile,  240,  241,  242,  243. 
Casts,  ix. 

Catalonia,  240,  241. 

Cavalcaselle,  see  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle. 
Cecconi,  Signor,  Florence,  128. 
Celtic  illumination,  317-318. 
Cenci  family  Vicovaro,  225. 
Cennino  Centum,  xvii,  xviii,  47,  129,  130. 
Chalice,  106,  267. 
Chantilly.    Musee  Cond6. 

Sassetta,  118. 

Tres  Riches  Heures  of  the  Due  de 
Berri,  274. 
Charles  1,  king  of  England,  289,  310. 
Charles  n,  king  of  Spain,  244. 
Charles  v,  emperor,  242,  307. 
Cherries,  152,  179. 
Cherubim,  115-116. 

Chiaramonte  Bordonaro  collection,  Pa- 
lermo, 297. 
Chiaroscuro,  xvii,  100. 
Child,  F.  J.,  322. 
China,  4,  95,  96. 
Chinvat  bridge,  95. 
Chioggia,  222. 

Chiusuri,  Monte  Olive  to  di,  50. 
Choral  angels,  116. 
Chriophorus,  5. 
Christ,  5,  9,  109,  no,  179. 
Christ  in  Limbo,  9,  14-15,  11 9-1 20. 
Christ  Pantocrator,  9. 
Citta,  di  Castello,  170. 
Civalli,  Father  Horace,  171. 
Clark,  W.  A.,  New  York,  in. 
Cleveland.     Museum  of  Art.     Holden 
collection. 

Leandro  Bassano,  235. 

Lorenzo  di  Credi,  83. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  70. 

Polidoro  da  Lanciano,  233. 
Cluny,  129. 
Cobalt,  vi. 
Coins,  xii. 
Collegarli,  114. 
Colmar,  252,  253,  254,  257. 
Cologne,  52,  252,  253,  274,  285,  287,  291. 


332 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Colour,  Significance  of,  ioo-iio. 

Colour  terminology,  iv-vi. 

Colours  appropriate  to  Christ,  Madonna, 
saints,  and  angels,  109-110,  115- 
116. 

Compagnia  di  San  Luca,  Rome,  156-157. 

Compagnia  e  Fraternita,  di  San  Luca, 
Florence,  38. 

Confraternita  de'  pit  tori,  Florence,  38. 

Constantine,  emperor,  3,  6,  8,  236. 

Constantinople,  3,  4,  6,  7,  8,  95. 

Consular  diptych,  xx. 

Continuous  method  of  representation,  80. 

Cook  collection,  Richmond,  170. 

Coolidge,  J.  T.,  Boston,  137. 

Cope,  49. 

Cordova,  241. 

Cortona,  102,  118. 

Cosimo  de'  Medici,  1st  duke  of  Tuscany, 
201. 

Cotignola,  178. 

Council  of  Basle,  253. 

Council  of  Lyons,  129. 

Council  of  Nicaea,  10. 

Council  of  Troubles,  308. 

Counter-Reformation  in  Flanders,  289. 

Court  of  Blood,  308. 

Cremona,  31,  185. 

Crete,  Minoan  art  of.  Reproductions, 
xii. 

Crosier,  47,  49,  50,  133. 

Cross  surmounting  globe,  236. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle,  52,  60,  69,  87, 
156,  159,  169,  170,  171,  222. 

Cruciferous  nimbus,  see  Cruciform  nim- 
bus. 

Crucifixion,  9. 

Cruciform  nimbus,  67-68. 

Cup,  106,  267. 

Curtis,  H.  G.,  xi. 

Daisy,  247. 

Damasus,  pope,  129. 

Dante,  26,  42,  100. 

Darmstadt.    Museum,  170. 

Davis,  Theodore  M.    Collection,  see  New 

York.      Metropolitan     Museum. 

Davis  collection. 
Decoration  of  churches,  Byzantine,  5,  6, 

9- 
Deesis,  14,  16. 
Deruta,  149. 
Descent  from  the  cross,  263. 


Descent  into  Hell,  9,  14-15,  11 9-1 20. 
Design   and   representation,   Exhibition 

illustrating  principles  of,  xiii. 
Detroit.    Museum  of  Art,  70. 
Devil,  138-139. 
Dijon,  274,  275. 
Diptych,  xix. 

Consular,  xx. 
Dollfus  collection,  4. 
Dominican  order.    Habit,  no. 
Donor,  42,  43. 

Dorchester  House,  London,  62. 
Dorio,  Durante,  151. 
Dormition  of  the  Madonna,  49. 
Douglas,  Capt.  Langton,  51,  52. 
Drawings,  xi. 
Dreicer,  Michael,  New  York. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  70. 

Van  der  Weyden,  291. 
Dresden.     Gallery,  209. 
Dreyfus  collection,  Paris,  155. 
Dublin.    Trinity  College  Library,  317. 
DuCluzel  d'  Oloron  sale,  41. 
Dudley  Gallery,  53. 
Durante  Dorio,  151. 
Dyke,  Benjamin,  322. 

East  and  West,  Intercourse  between,  95- 
96. 

Easter  Hymn,  116. 

Eastlake,  C.  L.,  xix,  301. 

Eastnor  Castle,  Ledbury,  72. 

Ecclesiastical  vestments,  see  Names  of 
vestments,  such  as  Cope,  Gloves, 
Mozzetta. 

Eclectic  school,  242. 

Edgell,  G.  H.,  100,  147,  290. 

Egypt,  4. 

Eleonora  of  Aragon,  188. 

Eleonora  of  Toledo,  201. 

Elliott,  John,  Newport,  225. 

Ely.    Cathedral,  319. 

Emerson,  Mr.  (dealer),  37. 

Empoli.     Gallery. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  69. 

Encaustic  method  of  painting,  8. 

Englewood.  Piatt  collection,  see  Piatt, 
D.  F. 

English  law,  Manuscripts  and  books  re- 
lating to,  319. 

English  painting,  315-323. 
Bibliography,  321. 
History,  317-321. 


GENERAL  INDEX 


333 


English  portrait  and  landscape  painters, 
212. 

Engraving  in  Germany,  253-254,  255, 
256,  257,  258. 

Ephesus,  6. 

Erasmus,  257. 

Este,  Borso  d',  duke  of  Ferrara,  188. 

Este,  Ercole  d',  duke  of  Ferrara,  58,  188. 

Eustis,  W.  E.  C,  Boston,  84,  85. 

Everett,  H.  E.,  159. 

Exhibition  of  Flemish  painting,  Fogg 
Art  Museum,  1016,  308. 

Exhibition  of  French  primitives,  Paris, 
1904,  280. 

Exhibition  of  Italian  paintings,  Fogg 
Art  Museum,  1915,  105. 

Exhibition  of  Italian  primitives  in  aid  of 
the  Ameiican  war  relief,  Klein- 
berger  Galleries,  Nov.,  1917,  64, 
123,  125,  157. 

Exhibition  of  primitive  pictures  at  the 
galleries  of  Mai  tin  Hofer,  New 
York,  Nov.,  1915,  248. 

Exhibition  of  works  by  the  Early  Flem- 
ish painters,  Guildhall,  London, 
1906,  298,  301. 

Explanatory  notes,  xvi-xx. 

Exposition  des  orphelins  d' Alsace-Lor- 
raine, 1885,  43. 

Fabri,  Signor  Pio,  Rome,  162. 

Fabrics,  216-217. 

Faenza,  193. 

Fairfax  Murray,  see  Murray,  C.  F 

Farabulini,  D.,  171,  172. 

Farrer,  F.  W.,  202. 

Fayoum  portraits,  8. 

Feasts,  the  Twelve,  9,  14,  15. 

Fenway  Court,  Boston. 

Fra  Angelico,  32. 

Bacchiacca,  32. 

Paris  Bordone,  214. 

Botticelli,  32. 

Bramantino,  187. 

Bronzino,  32. 

Catena,  214. 

Cima  da  Conegliano,  214. 

Francois  Clouet,  278. 

Alonso  Sanchez  Coello,  244. 

Correggio,  187. 

Lorenzo  di  Credi,  83. 

Crivelli,  214. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  32,  34. 


Fenway  Court,  Boston  {continued) 

Domenico  Veneziano,  32. 

Diirer,  258. 

Van  Dyck,  290,  311. 

Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo,  147,  163. 

Pier  dei  Franceschi,  147. 

Francia,  187. 

Agnolo  Gaddi,  32. 

Giambono,  214. 

Giorgione,  214. 

Giotto,  32. 

Giovanni  di  Paolo,  101. 

Holbein  the  Younger,  258. 

Liberate  da  Verona,  187. 

Pietro  Lorenzetti,  or  "  Ugolino  Lor- 
enzetti,"  101,  104,  108. 

Andrea  Mantegna,  187. 

Attributed  to  Masaccio,  32. 

Antonio  Moro,  290,  307. 

Moroni,  187. 

Pesellino,  32,  62. 

"  Compagno  di  Pesellino,"  71,  73. 

Pintoricchio,  147,  166. 

Antonio  Pollaiuolo,  29,  32. 

Raphael,  147. 

Rubens,  290. 

Leonardo  Scaletti,  193. 

Schongauer,  258. 

Scorel,  Jan  van,  290. 

Sebastiano  del  Piombo,  214. 

Simone  Martini,  101. 

Attributed  to  Squarcione,  187. 

Tintoretto,  214. 

Titian,  214. 

Cosimo  Tura,  187,  188,  190. 

Andrea  Vanni,  101,  in. 

Velazquez,  244. 

School  of  the  Verg6s,  244. 

Attributed  to  Vermejo,  perhaps  by 
the  Master  of  Santo  Domingo,  244 

Attributed  to  Veronese,  214. 

Zurbaran,  244. 
Ferdinand  of  Castile,  247. 
Ferrara,  31,  146,  178,  185,  x86,  188,  190, 
291. 

Dukes  of,  58,  188. 
Ferrarese-Cavalieri  collection,  223. 
Ficino,  Marsilio,  81. 
Ex-Fischof  collection,  New  York,  157. 
Fish,  5. 

Fiske,  Mrs.  George,  xii. 
Flemish  method  of  painting,  see  Flemish 
technique. 


334 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Flemish  painting,  283-313. 
Bibliography,  290. 
History,  285-290. 
Flemish  technique,  xvi,  xvii,  xviii,  145, 

209,  221,  241,  285-286. 
Florence,  26,  28,  31,  39,  58,  62,  65,  74, 
83,  93,  94,  95,  96,  98,  100,  102, 
143,  144,  240,  241,  291,  310. 
Academy. 
Bernardo  Daddi,  33,  37. 
Domenico  Ghirlandaio,  78. 
Pesellino,  62. 
Badia. 

Filippino  Lippi,  77. 
Baptistery,  8. 
Bigallo,  33,  37,  39. 
Carmine,  Brancacci  Chapel,  28,  57, 

77- 
Carmine,  Convent,  57. 
Ognissanti,  128. 
Or  San  Michele,  41. 
Palazzo  Medici-Riccardi,  65 
Panciatichi  collection,  128. 
Rinuccini  collection,  306. 
San  Giorgio  gate,  33. 
San  Giusto  a  Signano,  37. 
San  Miniato,  44. 
Sta.  Croce,  33. 
Sta.  Maria  Novella,  42. 

Duccio,  96. 

Domenico  Ghirlandaio,  74. 

Orcagna,  74. 
Sta.  Maria  Nuova,  xvii,  30,  287. 
Santa  Trinita,  74. 
Spedale  degli  Innocenti,  55. 
Uffizi. 

Jacopo  di  Cione,  39. 

Crucifix,  34. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  33. 

Domenico  Ghirlandaio,  78. 

Memlinc,  152,  302. 

Michelangelo,  305. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  72. 

Simone  Martini,  112. 
Florentine  painting,  23-90. 

Bibliography,  32. 

History,  25-32. 
Flowers,  79,  152,  247. 
Fogg,  W.  H.,  ix. 
Fogg,  Mrs.  W.  H.,  ix. 
Fogg  Art  Museum. 

Architect,  ix. 

Classical  department,  xii. 


Fogg  Art  Museum  (continued). 

Collection  of  early  paintings,  xiii-xv. 
Bibliography,  xiv-xv. 

Drawings  and  water  colours,  xi,  xii, 
xiii. 

Exhibitions,  105,  308. 

Friends  of  the,  Society  of,  xiv,  36, 
52,  63,  109,  112,  246. 

History,  ix-xiii. 

Library,  xiii. 

Oriental  collection,  xii— xiii. 

Photographs,  xiii. 

Print  collection,  xi,  185,  254,  255, 
256,  258. 

Slides,  xiii. 
Fogg  collection  of  paintings  and  curios, 

ix. 
Foligno,  67,  146,  149. 
Fontainebleau,  Chateau  of,  276. 
Fontainebleau,  School  of,  276. 
Forbes,  E.  W.,  vi,  10,  132. 
Francis  1,  king  of  France,  276,  277. 
Franconia,  252,  259,  264. 
Frankfort.    Staedel  Institute. 

Madonna  after  van  der  Weyden, 
297. 
Frederick,  king  of  Prussia,  171. 
Frederick  the  Wise,  251,  264. 
Freer,  C.  L.,  xii. 
French  painting,  271-281. 

Bibliography,  278. 

History,  273-277. 
Fresco,  xvi,  6,  7,  8,  25,  28,  30,  74,  75,  94, 

97,  104,  242. 
Fresco  a  secco,  xvi. 
Frick,  H.  C,  New  York. 

Antonello  da  Messina  ?,  276. 

Giovanni  Bellini,  221. 

Gerard  David,  293. 

Van  Dyck,  311. 

Van  der  Weyden,  291. 
Friedsam,  Michael,  New  York. 

Van  der  Weyden,  291. 
Friends  of  the  Fogg  Art  Museum,  Society 

of,  xiv,  36,  52,  63,  109,  112,  246. 
Friuli,  95,  198. 
Fruit,  68,  152,  179. 
Fry,  Roger,  169. 
Furnes,  298. 
Furniture  panels,  25,  81,  82. 

Gable,  xix: 
Gaeta,  89. 


GENERAL  INDEX 


335 


Gaillon,  Chateau  de,  196,  276. 

Galese,  Duca  di,  199. 

Gandhara  sculpture,  xii,  4. 

Gardner,  Mrs.  J.  L.,  Collection,  see  Fen- 
way Court. 

Garlands,  302. 

Gelder,  Michel  van,  297. 

Gemistos,  Giorgios,  81. 

Geneva,  253. 

Genoa,  114,  310. 

Gentiles,  109. 

German  painting,  249-269. 
Bibliography,  258. 
History,  251-258. 

German  technique,  xviii,  252. 

Gesso,  xviii,  12. 

Ghent,  286,  287. 

Giorgios  Gemistos,  81. 

Giotteschi,  27,  33,  44,  207,  216. 

Globe,  236. 

Gloves,  164. 

Gnoli,  Count  U.,  151. 

Gobelins  factory,  277. 

God  the  Father,  144,  146,  160-161. 

Goldman,  Henry,  New  York,  51,  293. 

Good  Shepherd,  5. 

Gotha.    Museum,  254. 

Gothic  architecture,  251,  273. 

Gothic  art,  25,  26,  27,  28,  94,  97,  183, 
207,  208,  218,  252,  254,  273,  276, 
285,  302. 

Gourd,  179. 

Graecht,  Baron  van  der,  Bruges,  308. 

Granada,  244,  298. 

Granvelle,  Cardinal,  307. 

Gray,  F.  C,  xi. 

Gray  collection  of  prints,  xi. 

Gray,  Significance  of,  no. 

Greece,  3,  4,  5,  8,  9- 

Greek  mythology,  80,  81. 

Greek  sculpture,  x,  xi,  xii. 

Greek  vases,  xi. 

Green,  109,  no,  116. 

Greene,  Miss  Belle  da  C,  New  York,  34. 

Grimm,  H.    Life  of  Michael  Angelo,  306. 

Grisaille,  274. 

Gualdo  Tadino,  146,  152. 

Gubbio,  144,  166. 

Guild  of  doctors  and  apothecaries,  see 
Arte  de'  medici  e  speziali. 

Guild  of  painters,  Rome,  156-157. 

Guilds,  37-38. 

Guillaume  de  Perier,  162. 


Haarlem,  293,  303. 

Haegen,  Victor  van  der,  Ghent,  298. 

Hainauer  collection,  71. 

Hammer,  41. 

Harris,  G.  W.,  xiii,  298. 

Harrowing  of    Hell,  see  Descent  into 

Hell. 
Hartlaub,  G.  F.,  128. 
Harvard  College  Library,  322. 
Harvard  Law  School,  xii,  319. 
Harvard  University,  298. 

Class  of  1895,  xii. 

Portraits  in,  212. 
Havell,  E.  B.,  10. 
Hearn,  George  A.,  Collection,  280. 
Heaven,  Court  of,  5,  9. 
Hemenway,  Augustus,  Boston,  78. 
Hemenway  family,  Boston,  78. 
Henry  vm,  king  of  England,  320. 
Hermes,  269. 

Heugel  collection,  Paris,  116. 
Higginson,  Mrs.  H.  L.,  Boston,  126. 
High  Renaissance,  100,  146,  186. 
Highnam  Court,  Gloucester,  see  Parry, 
Sir  Hubert,  Highnam  Court,  Glou- 
cester. 
Himation,  9. 

Hofer,  Martin,  Galleries,  New  York,  248. 
Holden  collection,  Cleveland,  see  Cleve- 
land.   Museum  of  Art. 
Holy  Land,  264. 
Honorius  n,  pope,  164. 
Hooker,  J.  C,  Rome,  172,  173. 
Hooker,  Mrs.  J.  C,  173. 
Home,  H.  P.,  60. 
Hortulus  Anime,  1516,  301. 
Hunt,  R.  M.,  ix. 
Huntington,  Mrs.  C.  P.,  New  York. 

Lorenzo  di  Credi,  83. 

Matteo  di  Giovanni,  1 26. 
Hutton,  Edward,  52,  159. 
Hymans,  Henri,  308. 

Icon,  8. 

Iconoclastic  controversy,  4,  6-7,  8. 

Iconography,  5,  9. 

See  also  special  subjects  such  as 
Annunciation,  Presentation  of  the 
Virgin,  Raising  of  Lazarus. 

Illuminated  law  books,  xii. 

Illuminated  manuscripts,  Italian  (frag- 
ments of,  in  Fogg  Art  Museum), 


336 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Illumination  of  manuscripts,  xvi,  xvii,  8, 
273-274,  275,  276-277,  285,  317- 
310- 

India,  xii,  4,  96. 

Indian  art,  Spirit  of,  10. 

Innocent  iv,  pope,  129. 

Innocent  vm,  pope,  157. 

Innsbruck,  264. 

"  Intellectuals "    (Florentine    painters), 

29.  31- 
International  school,  26,  28,  62,  144,  183, 

207,  215,  240,  252,  274. 
Isabella  of  Gubbio,  171,  172. 
Italian  painting,  x,  xi,  19-236. 
Bibliography,  21. 

Jackson,  T.  W.,  53. 

Jacopo  d'  Arezzo,  50. 

Jaeger,  U.,  Genoa,  167,  300. 

Japan,  4. 

Japanese  works  of  art,  collection  of,  in 

Fogg  Art  Museum,  xi. 
Jarves,  James  J.,  78. 
Jarves  collection,  see  Yale  University. 

Jarves  collection. 
Jasmine,  79,  247. 

Jesuitical  painting  in  Flanders,  289. 
Jews,  109. 
Johnson  collection,  Philadelphia,  81. 

Albertinelli,  86. 

Antoniazzp  Romano,  157. 

Barna,  106. 

Leandro  Bassano,  235. 

Benozzo  Gozzoli,  65. 

Cranach  the  Elder,  264. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  34. 

Gerard  David,  293. 

Giovanni  di  Paolo,  121. 

Pietro  Lorenzetti,  or  "  Ugolino  Lor- 
enzetti,"  104,  108. 

Lotto,  226. 

Copy  of  Mantegna's  Epiphany,  225. 

Matteo  di  Giovanni,  126. 

Quentin  Metsys,  300. 

Antonio  Moro,  307. 

Pesellino,  62. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  72. 

Sassetta,  118. 

Andrea  Solario,  196. 

Spinello  Aretino,  44. 

Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  114. 

Cosimo  Tura,  188. 

Bartolommeo  Vivarini,  218. 


Johnson  collection  {continued). 

Van  der  Weyden,  291. 

Ysenbrant,  303. 

Zeitblom,  School  of,  259. 
Judas,  no. 
Julius  11,  pope,  146. 
Justinian,  emperor,  4,  6. 

Kahn,  Otto  H.,  New  York,  83. 
Kami,  Rodolphe,  Collection,  298,  312. 
Kay,  Arthur,  Glasgow,  155. 
Kells,  Monastery  of,  312. 
Kings,  Adoration  of,  5,  190-191. 
Kleinberger   Galleries,  New  York,   64, 

123,  125,  157,  246,  298. 
Kristeller,  P.,  225. 
Kronach,  264. 

Lambert,  Miss  Frances,  322. 
Lanciano,  233. 
Lane,  Sir  Hugh,  218. 
Lapis  lazuli,  v. 
Lappets,  so- 
Last  Judgment,  9,  13  s,  269. 
Laura,  96. 
Laurel,  113. 
Layard  collection,  see  London.   National 

Gallery. 
Le  Mans,  Museum,  64. 
Lehman,  Arthur,  New  York,  73. 
Lehman,  Philip,  New  York. 

Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  132. 

Giovanni  di  Paolo,  121. 

Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  102. 

Pesellino  ?,  64. 

Bartolommeo  Vivarini,  218. 

Ysenbrant,  303. 
Leighton,  Sir  Frederic,  173,  219. 
Lemon,  Margaret,  310. 
Leo  in,  the  Isaurian,  emperor,  7. 
Leo  x,  pope,  146. 
Leonora  of  Aragon,  188. 
Leonora  of  Toledo,  201. 
Lily,  79,  113,  13s,  152- 
Lily  of  Aragon,  Order  of,  247. 
Line  drawing,  318. 
Lion,  60,  129. 

Liverpool.    Walker  Art  Gallery,  73. 
Llanshaw  Court,  Gloucester,  322. 
Loan   exhibition    of   Flemish   painting, 

Fogg  Art  Museum,  1916,  308. 
Loan  exhibition  of  Italian  paintings,  Fogg 
Art  Museum,  1915,  105. 


GENERAL  INDEX 


337 


Loan  exhibition  of  Italian  primitives, 
Kleinberger  Galleries,  Nov.,  1917, 
64,  123,  125,  rs7. 
Loeb,  James,  xii,  xiii,  322. 
Loeser,  Charles,  iii,  87,  225. 
Logan,  Mary,  63. 

London.    British  Museum,  231,  320,  323. 
Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club,  248. 
Burlington  House,  82  (see  also  Royal 

Academy). 
Dorchester  House,  62. 
Grafton  Galleries,  64,  248. 
National  Gallery. 

Antonello  da  Messina,  209. 
Giovanni  Bellini  ?,  222  (Layard  col- 
lection). 
Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  134. 
Bonfigli,  67. 
Van  Dyck,  313. 
Van  Eyck,  286,  300. 
Fiorenzo   di  Lorenzo,   160  (Salting 

collection). 
Pintoricchio,  170. 
Raphael,  87. 
Umbrian  school,  170. 
Madonna  after  van   der  Weyden, 
297. 
National  Portrait  Gallery,  320,  323. 
New  Gallery,  82,  248. 
Royal  Academy,  173,  202,  248  (see  also 

Burlington  House). 
South  Kensington  Museum  (Victoria 
and  Albert  Museum),  72, 173, 323. 
Longyear,  J.  M.,  Boston,  196. 
Louis  xiii,  king  of  France,  277. 
Louis  xiv,  king  of  France,  277. 
Louvain,  287. 
Lowell,  J.  R.,  322. 
Luther,  Martin,  264. 
Lydig,  Capt.  Philip,  xiii. 
Lydig,  Mrs.  Philip,  71,  308. 
Lyons,  Council  of,  129. 

Macedonia,  7. 
Macerata,  177. 

Madonna,  5,  8,  9,  42,  57,  94,  97,  99>  "3. 
116,  144,  146,  152,  247,  302. 

Death,  281. 

Dormition,  49. 

Dress,  109,  no,  216-217. 

Flemish  type  of,  285. 

Flowers,  79,  152. 

Presentation,  16. 


Madrid,  240,  242,  243. 
Escorial. 
Ribera,  243. 
Van  der  Weyden,  291. 
Prado,  307. 
Traumann  collection,  297. 

Magi,  Adoration  of,  5,  190-191. 

Malatesta,  Roberto,  172. 

Male,  E.,  191. 

Mallet,  49. 

Mander,  C.  van,  288. 

Mantle,  9. 

Mantua,  310. 

Manuscripts,  Illuminated,  see  Illumina- 
tion of  manuscripts. 

Marches,  The,  143,  144,  145,  146,  149, 
154,  208. 

Margaret  of  Parma,  307. 

Marsilio  Ficino,  81. 

Mary  of  Hungary,  307. 

Mary  Tudor,  queen  of  England,  307,  320. 

Mather,  F.  J.,  Jr.,  295,  296,  297,  298. 

Matthys  collection,  Brussels,  297. 

Maubeuge,  288. 

Maximilian,  emperor,  251,  255,  296,  298. 

Medallion,  xix. 

Medals,  Reproductions,  xi. 

Medici,  Cosimo  de',  81. 

Medici,  Cosimo  1,  duke  of  Tuscany,  201. 

Medici,  Lorenzo  de',  81. 

Medium,  xvi. 

Meiningen,  37. 

Mersch,  Kathleen  van  der,  296. 

Metropolitan  Museum,  see  New  York, 
Metropolitan  Museum. 

Meyer  van  der  Bergh  collection,  Ant- 
werp, 297. 

Middleton,  J.  H.,  317. 

Milan,  31,  32,  183,  185,  196*  29i- 
Brera. 
Agnolo  degli  Erri  ?,  194. 
Umbrian  school,  170. 
Palazzo  Borromeo,  166. 
Poldi-Pezzoli  Museum,  198. 

Milanesi,  G.,  60. 

Millet,  Mon.  byz.  de  Mistra,  14. 

Miniature  painting,  see  Illumination  of 
manuscripts. 

Miniature  portrait  painting,  320. 

Minoan  art  of  Crete,  Reproductions,  xii. 

Minor  arts,  Greek  and  Roman,  xii. 

Minturn,  R.  S.,  70. 

Mirandola,  Pico  della,  81,  188. 


338 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Mississippi,  steamship,  312. 

Mistra,  7,  14. 

Mitre,  49-50. 

Modena,  186. 

Monte  Corvino,  95. 

Monte  Oliveto,  Confraternity  of,  50. 

Monte  San  Giusto,  226. 

Montefalco,  65,  143,  146,  149. 

Montefeltro,  Federigo,  163,  172. 

Guidobaldo,  172. 
Montepulciano,  114. 
Moore,  C.  H.,  x,  xi,  xiii. 
Morbidezza,  xvii,  100. 
Morelli,  173. 
Morey,  C.  R.,  14. 
Morgan,  J.  P.,  Collection,  312. 
Ghirlandaio,  74. 
Illuminated  manuscripts,  293. 
Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  57. 
Pintoricchio  (Umbrian  school),  169, 

170,  173. 
Tapestry,  130. 
Bartolommeo  Vivarini,  218. 
Umbrian     school     (Pintoricchio  ?), 

169,  170,  173. 
Van  der  Weyden,  291  (Metropolitan 

Museum). 
Windmill  Psalter,  319. 
Morison,  Capt.  Horace,  44. 
Mosaic  tiles,  xiii. 

Mostra  dell'  antica  arte  senese,  130. 
Mostra  internazionale  Raffaellesca,  Ur- 

bino,  173. 
Moulins,  275. 
Mozzetta,  89-90. 
Munich.    Pinakothek. 

Cranach  the  Elder,  264. 
Van  der  Weyden  ?,  291,  297,  301. 
Zeitblom,  259. 
Murray,  C.  F.,  xiii,  45,  103,  219,  222, 

227,  266,  322. 
Musical  instruments,  155. 
Myrtle,  79. 


Naples,  in,  209. 
Museum. 

Attributed  to  Ghirlandaio,  78. 

Umbrian  school,  170. 
Nativity,  5. 
Neoplatonism,  29,  99. 
Nevin  collection,  Rome. 

Bernardino  di  Mariotto,  177. 


New  Haven.    Jarves  collection,  see  Yale 

University.    Jarves  collection. 
New  York.    Hispanic  Museum. 

Antonio  Moro,  307. 
New  York.    Historical  Society. 
Bernardo  Daddi,  34. 
Gerard  David,  293. 
New  York.    Metropolitan  Museum. 
Benozzo  Gozzoli,  65. 
Benvenuto  di   Giovanni,   132,   137 
(attributed  also   to  Girolamo  di 
Benvenuto). 
Cranach  the  Elder,  264. 
Lorenzo  di  Credi,  83. 
Gerard  David,  293. 
Van  Dyck,  311. 
Giovanni  di  Paolo,  121. 
Girolamo  di  Benvenuto,   132,   137 
(attributed  also  to  Benvenuto  di 
Giovanni). 
Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  57. 
Pietro  Lorenzetti,  104. 
Lotto,  226. 

Matteo  di  Giovanni,  126. 
Quentin  Metsys,  300. 
Pesellino,  62. 
Andrea  Solario,  196. 
Spinello  Aretino,  44. 
Cosimo  Tura,  189. 
Van  der  Weyden,  291. 
Ysenbrant,  303. 
New    York.       Metropolitan     Museum 
(Davis  collection). 
Attributed  to  Pintoricchio  (perhaps 

by  Antoniazzo),  157. 
Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  114. 
Bartolommeo  Vivarini,  218. 
Nicaea,  Council  of,  10. 
Nicolas  iv,  pope,  42. 
Nimbus,  Cruciform,  67-68. 
Nocera  Umbra,  152. 
North  Italian  painting,  181-203. 
Bibliography,  187. 
History,  183-186. 
Northesk,  Earl  of,  Collection. 

Sassetta,  120. 
Norton,  C.  E.,  ix,  x,  xi,  322. 
Norton,  R.,  x. 
Nuremberg,  252,  254,  255. 
Germanic  Museum. 
Master  of  Peringsdorf  Altar,  301. 
Madonna   after  van  der  Weyden, 
297. 


GENERAL  INDEX 


339 


Ochre,  v. 

Oil  painting,  xvi,  xvii,  xviii,  25,  74,  209, 

221,  230,  241,  285-286,  319. 
Okkonen,  O.,  162. 
Old  Testament,  9,  65,  87. 
Olive  branch,  113. 
Orb,  236. 
Oriental  art,  Analogies  with  Sienese,  95- 

96. 
Oriental  art  in  the  Fogg  Museum,  xi,  xii- 

xiii. 
Orphrey,  49. 
Orvieto,  65. 

Osmaston,  F.  P.  B.,  230. 
Otranto,  Sack  of,  126. 
Ottley,  Italian  school  of  design,  300. 
Oudewater,  293. 
Ox,  109. 

Oxford.    Ashmolean  Museum,  51. 
Bodleian  Library,  323. 
Worcester  College,  52. 

Padua,  31,  114,  183,  184,  185,  207,  208, 
209,  218,  221. 

Arena  Chapel,  42. 

Eremitani  Chapel,  188. 

Oratory  of  St.  George,  183. 

San  Antonio,  31. 
Painted  Chamber,  Westminster,  319. 
Painters'  Guild  in  England,  319. 
Painting.    Bibliography,  xxi-xxiv.     See 
also    Byzantine    painting.      Bib- 
liography;    Florentine    painting. 
Bibliography,  etc. 
Painting,  Processes  of,  xvi-xvii. 
Palaeologi,  The,  4,  7. 
Palestine,  6. 
Pallium,  9. 
Palm,  36,  113. 
Palmer,  G.  H.,  xi,  233. 
Panciatichi  collection,  Florence,  128. 
Panel,  Preparation  and  painting,  xvii- 

xviii. 
Paris,  96,  274. 
Louvre,  277. 

Henri  Bellechose,  275. 

Jan  van  Eyck,  286. 

Justus  of  Ghent,  163. 

Master  of  St.  George,  240. 

Antonio  Moro,  307. 

Pesellino,  62. 

Umbrian  school,  170. 
Paris,  University  of,  273. 


Parry,    Sir    Hubert,    Highnam    Court, 
Gloucester. 
Bernardo  Daddi,  23. 
Master  of  the  Innocenti  Coronation, 

55- 
Pesellino,  62. 
Passavant,  J.  D.,  171. 
Paul  n,  pope,  129. 
Pavia,  124. 

Don  Pedro  de  Toledo,  201. 
Pekin,  95,  96. 
Pelican,  37. 
Penryhn,  Lord,  301. 
Perier,  Guillaume  de,  162. 
Perkins,  C.  B.,  178. 
Perkins,  C.  C. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  36. 
Girolamo  di  Benvenuto,  138. 
Master  of  the  Innocenti  Coronation, 

56. 
Polidoro,  234. 
Zaganelli,  178. 
Perkins,  F.  M.,  iii,  53,  71,  108,  122,  125, 
151,  iS7,  159,  162,  167,  177,  194, 
199,  216,  222. 
Persia,  3,  4,  6,  9. 
Persian  Moresque  tiles,  xiii. 
Perth.    Gallery,  52. 

Perugia,  95,  114,  143,  145,  146,  149,  154, 
166,  176. 
Gallery. 
Benozzo  Gozzoli,  67. 
Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo  ?,  145,  169. 
Gentile  da  Fabriano,  116. 
Pintoricchio,  166,  167. 
Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  ir4. 
Palazzo    Comunale,    Sala    del    Gran 

Consiglio,  170. 
Sta.  Maria  Nuova,  169. 
Pesaro.    San  Cassiano,  215. 
Petrarch,  96. 

Petrograd.    Hermitage  Gallery. 
Santa  Croce,  224. 
Van  der  Weyden,  297,  301. 
Philadelphia.   Academy  of  Fine  Arts,  72. 
Philip  1  (of  Castile  and  Aragon — son  of 

Maximilian  1),  296,  298. 
Philip  11,  king  of  Spain,  242,  307. 
Piccolomini,  Aeneas  Sylvius,  166. 
Pico,  Francesco,  188. 
Pico  deUa  Mirandola,  81,  188. 
Pigments,  v-vi,  xvi. 
Pillion,  L.,  129. 


34-0 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Pinnacle,  xix,  103,  in,  112. 
Pisa,  114. 
Campo  Santo. 

Benozzo  Gozzoli,  65. 

Spinello  Aretino,  44. 

Triumph  of  Death,  97. 
San  Michele  in  Borgo,  45. 
Pistoia,  78. 
Pius  n,  pope,  166  (Aeneas  Sylvius  Picco- 

lomini). 
Platonic  Academy,  81. 
Piatt,  D.  F.,  Englewood,  N.  J. 

Antoniazzo  Romano,  157. 

Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  132. 

Boccatis,  154. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  34,  37. 

Francesco  di  Giorgio,  124. 

Givanni  di  Paolo,  121. 

Girolamo  di  Benvenuto,  137. 

Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  102. 

Matteo  di  Giovanni,  126. 

Niccold  da  Foligno,  149. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  73. 

Sassetta,  118. 

Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  114,  122. 

Bartolommeo  Vivarini,  218. 
Poliziano,  Angelo,  81. 
Polyptych,  xix. 
Pomegranate,  68. 
Pompeii,  8. 

Ponsonby  collection,  xii. 
Pope,  A.  A.,  ix. 

Pope,  Arthur,  32,  186,  213,  231. 
Pope,  Death  of,  49. 
Pope,  Tiara,  164. 
Popes,  see  names  of  individual  popes; 

Julius  n,  Nicolas  rv,  etc. 
Pordenone,  198. 
Portinari,  Tommaso,  287. 
Portraits  in  Harvard  University,  212. 
Portraiture,  42-43. 
Post-Impressionism,  243. 
Poynter,  Sir  Edward,  173. 
Prague.    Rudolfinum,  301. 
Prato,  57,  58. 
Carmine.    Cappella  Dragoni,  60. 
Cathedral,  57,  58. 
Gallery. 

Fra  Diamante,  58. 
Pratt,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  I.,  New  York. 

"Compagno  di  Pesellino?",  71. 

Attributed  to  Sassetta,  118. 

Cosimo  Tura,  189. 


Predella,  xix. 

Preparation  and  painting  of  a  panel, 

xvii-xviii. 
Pre-Raphaelites,  212. 
Presentation  of  the  Virgin,  16. 
Prichard,  W.  M.,  ix. 
Prichard  fund,  ix,  xiv,  36. 
Princeton  University,  14,  295. 
Processes  of  painting,  xvi-xvii. 
Prophets,  9. 
Providence.     Rhode  Island   School  of 

Design,  44. 
Psychostasis,  269. 
Pungileoni,  P.  L.,  171. 
Putti,  302. 

Quatrefoil,  xix. 
Quilter,  Harry,  51. 
Quilter,  Mrs.  Harry,  51. 

Raising  of  Lazarus,  16. 
Ramboux  collection,  52. 
Randall,  J.  W.,  xi. 
Randall  collection  of  prints,  xi. 
Rankin,  William,  159,  199. 
Raphael- Ausstellung,  Dresden,  173. 
Raphaelites,  Pre-,  212. 
Ravenna,  8,  42, 178. 
Red,  109,  us,  Il6>  x39- 

Worn  by  cardinals,  129-130. 
Reformation,  251,  Counter-Reformation, 

289. 
Renaissance,  25,  28,  30,  31,  93,  98,  99, 

114,  126,  143,  144,  154,  160,  184, 

185,  207,  208,  213,  241,  251,  255, 

256,  257,  275,  286,  287,  300,  302. 
Renaissance,  High,  100,  146, 186. 
Renaissance  sculpture,  Italian  (Kneeling 

angel),  xi. 
Rend,  King,  275. 
Representation,  Continuous  method  of, 

80. 
Representation  and  design,  Exhibition 

illustrating  principles  of,  xiii. 
Rhode  Island  School  of  Design,  44. 
Rhine,  252,  254. 

Richard  n,  king  of  England,  319. 
Ridolfi,  229. 
Rieti,  156. 

Right,  The  (place  of  honour),  135. 
Rimini,  Roberto  Malatesta,  lord  of,  172. 
Rinuccini  collection,  Florence,  306. 
Rio,  del,  family,  308. 


GENERAL  INDEX 


341 


Robinson,  Sir  C,  246. 
Rochet,  89. 
Roll,  36. 
Romagna,  143. 
Romagnoli,  128. 

Roman  school,  26,  145,  147,  156. 
Romanesque  period,  273. 
Rome,  3,  6,  8,  65,  86,  89,  in,  146,  147, 
156,  212,  226,  288,  291,  307,  310. 
Aldobrandini  collection,  87. 
Aracoeli.    Bufalini  Chapel,  166. 
Barberini  Gallery,  163,  223. 
Borghese  Gallery,  227. 
Corsini  Gallery,  162. 
San  Giovanni  in  Laterano,  42. 
Lateran  Museum,  160. 
San  Marco,  163. 
Sta.  Maria  della  Pace,  162. 
Sta.  Maria  del  Popolo,  166. 
Sta.  Maria  in  Aracoeli,  see  Aracoeli. 
Sta.  Maria  sopra  Minerva,  163. 
Pantheon,  162,  163. 
Sciarra  collection,  89. 
Sterbini  collection,  37. 
Tor  de'  Specchi,  159. 
Torlonia  collection,  115. 
Torlonia  family,  159. 
Vatican.   Borgia  apartments,  166, 167. 
Library. 
Antoniazzo  Romano,  156,  157. 
Ghirlandaio,  74,  156. 
Melozzo  da  Forli,  157. 
Sistine  Chapel. 
Fra  Diamante?,  58. 
Ghirlandaio,  74. 
Michelangelo,  31. 
Perugino,  157,  166. 
Pintoricchio,  166. 
Stanze,  146. 
Villa  Albani,  152. 
Roose  de   Calesberg,   Arnold    de  Pret, 

Collection,  312-313. 
Rose,  79,  152,  247. 
Ross,  D.  W.,  v,  x,  xii,  xiii,  194. 
Rossi,  A.,  151. 
Rouart,  Ernest,  Paris,  170. 
Rouart,  Henri,  170. 
Rubbings  from  brasses,  xii. 
Ruskin,  J.,  xi,  xiii,  50.  100,  219,  231. 
Russia,  5. 

Rust,  Dr.  F.  L.  D.,  56,  138- 
Ruthven,  Mary,  310. 
Ryerson,  M.  A.,  Chicago,  44,  121. 


Sachs,  Arthur,  216. 

Sachs,  P.  J.,  x. 

Sachs,  Samuel,  230,  231,  308. 

Saint 

Augustine,  134. 

Bernardino,  94. 

Catherine,  94,  98,  in. 

Fabian,  pope,  164. 

Francis,  42,  152. 

Gabriel,  Archangel,  113,  281. 

Ignatius,  84. 

Jerome,  60,  84,  128-129. 

John  the  Evangelist,  109. 

Joseph,  109,  no. 

Joseph  of  Arimathea,  263. 

Luke,  302. 

Michael,  Archangel,  269,  281. 

Monica,  135. 

Nicodemus,  263. 

Nicolas  of  Tolentino,  135. 

Paul,  5. 

Peter,  5,  no. 

Sebastian,  146,  152,  164. 
Saints,  Lives  of,  9. 
Salting  collection,  169. 
Salvatori,  Signora,  Florence,  67. 
San  Gimignano,  65,  69,  70,  75,  76,  114. 
Collegiata. 

Barna,  97,  106. 

Ghirlandaio,  74,  75,  247. 
Municipio,  97. 
Sant'  Agostino,  69. 
San  Miniato  al  Tedesco,  114. 
San  Severino,  144,  145,  176. 
Santa  Croce,  224. 
Santa  Croce  family,  Rome,  190. 
Santa  Fiora,  Contessa  di,  Rome,  190. 
Saracini  collection,  Siena. 

Sassetta,  118. 

Andrea  Vanni,  112. 
Sassari,  219. 
Savonarola,  29,  86. 
Saxon  school,  257,  264. 
Schubring,  P.,  80,  81,  128,  190. 
Schwanthaler,  Ludwig,  268. 
Sciarra  collection,  Rome,  89. 
"  Scientists  "  (Florentine  painters),  29, 

3°,  3i- 

Scrovengo,  Enrico,  42. 

Sculpture,  see  Gandhlra  sculpture; 
Greek  sculpture;  Renaissance  sculp- 
ture. 

Seddon,  Mr.,  322. 


342 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Sedelmeyer  collection,  194-195. 

"  Sentimentalists  "  (Florentine  painters), 

29. 
Seraphim,  115. 
Serbia,  7. 
Settignano.   Berenson  collection,  see  Ber- 

enson,  B.,  Collection. 
Severn,  Arthur,  231. 
Seville,  240,  242,  243. 
Sfumatura,  xvii,  100. 
Shaw,  Quincy  A.,  Boston,  Collection,  218. 
"  Shop-pictures,"  242. 
Sicily,  8. 

Siculo-Byzantine  art,  93. 
Siena,  26,  44,  70,  93,  94,  96,  97,  98,  99, 

100,  102,  104,  in,  114,  118,  121, 

124,  126,  132,  166,  240. 
Gallery. 

Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  134. 

Bernardo  Daddi  ?,  34. 

Spinello  Aretino,  52. 
Baptistery,  118. 
Cathedral. 

Duccio,  96. 

Francesco  di  Giorgio,  124. 

Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  114. 
Cathedral.    Piccolomini  Library,  138, 

166. 
Compagnia  di  Sta.  Caterina,  122. 
Osservanza,  118. 
Palazzo  Borghesi,  128. 
Palazzo  Pubblico. 

Guido  da  Siena,  93. 

Simone  Martini,  42,  97. 

Spinello  Aretino,  44. 

Taddeo  di  Bartolo,  114. 
Palazzo  Pubblico.    Sala  della  Pace. 

Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  102. 
San  Domenico,  in. 
San  Francesco,  137. 
San  Stefano  alia  Lizza,  112. 
Saracini  collection,  112,  118. 
Sienese  painting,  91-139. 

Bibliography,  101. 

History,  93-100. 
Siren,  Osvald,  36,  39,  41,  45,  51.  52,  55, 

125,  202. 

Sixtus  rv,  pope,  58, 156, 157. 

Skull,  37. 

Smith,  Joseph  Lindon,  Boston,  106. 

Society  of  Friends  of  the  Fogg  Art  Mu- 
seum, see  Fogg  Art  Museum, 
Friends  of. 


Somerset,  Lady  Henry,  72. 
Soul,  Weighing  of,  269. 
Space  composition,  144,  145. 
Spalliera,  see  Wall  panel. 
Spanish  painting,  237-248. 

Bibliography,  245. 

History,  239-244. 
Spello.  Collegiata.  Baglioni  Chapel,  166. 
Sperimento,  Convent  of,  151. 
Spielmann,  M.  H.,  323. 
Spoleto,  57,  58,  143. 
Staley,  Edgcumbe,  37. 
Star,  135. 
Steinmann,  E.,  58. 
Sterbini  collection,  Rome,  37. 
Stillman,  W.  J.,  xiii. 
Sterling,  Major  General  John,  169. 
Stokes,  Thomas,  322. 
Strasburg,  257,  297. 
Stuttgart.    Museum,  259. 
Suabia,  252,  253,  259. 
Suida,  W.,  33. 
Sutton,  Rev.  A.  F.,  Brant  Broughton, 

Newark,  England,  63. 
Switzerland,  Painters  of,  253,  257. 
Syria,  5,  6,  7,  8. 

Tafi,  Andrea,  8. 

Tempera  painting,  xvi,  xvii,  xviii,  25,  74, 

94,  96,  97,  221,  230,  3*9- 
Tenebroso  manner,  242-243. 
Teramo,  215. 
Terra  cottas,  xii. 
Terra  verde,  xviii. 
Terranuova,  58. 
Textiles,  xiii. 
Thaxter,  John,  197. 
Thirty  Years'  War,  258. 
Tiara,  164. 
Toledo,  242. 
Torcello,  8. 

Torlonia  collection,  Rome,  115. 
Torlonia  family,  159. 
Tornabuoni,  Giovanni,  74. 
Torquemada,  242. 

Toscanella.    Palazzo  Municipale,  170. 
Toscanelli  collection,  45,  75. 
Tournai,  241,  286,  291. 
Tours,  274,  275. 

Traumann  collection,  Madrid,  297. 
Trefoil,  xix. 
Trent,  198. 
Triest  family,  312. 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Trinity,  67. 

Triple  crown,  164. 

Triptych,  xix. 

Tucher,  Baron,  67. 

Tunic,  9. 

Turkestan,  xiii,  4. 

Tuscany,  Duke  of,  201. 

Twelve  Feasts,  see  Feasts,  the  Twelve. 

Type,  Flemish,  285. 

Types  in  Byzantine  painting,  5,  9. 

Types  in  painting,  144,  146. 

Ulm,  252,  255,  259. 
Ultramarine,  v. 
Umbrian  painting,  141-179. 
Bibliography,  147. 
History,  143-147- 
University  of  Paris,  273. 
Untermeyer  collection,  Yonkers,  N.  Y., 

86. 
Urban  v,  pope,  164. 

Urbino,  124,  146,  163,  170,  171,  172,  185, 
287. 
Federigo  of  Montefeltro,  duke  of, 

163,  172. 
Guidobaldo,  duke  of,  172. 
Mostra  internazionale  Raffaellesca, 
173- 
Utrecht,  307. 

Valencia,  240,  241,  242,  243. 
Van  Rensselaer,  G.  G.,  xii. 
Van  Rensselaer,  Mrs.  Schuyler,  xii. 
Vasari,  G.,  xvi,  xvii,  33,  44,  45,  48,  50, 
Si,  57,  74,  83,  86,  100,  114,  156, 
170,  172,  201,  209. 
Vases,  xi,  xii. 

Venetian  method  of  painting,  see  Vene- 
tian technique. 
Venetian  painting,  205-236. 
Bibliography,  214. 
History,  207-213. 
Venetian  red,  5. 

Venetian  technique,  xvi,  xviii,  211,  221. 
Venice,  8,  31, 144, 184, 186,  207,  208,  209, 
211,  215,  221,  224,  226,  233,  235, 
291,  310. 
Academy,  219. 
Francesco  Rizzo  da  Sta.  Croce,  224. 
Jacobello  del  Fiore,  215. 
Ducal  Palace,  208. 
Leandro  Bassano,  235. 
Gentile  da  Fabriano,  183. 


343 


Venice,  Ducal  Palace  (continued). 
Guariento,  207,  215. 
Jacobello  del  Fiore,  21s. 
Pisanello,  183,  207. 
Tintoretto,  207,  229-230,  231. 
Madonna  dell'  Orto,  see  Sta.  Maria 

dell'  Orto. 
San  Cassiano,  209. 
San  Marco,  Scuola  di,  229. 
San  Rocco,  212,  229,  232. 
Sta.  Maria  dell'  Orto,  229. 
Scuole,  208. 
Venturi,  A.,  162,  190,  194. 
Vercelli,  186. 
Vermilion,  v. 
Verona,  183,  185,  186,  193,  201,  213. 

Gallery,  225. 
Via  Flaminia,  146. 
Viadana,  218. 
Vicenza,  198,  199. 
Vicovaro,  225. 
Victory,  5. 

Vidal  Ferrer  collection,  Barcelona,  240. 
Vienna,  264. 
Imperial  Gallery. 

Cranach  the  Elder,  264. 
Mabuse,  301. 
Memlinc,  302. 
Antonio  Moro,  307. 
Villeneuve-les-Avignon,  275. 
Violet,  no. 

Visconti  Venosta  collection,  222. 
Viterbo,  86. 
Vitzthum,  G.,  44. 
Volpi,  E.,  67. 
Volterra.     Gallery,  78. 
Votive  picture,  152. 

Wadsworth,  Mrs.  W.  A.,  Boston,  70. 
Wall  panel  (Spalliera),  81,  82. 
Walters,  Henry,  Baltimore. 

Replica  of  Fogg  Museum  Taber- 
nacle attributed  to  Antoniazzo 
Romano,  157. 

Barna,  106. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  34. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  72. 

Polidoro,  233. 

Francesco  Rizzo  da  Sta.  Croce,  224. 
Warren,  E.  P.,  xi. 
Water  colour,  xvi,  xviii. 
Water-colour  drawings,  see  Drawings. 
Weighing  of  Adonis,  269. 


344 


GENERAL  INDEX 


Weighing  of  the  Soul,  269. 

Wernher  collection,  London,  241. 

Westminster,  Paintings,  319. 

Westphalia,  256. 

Wetzel,  H.  E.,  325. 

White,  107,  no. 

White,  A.  T.,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  293. 

White,  W.  A.,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  xii,  xiii, 

293- 

Widener  collection,  Elkins  Park,  Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Antoniazzo  Romano,  157. 

Benozzo  Gozzoli,  65. 

Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  132. 

Lorenzo  di  Credi,  83. 

Gerard  David,  293. 

Van  Dyck,  311. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  72. 
Williams,  The  Misses,  105,  194. 
Wilczeck  collection,  Vienna,  297,  301. 
Wills,  Howel,  Florence,  Collection,  51. 
Wilson  collection,  Yorkshire,  236. 
Wilton  House,  319. 


Winchester,  318. 
Windsor  Castle,  257. 
Winthrop,  G.  L.,  New  York. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  34. 

Giovanni  di  Paolo,  121. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  70. 
Wittemberg,  264. 
Worcester,  Massachusetts,  Art  Museum. 

Antoniazzo  Romano,  157. 

Benozzo  Gozzoli,  65. 


Yale  University.    Jarves  collection,  xi. 

Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  132,  137. 

Bernardo  Daddi,  34. 

Domenico  Ghirlandaio,  74. 

Giovanni  di  Paolo,  121. 

Girolamo  di  Benvenuto,  132,  137. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino  ?,  70. 

Sassetta,  118. 
Yellow,  1 09-1 10,  116. 
Yellow  ochre,  v. 
Yerkes  collection,  73. 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


Adoration  of  the  Kings,  Fogolino  ?  (No. 

40),  198. 
Adoration  of  the  Kings,  Cosimo  Tura  (No. 

37),  189,  187. 
Adoration  of  the  Lamb,  Hubert  and  Jan 

van  Eyck,  286. 
Adoration  of  the  Magi,  see  Adoration  of 

the  Kings. 
Agnolo  degli  Erri,  194. 
Alberti,  Leo  Battista,  81,  124. 
Albertinelli,  Mariotto,  86-88,  31. 
Aldegrever,  Heinrich,  256. 
Alemagna,  Giovanni  d',  208. 
Alexander  the  Great,  Mother  of  ?  (Ideal- 
ized head),  xii. 
Allegories  of  Good  and  Bad  Government, 

Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  102,  103. 
Allegretto  Nuzi,  33,  144. 
Altdorfer,  Albrecht,  256. 
Altichiero  Altichieri,  183,  184. 
Alunno,  Niccold,  see  Niccold  da  Foligno. 
Alunno  di  Domenico,  78. 
Anastasis,  see  Descent  into  Hell. 
Andrea  da  Firenze,  27. 
Andrea  da  Licio,  146. 
Andrea  del  Sarto,  30,  31,  100,  276. 
Andrea  Pisano,  44. 
Andrea  Vanni,  see  Vanni,  Andrea. 
Angelico,  Fra,  27,  28,  32,  43,  57,  62,  65, 

67,  98,  118,  121,  154,  ("  Flemish  Fra 

Angelico  "),  287. 
Anne  of  Brittany,  Hours  of,  274. 
Annunciation,  Juan  de  Burgos  (No.  51), 

246. 
Annunciation,  Lorenzo  di  Credi  (No.  14), 

84. 
Annunciation   (Fragment  of),    Ghirlan- 

daio  (No.  n),  75. 
Annunciation  (Gable),  Master  of  the  In- 

nocenti  Coronation  (No.  5),  55,  160. 
Annunciation  {Scenes  from  the  Life  of 

Christ),  School  of  Orcagna  (No.  2),  40, 

160. 
Annunciation,  Pantheon,  162,  163. 
Annunciation,  Antoniazzo  Romano,  163. 


Annunciation,  Simone  Martini,  95,  97, 

112. 
Annunciation,  Andrea  Vanni  (No.  20), 

112,  xiv. 
Annunciation  to  the  Madonna  of  her  ap- 
proaching Death,  French  school  (No. 

59A),  279. 
Antonello  da  Messina,  xvi,  196,  209,  221, 

276. 
Antoniazzo  Romano,  156-165,  145,  170. 
Antonio  da  Murano,  208,  218. 
Antonio  da  Viterbo,  170. 
Aphrodite  (Statue),  xii. 
Apocalypse,  Durer,  256. 
Apocalypse,  Manuscripts  of,  319. 
Aquilio,   Antoniazzo   di  Benedetto,  see 

Antoniazzo  Romano. 
Aretino,  Spinello,  see  Spinello  Aretino. 
Arnolfini  portrait,  Jan  van  Eyck,  300. 
Assisi,  Tiberio  d',  145. 
Auweghem,  Lord  of,  Portrait,  Van  Dyck 

(No.  65),  312. 
Avanzi,  Jacopo  d',  183. 

Bacchiacca  (Francesco  Ubertini),  31,  32, 

87. 
Bacchus  and  Ariadne,  Tintoretto,   213, 

231. 
Baccia  della  Porta,  see  Fra  Bartolommeo. 
Badile,  Antonio,  201-202, 186,  213,  217. 
Baldovinetti,  Alesso,  xvii,  29,  69,  74,  76, 

159- 
Baldung,  Hans,  257,  258. 
Balen,  Hendrik  van,  289,  310. 
Barbari,  Jacopo  di,  226. 
Barna,  106-107,  97,  101,  104. 
Bartolo,  Domenico  di,  98,  126,  143. 
Bartolo,  Taddeo  di,  114-117. 9^,  "8, 122, 

143- 
Bartolo  di  Fredi,  98,  101,  108,  118. 
Bartolommeo,  Fra,  30,  31,  86,  87. 
Bartolommeo  di  Giovanni,  78. 
Bartolommeo  di  Tommaso,  149. 
Basaiti,  Marco,  210,  222. 
Bassani,  The,  213. 


346 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


Bassano,  Jacopo,  213,  235. 

Bassano,  Leandro,  235-236,  43,  213. 

Bastiani,  Lazzaro,  210. 

Bastiano  Mainardi,  74. 

Battle  of  the  Nudes,  Antonio  Pollaiuolo, 

xi,  29. 
Bazzi,  Giovanantonio,  100. 
Bearing  of  the  Body  of  the  Madonna, 

French  school  (No.  59B),  280. 
Beauneveu,  Andre,  274,  320. 
Beccafumi,  Domenico,  100. 
Beham,  Barthel,  256. 
Beham,  H.  S.,  256. 
Bellechose,  Henri,  275,  285. 
Bellini,  The,  210. 
Bellini,  Gentile,  207,  210,  221. 
Bellini,   Giovanni,   221-223,   xviii,   207, 

209,  210,  211,  213,  224,  226. 
Bellini,  Jacopo,  207-208,  210,  221. 
Bellini  family,  218. 
Bellini  workshop,  208,  210. 
Bello,  Marco,  225. 
Benaglio,  Francesco,  185. 
Benedetto  Bonfigli,  see  Bonfigli,  Bene- 
detto. 
Benozzo  Gozzoli,  65-68,  28,  43,  69,  75, 

132,  143,  146,  149,  154,  156. 
Benson,  Ambrosius,  298. 
Benvenuto,  Girolamo  di,  see  Girolamo  di 

Benvenuto. 
Benvenuto  Cellini,  276. 
Benvenuto  da  Siena,  see  Benvenuto  di 

Giovanni. 
Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  132-136,  50,  99, 

100,  116,  137. 
Bernardino  di  Mariotto,  176-177.,  145- 

146. 
Bernardo  Daddi,  see  Daddi,  Bernardo. 
Berruguete,  Pedro,  242. 
Besozzo,  183. 
Bianchi,  Francesco,  186. 
Bicci,  The,  44. 
Bicci,  Neri  di,  69,  80. 
Bigordi,  see  Ghirlandaio. 
Bishop  and  Donor,  Gerard  David  (No. 

6ob),  see  Madonna  and  Child — Bishop 

and  Donor,   Van  der  Weyden  ?  and 

David  ?  (No.  6oa-b). 
Bissolo,  Francesco,  210. 
Blake,  William,  xiii. 
Bles,  Herri  met  de,  288. 
Blondeel,  Lancelot,  288. 
Boccatis,  Giovanni,  154,  98, 145, 146, 147. 


Boccatis,  School  of,  154-155. 

Bonfigli,  Benedetto,  67,  132,  145,  155. 

Bonifazio,  233. 

Book  of  Hours  of  Anne  of  Brittany,  274. 

Book  of  Kells,  317. 

Bordone,  Paris,  212,  214,  227. 

Borgofia,  Juan  de,  242. 

Borrassa,  Luis,  240,  244. 

Bosch,  Jerom,  288. 

Botticelli,  29,  32,  43,  57,  74,  77,  81,  128, 

166. 
Bourdichon,  Jean,  274. 
Bouts,  Dierick,  286-287,  298,  300,  301. 
Bramante,  185. 
Bramantino,  186,  187. 
Broederlam,  Melchior,  275. 
Bronzino,  31,  32,  201-202. 
Bruegel  the  Elder,  288. 
Brunelleschi,  28. 
Brusasorci,  201. 
Bruyn,  Bartholomaus,  253. 
Building  of  the  Temple,  Pesellino  ?  (No. 

7),  63,  xiv,  xviii. 
Buonarroti,  see  Michelangelo. 
Burgkmair,  Hans,  255. 
Burgos,  Juan  de,  246-248. 
Burne-Jones,  xiii. 
Byzantine  school,  12-17. 

Cain  and  Abel,  Sacrifice  of,  Albertinelli 

(No.  15),  86. 
Caliari,  Paolo,  see  Veronese. 
Camerino,  Cola  da,  144. 
Camerino,  Girolamo  da,  145. 
Campagnola,  Domenico  and  Giulio,  198. 
Campin,  Robert  (Maitre  de  F16malle  ?), 

286,  291. 
Canale,  Antonio  (Canaletto),  213. 
Cano,  Alonso,  244. 
Caravaggi,  The,  242. 
Cardinal,  Portrait  of  a,  Scipione  Pulzone 

called  Gaetano  (No.  16),  89. 
Carli,  Raffaelle  dei,  31,  78. 
Caroto,  201. 

Carpaccio,  Vittore,  210,  213,  214. 
Carracci,  The,  277. 
Carrefio  de  Miranda,  Juan,  244. 
Castagno,  Andrea  del,  29. 
Catena,  Vincenzo,  210,  214. 
Cavallini,  Pietro,  26. 
Cellini,  Benvenuto,  276. 
Cennino  Cennini,  xvii,  xviii,  47,  129,  130. 
Cerezo,  Matteo,  244. 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


347 


Champaigne,  Philippe  de,  277,  278. 

Chaucer,  Geoffrey,  Portrait  of,  English 
school?  (No.  66),  322.  (Other  por- 
traits of  Chaucer),  320,  323. 

Christ — Scenes  from  the  Life  of,  School  of 
Orcagna  (No.  2),  40,  106,  no,  160. 

Christ — Scenes  from  the  Life  of,  and  the 
Life  of  the  Madonna,  Byzantine  school 
(J),  17- 

Christ  appearing  to  a  Nobleman,  Leandro 
Bassano  (No.  50),  235,  43. 

Christ  appearing  to  His  Mother  (Panel  of 
Miraflores  triptych),  Van  der  Weyden, 
291. 

Christ  bearing  the  Cross,  Schongauer,  254. 

Christ  in  Limbo,  Sassetta  (No.  22),  119, 
14,  no,  139. 

Christ  in  the  Garden  of  Gethsemane,  Ber- 
nardo Daddi  (No.  1,  Left  wing),  35. 

Christ  in  the  Garden  of  Gethsemane,  Ger- 
man school  (No.  57),  267. 

Christus,  Petrus,  286. 

Cima  da  Conegliano,  210,  214. 

Cimabue,  26. 

Cimabue,  Portrait  of,  42. 

Cione,  Andrea  di  (Orcagna),  39,  27,  41, 
42,  44,  74. 

Cione,  Jacopo  di,  39,  27,  41,  42. 

Cione,  Nardo  di,  39,  27,  42. 

Circumcision,  Cosimo  Tura,  187,  190. 

Claude  Lorrain,  277,  278. 

Clouet,  Francois,  277,  278. 

Clouet,  Jean,  277. 

Coello,  Alonso  Sanchez,  242,  244. 

Coello,  Claudio,  244. 

Cola  da  Camerino,  144. 

"  Compagno  di  Pesellino,"  63,  69,  71,  73. 

Coninxloos,  van,  The,  288. 

Conte,  Jacopo  del,  89. 

Cooper,  Samuel,  320. 

Copley,  J.  S.,  xii,  212. 

Copy  of  Michelangelo's  Holy  Family, 
Flemish  school  (No.  63),  305. 

Corneille  de  Lyon,  277. 

Coronation  of  the  Madonna  (Gable  of 
Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece),  Spinello 
Aretino,  52. 

Correggio,  xvii,  186,  187,  242.    (Proto- 

Correggio),  145. 
Cosimo,  Pier  di,  30,  31,  81,  287. 
Cosimo  Rosselli,  80,  86. 
Cosimo  Tura,  188-192,  185,  187,  193. 
Cossa,  Francesco  del,  185,  193. 


Cossa,  Follower  of, —perhaps  Scaletti, 

193-195- 
Costa,  Lorenzo,  178,  185,  186. 
Cqtignola,  Bernardino  Zaganelli  da,  178. 
Cotignola,  Francesco  Zaganelli  da,  178- 

179. 
Cozzarelli,  Guidoccio,  99,  101,  126. 
Cranach,  Lucas,  the  Elder,  264-266,  257, 

258. 
Credi,  Lorenzo  di,  83-85,  78. 
Cremona,  Girolamo  da,  185. 
Crivelli,  Carlo,  146,  149,  176,  177,  179, 

185,  208-209,  210,  214,  302. 
Crucifixion  (Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Christ) , 

School  of  Orcagna  (No.  2),  40,  106. 
Crucifixion,  Saints,  Christ  in  the  Garden 

of  Gethsemane,  Bernardo  Daddi  ?  (No. 

1),  35,  xix,  106,  no. 
Cruz,  Juan  Pantoja  de  la,  242. 

Daddi,  Bernardo,  33-38,  xix,  27,  32,  97, 

106,  144. 
Dalmau,  Luis,  241. 
Dance  of  Death,  French  representations 

of,  276. 
Dance  of  Death,  Holbein  the  Younger, 

2S7- 
Daniele  da  Volterra,  229. 
Dante  (Portraits),  42. 
David,  Gerard,  291-299,  xiii,  xix,  43,  287, 

300,  303. 
Death  of  St.  Benedict  (Predella,  Monte 

Oliveto  Altarpiece),  Spinello  Aretino 

(No.  4c),  46,  48. 
Death  of  the  Madonna  (Predella,  Monte 

Oliveto  altarpiece),  Spinello  Aretino, 

52. 
Defendente  Ferrari,  186. 
Dello  Delli,  241. 

Deposition,  Antonello  da  Messina,  276. 
Deposition,  School  of  Pietro  Lorenzetti 

(i8a),  105,  107,  no. 
Descent  from  the  Cross,  German  school 

(No.  55),  262,  106. 
Descent  into  Hell,  Byzantine  school  (D), 

13- 
Deutsch,  N.  M.,  257-258. 
Devonport,  Turner,  xiii. 
Diamante,  Fra,  57-61. 
Diana,  Tintoretto  (No.  48),  230,  213. 
Diptych,  Flemish,  Van  der  Weyden  ?  and 

David  ?  (No.  60),  294,  xiii,  xix,  43,  50, 

164. 


348 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


Domenico  di  Bartolo  Ghezzi,  98,   126, 

143- 
Domenico  Morone,  185. 
Domenico  Veneziano,  xvii,  29,  31,  32,  43, 

62,  76,  80,  143,  144,  159. 
Donatello,  28,  31, 183, 184, 188,  208,  219, 

22i,  302. 
Doni  Holy  Family,  Michelangelo,  Copy 

of  (No.  63),  305. 
Dosso  Dossi,  186. 
Double  panel,  School  of  Pietro  Loren- 

zetti  and  Barna  ?  (Nos.  i8a-i8b),  105- 

107. 
Duccio  di  Buoninsegna,  26,  44,  93,  94,  96, 

97,  98,  104,  106,  108,  109,  118. 
Diirer,  Albrecht,  251,  252,  254,  255,  256, 

257,  258. 
Dyck,  A.  van,  310-313,  xiv,  244,  277, 

288,  289,  290,  308,  320-321. 

Eclectic    follower   of    Ghirlandaio    and 

Filippino  Lippi,  77-79. 
Elsheimer,  Adam,  258. 
English  school,  322-323. 
Enrico  Scrovegno,  Portrait  of,  Giotto,  42. 
Entombment   (Scenes  from  the  Life  of 

Christ),  School  of  Orcagna  (No.  2),  40. 
Epiphany,  Andrea  Mantegna,  225. 
Ercole  Roberti,  178,  185,  193. 
Erri,  Agnolo  degli,  194. 
Este,  Borso  a",  Portrait,  Cosimo  Tura,  189. 
Esther   and   King   Ahasuerus,    Flemish 

school  ?,  280. 
Eusebio  di  San  Giorgio,  145. 
Evangelista  di  Piandimeleto,  146. 
Eyck,  Hubert  van,  286. 
Eyck,  Jan  van,  241,  286,  300,  302. 
Eycks,  van,  The,  286,  291,  293. 

Fabriano,    Gentile   da,   see   Gentile   da 

Fabriano. 
Faenza,  Utili  da,  80. 
Fei,  Paolo  di  Giovanni,  98,  99,  118,  121. 
Ferrando  de  Llanos,  241. 
Ferrando  Yafiez,  241. 
Ferrari,  Defendente,  186. 
Filarete,  124. 

Filippo  Lippi,  Fra,  see  Lippi,  Fra  Filippo. 
Fiore,  Francesco  del,  215. 
Fiore,  Jacobello  del,  215-217,  xiv,  207. 
Fiorentino,  Pier  Francesco,  69-73,  29,  75. 
Fiorenzo  di  Lorenzo,  31,  100,  145,  147, 

156,  157,  163,  166,  169,  170,  176,  177. 


Firenze,  Andrea  da,  27. 

"  Flemish  Fra  Angelico,"  287. 

Flemish  diptych,  Van  der  Weyden  ?  and 

David  ?  (No.  60),  294,  xiii,  xix,  43,  50, 

164. 
Flemish  school,  xvi  c„  305-306. 
Flemish  school  ?,  Esther  and  King  Aha- 
suerus, 280. 
Flight  into  Egypt,  Cosimo  Tura,  190. 
Fogolino,  Marcello  ?,  198-200. 
Fohgno,    Niccolo    da,    see    Niccold    da 

Foligno. 
Foppa,  Vincenzo,  185. 
Forge  of  Vulcan,  Tintoretto,  231. 
Forli,  Melozzo  da,  see  Melozzo  da  Forli. 
Foucquet,  see  Fouquet. 
Fouquet,  Jean,  274,  275. 
Francesca,  Pier  della,  see  Pier  dei  Fran- 

ceschi. 
Franceschi,  Pier  dei,  see  Pier  dei  Fran- 

ceschi. 
Francesco  del  Cossa,  185,  193. 
Francesco  di  Giorgio,  124-125,  99,  100. 
Francesco  Melanzio,  145. 
Francesco  Rizzo  da  Santa  Croce,  224- 

225. 
Francia,  II,  178,  185,  186,  187. 
Franciabigio,  31. 

Fredi,  Bartolo  di,  98,  101,  108,  118. 
French  school,  ab.  1500,  279-281. 
Froment,  Nicolas,  275,  280. 
Frueauf,  R.,  255. 
Fungai,  Bernardino,  100. 

Gabriello  Saracini,  51. 

Gaddi,  Agnolo,  27,  32,  39,  41,  42. 

Gaddi,  Taddeo,  27,  107. 

Gaetano  (Scipione  Pulzone),  89-90. 

Galasso,  188. 

Garbo,  Raffaellino  del,  31,  78. 

Gattamelata,  Donatello,  31. 

Geest,  Cornelius  van  der,  Portrait  of,  Van 

Dyck,  313. 
Genga,  G.,  137. 
Gentile  da  Fabriano,  116,  121,  143,  144, 

183,  207,  208,  215,  216. 
Gerini,  Niccolo  di  Pietro,  39. 
German  school,  xvi  c,  262-263,  267. 
German  school  (South  German),   268- 

269. 
Gethsemane,  Garden  of,  see  Christ  in  the 

Garden  of  Gethsemane. 
Ghent,  Justus  of,  see  Justus  of  Ghent. 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


349 


Ghent  polyptych,  286. 

Ghezzi,  Domenico  di  Bartolo,  98,  126, 

143- 
Ghirlandaio,  Benedetto,  74. 
Ghirlandaio,  David,  74. 
Ghirlandaio,  Domenico,  74-76,  28,  69,  78, 

128,  156,  166,  242,  247,  287. 
Ghirlandaio,  Domenico,  Eclectic  follower 

of,  77-79. 
Ghirlandaio,  Ridolfo,  78. 
Giacomo  di  Mino,  98. 
Giambono,  207,  214. 
Giannicola  Manni,  145. 
Giorgio,  Francesco  di,  124-125,  99,  100. 
Giorgione,  185,  186,  210,  211,  212,  214, 

221,  226. 
Giotto,  8,  26-27,  32,  39,  41,  42,  44,  74,  93, 

94,  96,  104,  183,  184,  216,  251. 
Giovanni   Boccatis,   see  Boccatis,   Gio- 
vanni. 
Giovanni  d'  Alemagna,  208. 
Giovanni  da  Milano,  27. 
Giovanni  da  Udine,  147,  198. 
Giovanni  di  Paolo,  121-123,  98,  99,  100, 

101. 
Giovanni  Francesco  da  Rimini,  155. 
Giovanni  Pisano,  97,  104. 
Giovanni  Santi,  146,  163,  172. 
Giovanantonio  Bazzi  (Sodoma),  100. 
Girolamo  da  Camerino,  145. 
Girolamo  da  Cremona,  185. 
Girolamo  da  Udine,  225. 
Girolamo  dai  Libri,  185. 
Girolamo  del  Pacchia,  100,  137. 
Girolamo  del  Santo,  199. 
Girolamo  diBenvenuto,  137-139,  99,  T32- 
Girolamo  Padovano,  199. 
Girolamo  Sordo,  199. 
Giulio  Romano,  147. 
Goes,  Hugo  van  der,  30,  287,  293. 
Good   and   Bad   Government,   Ambrogio 

Lorenzetti,  102,  103. 
Gossaert,  Jan,  see  Mabuse. 
Goya  y  Lucientes,  Francisco,  244. 
Gozzoli,  Benozzo,  see  Benozzo  Gozzoli. 
Graf,  Urs,  257-258. 
Granacci,  Francesco,  31,  78. 
Grassi,  Giovanni  da,  183. 
El  Greco,  243,  244. 
Greek  V  century  relief,  Boston  Museum  of 

Fine  Arts,  269. 
Grimani  breviary,  293. 
Griin,  Hans  Baldung,  257,  268. 


Griinewald,  Matthias,  257. 
Gualdo,  Matteo  da,  146. 
Guardi,  Francesco,  213. 
Guariento  of  Padua,  184,  207,  215. 
Gubbio,  School  of,  144. 
Guido  da  Siena,  93. 
Guidoccio  Cozzarelli,  99,  lor,  126. 
Guidoriccio  Fogliani,  Portrait  of,  Simone 
Martini,  42,  97. 

Hals,  Franz,  230. 

Head  of  a  Woman  (Greek  sculpture),  xii. 

Herrera,  Francisco  de,  the  Elder,  242. 

Herri  met  de  Bles,  288. 

Hesdin,  Jacquemart  de,  274,  285. 

Hilliard,  Nicolas,  320. 

Hogarth,  William,  321. 

Holbein  the  Elder,  255. 

Holbein  the  Younger,  251,  252,  256,  257, 

258,  320. 
Holy  Family,  North  Italian  school,  — 

perhaps  Piedmontese  (No.  42),  203. 
Holy   Family,  Michelangelo,    Copy  of, 

Flemish  school  (No.  63),  305. 
Holy  Family,  Francesco  Zaganelli  (No. 

36),  178. 
Holy  Family  and  St.  John,  Pintoricchio 

(No.  33),  167,  no. 
Homer,  Winslow,  xii. 
Hours  of  Anne  of  Brittany,  274. 
Hungarian  primitive,  262. 
Hunt,  Holman,  323. 

Iliad,  Manuscript  of,  in  Vatican,  8. 

Ingegno,  170. 

Innocenti  Coronation,  Master  of  the,  see 

Master  of  the  Innocenti  Coronation. 
Isenbrandt,  see  Ysenbrant. 
Isenheim  altar  piece,  Griinewald,  257. 

Jacobello  del  Fiore,  215-217,  xiv,  207. 

Jacopo  d'  Avanzi,  183. 

Jacopo  da  Casentino,  44. 

Jacopo  del  Conte,  89. 

Jacopo  della  Quercia,  302. 

Jacopo  del  SeUaio,  78. 

Jacopo  di  Barbari,  226. 

Jacopo  di  Cione,  39,  27,  41,  42. 

Jacquemart  de  Hesdin,  274,  285. 

Jordaens,  Jacob,  289. 

Juan  Bautista  del  Mazo,  244. 

Juan  Carrefio  de  Miranda,  244. 

Juan  de  Borgofia,  242. 


3  So 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


Juan  de  Burgos,  246-248. 

Juan  de  Juanes,  242. 

Juan  de  Vald6s  Leal,  244. 

Juan  Pantoja  de  la  Cruz,  242. 

Juanes,  Juan  de,  242. 

Judgment  of  Paris,  "  Paris  Master  "  ? 

(No.  13),  80,  26. 
Justus  of  Ghent,  145,  146,  163,  287. 

Kells,  Book  of,  31 7. 

Kneeling  Angel  (Renaissance  sculpture), 

xi. 
Kneeling  Virgin,  Ghirlandaio  (No.  11), 

75- 
Kneller,  Sir  Godfrey,  321. 
Knight,  Death  and  the  Devil,  Durer,  256. 
Knight's  Dream,  Raphael,  87. 

La  Farge,  John,  xii. 

Lake  0'  Hara,  Sargent,  xii. 

Lanciano,  Polidoro  da,  see  Polidoro  da 

Lanciano. 
Landi,  Neroccio  di,  100,  124. 
Largilliere,  Nicolas,  277. 
Last  Supper,  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  30. 
Lazzaro  Bastiani,  210. 
Le  Brun,  Charles,  277. 
Le  Sueur,  Eustache,  277. 
Leighton,  Sir  Frederic,  173,  219. 
Lely,  Sir  Peter,  321. 
Leonardo  da  Vinci,  30,  31,  32,  83,  100, 

124,  146,  183,  185,  186,  196,  242,  276. 
Leyden,  Lucas  van,  199. 
Liberate  da  Verona,  185,  187. 
Liberatore,    Niccold,     see    Niccolo     da 

Foligno. 
Libri,  Girolamo  dai,  185. 
Licio,  Andrea  da,  146. 
Life  of  the  Virgin,  Durer,  256. 
Limbourg,  Pol  de,  285. 
Limbourg  brothers,  274. 
Lindisfame  Gospels,  318. 
Lippi,  Filippino,  77,  29,  57,  78,  156. 
Lippi,  Filippino,  Eclectic  follower  of,  77- 

79- 
Lippi,  Fra  Filippo,  57-61,  29,  31,  43,  55, 

62,  69,  77,  143,  154,  183,  247. 
Lippo  Mernmi,  97,  101,  106,  in. 
Lippo  Vanni,  98. 
"  Little  Masters,"  256. 
Llanos,  Ferrando  de,  241. 
Lochner,  Stephan,  252,  253. 


Lodovico  di  Angelo  Mattioli,  176. 

Longhi,  Pietro,  213. 

Lorenzetti,  Ambrogio,  102-103,  x^>  33> 

97,  "I- 
Lorenzetti,  Pietro,  104,  97, 101,  108. 
Lorenzetti,  Pietro,  School  of,  104-106. 
Lorenzetti,  Ugolino,  108. 
Lorenzetti  brothers,  102,  104,  106,  108, 

109,  in,  118,  132,  143. 
Lorenzetti,  School  of  the,  108-110. 
Lorenzo,  Fiorenzo  di,  see  Fiorenzo  di 

Lorenzo. 
Lorenzo  da  San  Severino  the  Younger, 

145,  176. 
Lorenzo  di  Credi,  83-85,  78. 
Lorenzo  Monaco,  27,  45,  55,  57. 
Lorenzo  Salimbeni,  154. 
Lorenzo  Veneziano,  207. 
Lorrain,  Claude,  277,  278. 
Lotto,  Lorenzo,  226-228,  no,  212. 
Luca  Signorelli,  see  Signorelli,  Luca. 
Luca  di  Olanda,  199. 
Luca  di  Tomm&,  97. 
Lucas  van  Leyden,  199. 
Luini,  Bernardino,  186. 
Luis  de  Morales,  242. 
Luis  de  Vargas,  242. 
Luther,  Martin,  Portrait  of,  Lucas  Cranach 

the  Elder  (No.  56),  265. 
Lyon,  Corneille  de,  277. 

Mabuse,  287,  300,  301,  302. 

Macknight,  Dodge,  xii. 

Madonna  —  Annunciation  of  Death  of, 

French  school  (N0..59A),  279. 
Madonna  —  Bearing  of  Body  of,  French 

school  (No.  59B),  280. 
Madonna  —  St.  Luke  painting  the  Por-  ■ 

trait  of,  School  of  Quentin  Metsys  (No. 

61),  300. 
Madonna  —  Scenes    from    the    Life    of 

Christ  and  the  Life  of  the  Madonna, 

Byzantine  school  (J),  17. 
Madonna  and  Child,  Giovanni  Bellini  ? 

(No.  45),  222,  xviii. 
Madonna   and   Child,   Benozzo   Gozzoli 

(No.  8),  66. 
Madonna  and  Child,  Byzantine   school 

(E),  15. 
Madonna  and  Child,  Francesco  di  Giorgio 

(No.  24),  125. 
Madonna  and  Child,  Pier  Francesco  Fi- 

orentino  (No.  9),  71. 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


351 


Madonna   and   Child,   Andrea   Solario  ? 

(No.  39),  197. 
Madonna  and  Child,  Bartolommeo  Viva- 

rini  ?  (No.  44),  219. 
Madonna  and  Child  —  Bishop  and  Donor, 

Van  der  Weyden  ?  and  David  ?  (Nos. 

6oa-b),  294,  xiii,  xix,  43,  50,  164. 
Madonna    and    Child    and    St.    Jerome, 

Polidoro  (No.  49),  233,  60,  128,  129, 

130. 
Madonna  and  Child  and  St.  John,  Pier 

Francesco  Fiorentino  (No.  10),  72. 
Madonna  and  Child  and  St.  John,  Fran- 
cesco Rizzo  da  Sta.  Croce  (No.  46), 

224. 
Madonna  and  Child  and  St.  John  with 

Angels,    Antoniazzo    Romano  ?    (No. 

3i)>  159- 

Madonna  and  Child  with  Angels  playing 
Musical  Instruments,  School  of  Gio- 
vanni Boccatis  ?  (No.  30),  154,  302. 

Madonna  and  Child  with  Representations 
of  the  Twelve  Feasts,  Byzantine  school 
(F),  is- 

Madonna  di  Santa  Chiara,  Umbrian 
school  (No.  34),  169. 

Madonna  Enthroned  between  St.  Francis 
and  St.  Peter  Martyr,  Master  of  the 
Innocenti  Coronation  (No.  5),  55>  IIO> 
160. 

Madonna  Enthroned  between  St.  Sebastian 
and  St.  Roch,  Eclectic  follower  of 
Ghirlandaio  and  Filippino  Lippi  (No. 

12),  77- 

Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels  (Rucellai 
Madonna),  Duccio,  96. 

Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels,  Jaco- 
bello  del  Fiore  (No.  43),  216,  xiv. 

Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels,  Spinello 
Aretino  (No.  3),  45,  116,  217. 

Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels  (Cen- 
tral panel  of  Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece), 
Spinello  Aretino  (No.  4A),  46,  xiv,  116, 
217. 

Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels,  Taddeo 

di  Bartolo  (No.  21),  115,  i5*- 
Madonna  Enthroned  with  Angels  between 

St.  Sebastian  and  St.  Francis,  Niccolo 

da  Foligno  (No.  29),  150,  43- 
Madonna    Enthroned    with    Saints    and 

Angels,  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni  (No. 

26),  133,  5°.  "6- 
Mainardi,  Bastiano,  74. 


Maitre  de  Flemalle  (Robert  Campin  ?), 

286,  291. 
Maitre  de  Moulins,  275. 
Majestas,  Duccio,  96. 
Majestas,  Lippo  Memmi,  97. 
Majestas,  Simone  Martini,  97. 

Malouel,  Jean,  27s,  285. 

Manni,  Giannicola,  145. 

Mantegna,  Andrea,  31,  184-185,  187, 
188,  193,  207,  208,  209,  210,  219,  225, 
234,  3°2- 

Marco  Bello,  225. 

Marco  Zoppo,  155,  185. 

Mariotto,  Bernardino  di,  176-177,  145- 
146. 

Mariotto  Albertinelli,  86-88,  31. 

Marriage  of  St.  Catherine,  Lippo  Memmi  ?, 
106. 

Marriage  of  St.  Catherine,  Bernardino  di 
Mariotto  (No.  35),  176. 

Martini,  Francesco  di  Giorgio,  124-125, 
99,  100. 

Martini,  Simone,  see  Simone  Martini. 

Martino  di  Bartolommeo,  98. 

Martyrdom  of  St.  Bosone,  Sedelmeyer 
collec,  194-195. 

Martyrdom  of  St.  Lucilla  (Predella, 
Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece),  Spinello 
Aretino  (No.  4c),  46,  48,  49. 

Masaccio,  28,  32,  43,  55,  57,  62,  74,  77. 

Masolino,  27,  28,  55,  57,  77,  241. 

Master  Berthold,  254-255. 

Master  E.  S.,  254. 

Master  of  Flemalle,  see  Maitre  de  Fle- 
malle. 

Master  of  1466,  254. 

Master  of  Moulins,  see  Maitre  de  Mou- 
lins. 

Master  of  St.  Bartholomew,  253. 

Master  of  St.  George,  240. 

Master  of  St.  Severin,  253,  258. 

Master  of  Santo  Domingo,  244. 

Master  of  the  Amsterdam  Cabinet,  254. 

Master  of  the  Bigallo  Triptych,  35. 

Master  of  the  Crucifixions,  34. 

Master  of  the  Hausbuch,  254. 

Master  of  the  Holy  Family,  253,  258. 

Master  of  the  Innocenti  Coronation,  55- 
56,  no. 

Master  of  the  Life  of  Mary,  253. 

Master  of  the  Peringsdorf  Altar,  301. 

Master  of  the  Tucher  Altar,  255. 

Master  Roderigo,  241. 


352 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


Master  Roderigo  n,  241. 
Master  Wilhelm,  252,  285. 
Matteo  da  Gualdo,  146. 
Matteo  da  Siena,  see  Matteo-  di  Gio- 
vanni. 
Matteo  di  Giovanni,  1 26-131,  60,  99, 

100,  132. 
Mattioli,  Ludovico  di  Angelo,  176. 
Mazo,  Juan  Bautista  del,  244. 
Melancholia,  Diirer,  256. 
Melanzio,  Francesco,  145. 
Meleager,  xii. 
Melozzo  da  Forli,  143,  144,  145,  156, 157, 

159,  162,  287. 
Memlinc,  Hans,  152,  287,  291,  293,  298, 

302. 
Memmi,  Lippo,  97,  101,  106,  in. 
Messina,  Antonello  da,  xvi,  196,  209,  221, 

276. 
Metsys,  Quentin,  287,  293,  300,  301,  302. 
Metsys,  School  of,  300-302. 
Mezzastris,  Pier  Antonio,  67,  146,  149. 
Michelangelo,  30,  31,  74,  144,  146,  185, 

229,  242,  243,  3°5-3°6. 
Michelangelo  —  Conversation    reported 

by  Francesco  d'Ollanda,  306. 
Michelozzo,  302. 
Mignard,  Pierre,  277. 
Milano,  Giovanni  da,  27. 
Minerva  repelling  Mars,  Tintoretto,  231. 
Mino,  Giacomo  di,  98. 
Miracle  of  St.  Catherine,  Girolamo  di  Ben- 

venuto  (No.  27),  137. 
Miraflores  triptych,  Van   der  Weyden, 

291. 
Monaco,  Lorenzo,  27,  45,  55,  57. 
Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece,  Spinello  Aretino 

(Nos.  4A-4D),  46,  xiv,  45,  116. 
Monmouth  before  King  James  II,  Copley, 

xii,  212. 
Mor,  Antonis,  see  Moro,  Antonio. 
Morales,  Luis  de,  242. 
More,  Sir  Anthony,  see  Moro,  Antonio. 
Moretto  da  Brescia,  186. 
Moro,  Antonio,  307-309,  242,  288,  290, 

305>  320. 
Morone,  Domenico,  185. 
Moroni,  G.  B.,  186,  187. 
Multscher,  Hans,  255,  259. 
Murano,  Antonio  da,  208,  218. 
Murillo,  B.  E.,  239,  244. 
Mystic  Marriage  of  St.  Catherine,  Ber- 
nardino di  Mariotto  (No.  35),  176. 


Nardo  di  Cione,  39,  27,  42. 

Nativity,  School  of  the  Lorenzetti  (No. 

19),  108,  160. 
Nativity  (Predella),  Master  of  the  Inno- 

centi  Coronation  (No.  5),  55,  no. 
Nativity  (Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Christ), 

School  of  Orcagna  (No.  2),  40. 
Nelli,  Ottaviano,  144. 
Neri  di  Bicci,  69,  80. 
Nerly,  231. 

Neroccio  di  Landi,  99,  100,  124. 
Niccold  da  Foligno,  149-153,  43,  146. 
Niccold  di  Pietro,  207. 
Niccold  di  Pietro  Gerini,  39. 
Niccold    Liberatore,     see    Niccold     da 

Foligno. 
North  Italian  school,  —  perhaps  Pied- 

montese,  203. 
Nuzi,  Allegretto,  33,  144. 

Occleve  Portrait  of  Chaucer,  323. 

Oderisio  of  Gubbio,  144. 

Olanda,  Luca  di,  199. 

Oliver,  Isaac,  320. 

Oliver,  Peter,  320. 

Ollanda,  Francesco  d',  306. 

Orcagna,  Andrea  (Andrea  di  Cione),  39, 

27,  41,  42,  44,  74. 
Orcagna,  School  of,  39-43. 
Orley,  Bernard  van,  288. 
Ottaviano  Nelli,  144. 

Pacchia,  Girolamo  del,  100,  137. 

Pacchiarotto,  Giacomo,  100,  137. 

Pacheco,  Francisco,  242. 

Padovano,  Girolamo,  199. 

Palma  Vecchio,  211,  221,  226,  234. 

Palmezzano,  Marco,  178. 

Pantoja  de  la  Cruz,  Juan,  42. 

Paolo,  Giovanni  di,  121-123,  98,  99,  100, 

101. 
Paolo  di  Giovanni  Fei,  98,  99, 118, 121. 
Paolo  Veneziano,  207. 
Paolo  Veronese,  see  Veronese,  Paolo. 
Paris  Bordone,  212,  214,  227. 
"  Paris  Master,"  80-82. 
Parri  Spinelli,  44. 
Pasture,  Rogier  de  la,  see  Weyden,  R.  van 

der. 
Patinir,  Joachim,  288. 
Pencz,  Georg,  256. 
Penni,  Francesco,  147. 
Pentecost,  Niccold  da  Foligno,  157. 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


353 


Perugino,  31,  65,  83,  100,  137,  i43,  i4S) 

146,  149,  157,  166,  169,  170,  172,  176. 
Perugino,  School  of,  147. 
Pesellino,  Francesco,   62-64,  xiv,  xviii, 

29>  32,  57,  69,  82,  155. 
Pesellino,  Compagno  di,  63,  69,  71,  73. 
Pesello,  Giuliano,  62,  65. 
Philippe  de  Champaigne,  277,  278. 
Piandimeleto,  Evangelista  di,  146. 
Piccolomini,  Aeneas  Sylvius,  Scenes  from 

the  Life  of,  Pintoricchio,  166. 
Piedmontese  school  ?,  203. 
Pier  Antonio  Mezzastris,  67,  146,  149. 
Pier  dei  Franceschi,  31,  43,  99,  126,  143, 

144,  I4S,  i47>  154,  163,  188,  193. 
Pier  di  Cosimo,  30,  31,  81,  287. 
Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,  69-73,  29,  75- 
Pierin  del  Vaga,  147. 
Pieta,     Villeneuve-les-Avignon,     French 

school,  xv  c,  275. 
Pietro  di  Perusi,  157. 
Pintoricchio,  166-168,  31,  65,  99,   no, 

132,  145,  146,  147,  149,  156,  157,  169, 

173,  176,  170- 
Piombo,  Sebastiano  del,  211,  214. 
Pisanello,  183,  207,  208. 
Pisano,  Andrea,  44. 
Pisano,  Giovanni,  97,  104. 
Pleydenwurff,  Hans,  255. 
Poggio,  del,  see  Giovanni  di  Paolo. 
Polidoro  da  Lanciano,  233-234,  60,  128, 

129,  130,  212,  236. 
Pollaiuolo,  Antonio,  xi,  29,  32,  43,  124. 
Pollaiuolo,  Piero,  29. 
Ponte,  Leandro  da,  see  Bassano,  Leandro. 
Pontormo,  31. 
Pordenone  (Giovanni  Antonio  de'  Corti- 

celli),  233. 
Portinari  altar  piece,  Van  der  Goes,  287. 
Portrait  of  a  Cardinal,  Scipione  Pulzone, 

called  Gaetano  (No.  16),  89. 
Portrait  of  a  Lady,  Antonio  Badile  ?  (No. 

41),  201,  217. 
Portrait  of  a  Spanish  Nobleman  [Senor  del 

Rio),  Antonio  Moro  (No.  64),  308. 
Portrait  of  Borso  d'  Este,  Cosimo  Tura, 

189. 
Portrait  of  Cimabue,  42. 
Portrait  of  Cornelius  van  der  Geest,  Van 

Dyck,  313. 
Portrait  of  Dante,  42. 
Portrait  of  Enrico  Scrovengo,  Giotto,  42. 
Portrait    of   Geoffrey    Chaucer,    English 


school  ?  (No.  66),  322.  (Other  portraits 

of  Chaucer),  320,  323. 
Portrait  of  Guidoriccio  Fogliani,  Simone 

Martini,  42,  97. 
Portrait  of  Martin  Luther,  Cranach  the 

Elder  (No.  56),  265. 
Portrait  of  Nicolas  Triest,  Van  Dyck  (No. 

65),  312,  xiv. 
Portrait  of  Richard  11,  319. 
Portrait  of  St.  Francis,  42. 
Poussin,  Nicolas,  277. 
Poynter,  SirE.,  173. 
Presentation    of  the    Virgin,    Byzantine 

school  (H),  16. 
Presentation  of  the   Virgin  and  Saints, 

Byzantine  school  (G),  16. 
Primaticcio,  Francesco,  147,  276,  320. 
Proto-Correggio,  145. 
Psalter,  Queen  Mary's,  319. 
Psalter,  Windmill,  319. 
Pucelle,  Jean,  274. 
Pulzone,  Scipione,  called  Gaetano,  89-90. 

Queen  Mary's  Psalter,  319. 
Quercia,  Jacopo  della,  302. 

Raffaelle  dei  Carli,  31,  78. 
Raffaellino  del  Garbo,  31,  78. 
Raibolini,  see  Francia,  II. 
Raising  of  Lazarus,  Byzantine  school  (I), 

16. 
Raphael,  31,  65,  87,  94,  100,  143,  145, 

146,  147,  i63>  170.  171,  172,  173,  185, 

196,  198,  212,  226,  242,  277,  288,  320. 
Raphael,  Bottega,  147. 
Rembrandt,  xiii,  258. 
Renzi,  Alessandro,  233. 
Ribalta,  Francisco  de,  242,  243. 
Ribera,  Jusepe  de,  239,  243,  244. 
Richard  II,  Portrait  of,  Westminster,  319. 
Richard  11,  Portrait  of,  Wilton  House,  319. 
Rigaud,  Hyacinthe,  277. 
Rimini,  Giovanni  Francesco  da,  155. 
Rio,   Antonio  del,  Portrait  of,  Antonio 

Moro  (No.  64),  308. 
Rizzo  da  Santa  Croce,  Francesco,  224- 

225. 
Roberti,  Ercole,  178,  185,  193. 
Robusti,  Jacopo,  see  Tintoretto. 
Romanino,  186. 

Romano,  Antoniazzo,  156-165,  i45j  170. 
Romano,  Giulio,  147. 
Rondinelli,  Niccold,  178,  210,  222,  223. 


354 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


Ross,  D.  W.,  v,  x,  xii,  xiii,  194. 

Rosselli,  Cosimo,  80,  86. 

II  Rosso,  276. 

Rubens,  P.  P.,  xvi,  230,  277,  288,  289, 

290,  310. 
Rucdlai  Madonna,  Duccio,  96. 
Ruskin,  J.,  xi,  xiii,  59,  100,  219,  231. 

Sacrifice  of  Cain  and  Abel,  Albertinelli 

(No.  is),  86. 
Saint  (Figure  of  Monte  Oliveto  altar- 
piece),  Spinello  Aretino  (No.  4D),  50. 
St.  Agnes  (Pinnacle  of  altarpiece),  Am- 

brogio  Lorenzetti  (No.  17),  103,  xix, 

in. 
St.   Andrew  and  Scenes  from  his  Life, 

Byzantine  school  (A-C),  12-13. 
St.  Augustine,  Botticelli,  128. 
St.  Augustine  (Predella,  Monte  Oliveto 

altarpiece),  Spinello  Aretino  (No.  4c), 

46,  48. 
St.  Benedict,  Death  of  (Predella,  Monte 

Oliveto   altarpiece),   Spinello   Aretino 

(No.  4c),  46,  48, 
St.  Benedict  and  St.  Lucilla  (Right  wing 

of  Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece),  Spinello 

Aretino  (No.  4B),  46,  47. 
St.   Bosone,  Martyrdom  of,   Sedelmeyer 

collection,  194-195. 
St.  Catherine,  Marriage  of,  Bernardino  di 

Mariotto  (No.  35),  176. 
St.  Catherine,  Marriage  of,  Lippo  Memmi  ?, 

101.  106. 
St.  Catherine,  Miracle  of,   Girolamo  di 

Benvenuto  (No.  27),  137. 
St.  Catherine,  Mystic  Marriage  of,  Ber- 
nardino di  Mariotto  (No.  35),  176. 
St.  Catherine  and  St.  Reparata,  Bernardo 

Daddi  (No.  1,  Right  wing),  36. 
St.    Elizabeth    (Pinnacle   of   altarpiece), 

Andrea  Vanni,  in. 
St.  Fabian,  Pope,  Antoniazzo  Romano  ? 

(No.  32),  161. 
St.  Francis,  Niccold  da  Foligno  (No.  29, 

Right  wing),  151. 
St.  Francis,  Portrait  of,  42. 
St.  James  the  Great  and  St.  Anthony  the 

Abbot,  Bernardo  Daddi  (No.  1,  Right 

wing),  36. 
St.  Jerome,  Ghirlandaio,  Domenico,  128. 
St.  Jerome  in  his  Cell,  Matteo  di  Gio- 
vanni (No.  25),  127,  60. 
St.  Jerome  in  the  Desert  with  St.  John  the 


Baptist  and  another  Saint,  Fra  Filippo 

Lippi  ?  and  Fra  Diamante  ?  (No.  6), 

59,  128. 
St.  John  the  Baptist,  Giovanni  di  Paolo 

(No.  23),  122. 
St.  John  the  Baptist,  Ysenbrant  (No.  62), 

3°3- 
St.  John  the  Evangelist  and  St.  Sebald, 

School  of  Zeitblom  (No.  53),  261. 
St.    Lucilla,    Martyrdom    of    (Predella, 

Monte    Oliveto    altarpiece),    Spinello 

Aretino  (No.  4c),  46,  48,  49. 
St.  Luke  drawing  the  Portrait  of  the  Ma- 
donna, van  der  Weyden,  R.,  297,  301. 
St.   Luke   painting   the   Portrait   of  the 

Madonna,  School  of  Quentin  Metsys 

(No.  61),  300. 
St.  Mark,  Melozzo  da  Forli,  128,  163. 
St.  Mary  Magdalene,  Crivelli,  177. 
St.    Maurelius,    Altarpiece    of,    Cosimo 

Tura,  190. 
St.  MiPrius,  Scenes  from  the  Life  and 

Death  of,  Froment  ?,  280. 
St.  Nemesius  and  St.  John  the  Baptist 

(Left  wing,  Monte  Oliveto  altarpiece), 

Spinello  Aretino,  52. 
St  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  Daddi  (No.   1, 

Left  wing),  36. 
St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  School  of  Zeitblom 

(No.  54),  261. 
St.  Peter  Martyr,  Lorenzo  Lotto   (No. 

47),  227,  no. 
St.  Sebastian,  Melozzo  da  Forli  ?,  162. 
St.  Sebastian,  Niccolo  da  Foligno  (No. 

29,  Left  wing),  151. 
St.  Sebastian  and  St.  Thomas,  Bernardino 

di  Mariotto,  177. 
Salimbeni,  Lorenzo,  154. 
Salimbeni,  Lorenzo,  the  Younger,  145, 

176. 
Salimbeni  brothers  of  San  Severino,  144. 
San  Giorgio,  Eusebio  di,  145. 
San  Severino,  Lorenzo  da,  the  Younger, 

145,  176. 
San  Severino,  Salimbeni  of,  144. 
Sano  di  Pietro,  98,  101. 
Santa    Chiara,    Madonna    di,    Umbrian 

school  (No.  34),  169. 
Santa  Croce,  Francesco  di  Simone  da, 

224. 
Santa  Croce,  Francesco  Rizzo  da,  224- 

225. 
Santa  Croce  family,  224. 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


355 


Santa  Maria  dei  Fossi  altarpiece,  Pin- 

toricchio,  166,  167. 
Santi,  Giovanni,  146,  163,  172. 
Santo,  Girolamo  del,  199. 
Sargent,  J.  S.,  xii. 
Sarto,  Andrea  del,  30,  31,  100,  276. 
Sassetta  (Stefano  di  Giovanni),  118-120, 

14,  08,  no,  i2i,  139. 
Scaletti,  Leonardo,  193-195. 
Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Christ,  School  of 

Orcagna  (No.  2),  40,  106,  no,  160. 
Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Christ  and  the  Life 

of  the  Madonna,  Byzantine  school  (J), 

17- 
Schaffner,  Martin,  255. 
Schongauer,  Martin,  251,  253,  254,  255, 

258,  259. 
Schiichlin,  Hans,  255,  259. 
Scipio    Gaetano,   see   Scipione  Pulzone, 

called  Gaetano, 
Scipione  Pulzone,  called  Gaetano,  89-90. 
Scorel,  Jan  van,  288,  290,  305,  307. 
Sebastiano  del  Piombo,  211,  214. 
Seddon  Portrait  of  Chaucer  (No.  66),  322. 
Segna  di  Bonaventura,  96,  101. 
Sellaio,  Jacopo  del,  78. 
Signorelli,  Luca,  31,  ioo,  132,  144,  166, 

176,  177.  _ 
Simone  Cini,  50,  51. 
Simone  Martini,  325,  26,  42,  93,  95,  96- 

97,  98,  99,  101,  104,  106,  108,  109,  III, 

112,  118,  240,  275. 
Slaughter   of  the  Innocents,   Matteo   di 

Giovanni,  99,  126,  128. 
Sloane  Portrait  of  Chaucer,  323. 
Snyders,  Frans,  289. 
Sodoma,  100. 

Solario,  Andrea,  196-197,  185,  187,  276. 
Sokrio,  Cristoforo,  196. 
Sordo,  Girolamo,  199. 
South  German  school,  xvi  c,  268-269. 
Lo  Spagna,  145. 

Spanish  Nobleman  (Signor  del  Rio),  Por- 
trait of,  Antonio  Moro  (No.  64),  308. 
Spanish  school,  xv  c,  244. 
Speranza,  Giovanni,  198. 
Spinelli,  Parri,  44. 
Spinello  Aretino,  44-54.  xiv,  27,  33,  39, 

116,  217. 
Squarcione,  Francesco,  31,  184,  185,  187, 

188,  208,  210,  218,  221,  302. 
Stamina,  241. 
Stefano,  Francesco  di,  see  Pesellino. 


Stefano  di  Giovanni,  see  Sassetta. 
Suardi  (Bramantino),  186,  187. 

Tabernacle,  Antoniazzo  Romano  ?   (No. 

31),  159- 
Taddeo  diBartolo,  114-117,  98,  118,  122, 

143- 
Temptation  of  St.  Anthony,  Schongauer, 

254- 
Teniers,  David,  the  Younger,  289. 
Theotocopuli,  Domenico,  see  El  Greco. 
Three  Graces,  Tintoretto,  231. 
Three  Saints,  Umbrian  school  (No.  28), 

148. 
Tiberio  d'  Assisi,  145. 
Tiburtine  Sibyl  and  Augustus,  Master  E. 

S.,  254. 
Tiepolo,  G.  B.,  213. 
Timoteo  della  Vite,  146,  147. 
Tintoretto,  229-232,  186,  201,  207,  212- 

213,  214,  235,  243. 
Titian,  xvi,  185,  186,  201,  210,  211,  212, 

213,  214,  221,  226,  227,  229,  233,  234, 

235.  289,  308,  320. 
Tomme,  Luca  di,  97. 
Torbido,  Francesco,  201. 
Torso  of  a  boy,  xii. 
Traini,  Francesco,  97. 
Tres  Riches  Hemes,  of  the  Due  de  Berri, 

274. 
Triest,  Nicolas,  Portrait  of,  Van  Dyck 

(No.  65),  312. 
Triptych,  Bernardo  Daddi  (No.  1),  35, 

xix,  106,  no. 
Triptych,  Niccold  da  Foligno  (No.  29), 

iS°.  43- 
Triumph  of  Death,  Campo  Santo,  Pisa,  97. 
Tura,  Cosimo,  188-192,  185,  187,  193. 
Tura,  Domenico  di,  188. 
Turner,  J.  M.  W.,  xi,  xiii. 
Two  Lovers,  Master  of  the  Amsterdam 

Cabinet,  254. 

Uccello,  Paolo,  29,  31,  43,  81,  183. 
Udine,  Giovanni  da,  147,  198. 
Udine,  Girolamo  da,  225. 
Ugolino  da  Siena,  96,  101,  108. 
Ugolino  Lorenzetti,  108. 
Umbrian  school,  169-175,  148- 
Utili  da  Faenza,  80. 

Vaga,  Pierin  del,  147. 
Valdes  Leal,  Juan  de,  244. 


356 


ARTISTS  AND  TITLES 


Vanni,  Andrea,  111-113,  xiv,  98,  101. 

Vanni,  Lippo,  98. 

Vannucci,  Pietro,  see  Perugino. 

Vargas,  Luis  de,  242. 

Vecchietta,  Lorenzo,  98,  99, 100, 124, 126. 

Velazquez,  Diego,  239,  240,  242,  243,  244. 

Vellert,  D.  J.,  301. 

Veneziano,  Domenico,  xvii,  29,  31,  32, 

43,  6b,  76,  80,  143,  i44>  159- 
Veneziano,  Lorenzo,  207. 
Veneziano,  Paolo,  207. 
Verg6s  family,  241. 
Verg6s,  School  of  the,  244. 
Vermeer,  Jan,  286. 
Vermejo,  Bartolome',  240,  241,  244. 
Verona,  Liberate  da,  185,  187. 
Veronese,  Paolo,  186,  201,  202,  213,  214, 

217,  229,  231,  233. 
Verrocchio,  Andrea  del,  29,  74,  83,  159. 
Vinci,   Leonardo   da,   see  Leonardo   da 

Vinci. 
Virgin  of  Pity,  276. 
Virgin  of  the  Rocks,  Leonardo  da  Vinci, 

3°- 
Visitation,  Zeitblom  ?  (No.  52),  259,  xiv, 

255- 
Visitation  (Predella),  Master  of  the  In- 

nocenti  Coronation  (No.  5),  55. 
Vite,  Timoteo  della,  146,  147. 
Viterbo,  Antonio  da,  170. 
Vivarini,  Alvise,  185,  196,  208,  209,  210, 

226. 
Vivarini,  Antonio  (Antonio  da  Murano), 

208,  218. 


Vivarini,    Bartolommeo,    218-220,    185, 

208,  210,  214. 
Vivarini,  The,  149,  218. 
Vivarini  workshop,  208,  210,  212. 
Volterra,  Daniele  da,  229. 
Vouet,  Simon,  277. 

Weighing  of  a  Soul,  South  German  school 

(No.  58),  268. 
Weighing  of  Adonis  (Greek  v  c.  relief), 

269. 
Weyden,  Rogier  van  der,  291-299,  xiii, 

xix,  43,  252,  254,  255.  286,  290,  301. 
Whistler,  J.  A.  M.,  xii. 
Windmill  Psalter,  319. 
Witz,  Conrad,  253,  280. 
Wolgemut,  M.,  255,  258. 
"  Woman,    Behold    thy    Son,"    Bama  ? 

(i8b),  106,  no. 

Yanez,  Ferrando,  241. 

Youth  saluting  a  King,  Leonardo  Scaletti  ? 

(No.  38),  193. 
Ysenbrant,  Adrien,  303-304,  288,  298. 

Zaganelli,  Bernardino,  178. 
Zaganelli,  Francesco,  178-179. 
Zavattari,  The,  183. 
Zeitblom,  B.,  259-260,  xiv,  255. 
Zeitblom,  B.,  School  of,  261. 
Zoppo,  Marco,  155,  185. 
Zucchero,  F.,  202,  320. 
Zurbaran,  Francisco  de,  244.